- Gush Emunim
Gush Emunim ( _he. גוש אמונים, "Block [of the] faithful") was an
Israeli political movement. The movement sprang out of the conquests of the Six-Day Warin 1967, though it was not formally established as an organization until 1974, in the wake of the Yom Kippur War. It encouraged Jewish settlementof the land they believe Godallotted to the Jewsin the book of Deuteronomy. [Analyses of Gush Emunim have been carried out by David Newman. See: D. Newman, `Gush Emunim', ', Encyclopaedia Judaica Decennial Yearbook, 1994, pp. 171-172. Keter Publishers: D. Newman, `Gush Emunim between fundamentalism and pragmatism', Jerusalem Quarterly, 39, 33-43, 1986: D. Newman, `From “hitnachalut” to “hitnatkut”: The Impact of Gush Emunim and the Settlement Movement on Israeli Society’, Israel Studies, Vol 10 (3, 2005: See also, T. Hermann & D Newman, `Extra Parliamentarism in Israel: A comparative study of Peace Now and Gush Emunim', Middle Eastern Studies, 28 (3), 509-530, 1992. ]
Gush Emunim was closely associated with, and highly influential in, the
National Religious Party(NRP), the party which is identified with the Modern Orthodox Jewish community.These days they refer to themselves —and are referred to by the Israeli mediaas— Ne'emanei Eretz Yisrael נאמני ארץ ישראל (Hebrew: "Those who are loyal/faithful to the land of Israel").
1968, a group of future Gush Emunim members led by Rabbi Moshe Levingerfounded the settlement Kiryat Arbain the Israeli-occupied territorieson the outskirts of Hebron.In 1974, following the shock of the Yom Kippur War, the organization was founded more formally, by students of the younger Rabbi Tzvi Yehuda Kook, who remained its leader until his death in 1982.In late 1974, an affiliated group named "Garin Elon Moreh", led by Rabbi Menachem Felixand Benjamin (Beni) Katzover, attempted to establish a settlement on the ruins of the Sebastia train station dating from the Ottomanperiod. After seven attempts and six removals from the site by the Israeli army, an agreement was reached. According to the agreement, the Israeli governmentallowed 25 families to settle in the Kadumarmy camp southwest of Nablus/ Shechem. The Sebastiaagreement was a turning point which opened up the southern West Bankto Jewish settlement. The small caravan site with 25 families eventually became the municipality of Kedumim, one of the major settlements in the West Bank. The Kadum army camp settlement model was copied over the years, in Beit El, Shavei Shomron, and other settlements.
Gush Emunim beliefs are based heavily on the teachings of Rabbi
Abraham Kookand his son, Rabbi Tzvi Yehuda Kook. The two rabbis taught that secular Zionists, through their conquests of " Eretz Israel", had unwittingly brought about the beginning of the "messianic age", which would end in the coming of the Jewish messiah. Gush Emunim supporters believe that the coming of the messiah can be hastened through Jewish settlement on land they believe God has allotted to the Jewish people as outlined in the Hebrew Bible. In light of the mass evictionof Jews from Gazaby the Israeli government [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/06/30/international/middleeast/30cnd-mideast.html?ex=1120795200&en=150daf33c7731d94&ei=5070&emc=eta1] , the violent eviction of Jews from Amonah, and numerous other similar events on a relatively smaller scale, in more recent years, many members of the community have been having second thoughts about this ideology. For a fuller discussion of this recent issue, see Hardal.
*Tzvi Yehuda Kook
Gush Emunim Underground
Terror Neged Terror
* [http://www.sas.upenn.edu/penncip/lustick/index.html For the Land and the Lord: Jewish Fundamentalism in Israel] by
Ian Lustick, 1988.
* [http://www.israelnationalnews.com/article.php3?id=4792 Confessions of a Confused Religious Zionist]
* [http://www.myjewishlearning.com/ideas_belief/LandIsrael/modern_landisrael/ReligiousZionism/GushEmunim.htm Settling All the Land,The Birth and Growth of Gush Emunim] by
Rabbi Ed Snitkoff
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
GUSH EMUNIM — ( The Bloc of the Faithful ), a spiritual political movement established for the purpose of implementing its belief that the establishment of the State of Israel constitutes the Beginning of the Redemption which will lead to the ultimate complete … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Gush Emunim — Le Gush Emunim (hébreu : גוש אמונים, Bloc [des] fidèles) est un mouvement politique et messianique israélien créé afin d établir des colonies juives en Cisjordanie (la Judée Samarie biblique). Bien que n étant pas fondé de manière… … Wikipédia en Français
Gush Emunim — (Bloc of the Faithful) A movement that promotes the establishment of Jewish settlements in Judea, Samaria, and Gaza as a means of promoting retention of these areas, especially the West Bank. It is an aggressive settlement movement that… … Historical Dictionary of Israel
Gush Emunim — Gusch Emunim (hebräisch גוש אמונים; der „Block der Getreuen“) ist eine jüdische außerparlamentarische politisch religiöse Organisation in Israel. Gusch Emunim entstand 1974 unter den Siedlern im Westjordanland als rechte Abspaltung der… … Deutsch Wikipedia
Gush Emunim — Orthodox Jewish religious movement which supports the settling of Judea and Samaria (Israel) … English contemporary dictionary
Gush Emunim Underground — was a terrorist militant organization formed by prominent members of the Israeli political movement Gush Emunim, that existed from 1979 1984.In 1983, three of its members were involved in a retaliation attack following the murder of a yeshivah… … Wikipedia
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Etzion Bloc — (Gush Etzion) A group of Jewish settlements in the hills of Judea between Jerusalem and Hebron taken by Jordan during the War of Independence (1948 49). The bloc included Kfar Etzion (the oldest of the settlements, founded in 1943), Massuot… … Historical Dictionary of Israel
ALIYAH AND ABSORPTION — GENERAL SURVEY Introduction Aliyah, ascension or going up, is the coming of Jews as individuals or in groups, from exile or diaspora to live in the Land of Israel. Those who go up for this purpose are known as olim – a term used in the Bible for… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Moshe Levinger — Rabbi Moshe Levinger (Hebrew: משה לוינגר; born 1935) is an Israeli Religious Zionist who since 1967 has been a leading figure in the movement to settle Jews in the territories occupied by Israel during the 1967 Six Day War. He is especially… … Wikipedia