- De Montfort's Parliament
De Montfort's Parliament was an English parliament of 1265, instigated by Simon de Montfort, a baronial rebel leader. Although this gathering did not have the approval of king Henry III, and the members convened without royal approval, most scholars believe this was the first gathering in England that can be called a parliament in the dictionary sense of the word.
Simon De Montfort's army had met and defeated the royal forces of at the Battle of Lewes on May 14, 1264. The rebels captured the king's son and heir Prince Edward, and the subsequent treaty led to a parliament being called in 1265 to agree to a constitution formulated by De Monfort.
De Montfort sent out representatives to each county and to a select list of boroughs, asking each to send two representatives. This was not the first such gathering in England, but what distinguished it was that De Montfort insisted the representatives be elected. The knights representing counties who had been summoned to some earlier Parliaments had not been required to be chosen by election.
This was also the first parliament at which both knights (representing shires or counties) and burgesses (representing boroughs) were present, thereby substantially broadening representation to include new groups of society. It was also the first time that commoners attending Parliament were required to be elected.
De Montfort's Parliament was summoned on 14 December 1264. It first met on 20 January 1265 and was dissolved on 15 February 1265. Henry III rejected the new Parliament and resumed his war against De Montfort, who was killed later that year. This first parliament was held in a field near Kenilworth Castle, Warwickshire, known as Parliament Piece. It is now a protected site which cannot be built upon.
After this Parliament it took some time for the knights and burgesses to become a regular part of the composition of Parliament. The next time they were summoned was for the 1st Parliament of King Edward I of England in 1275. The Model Parliament of 1295 is sometimes seen as the start of regular attendance by commoners, but the institutional development was gradual. See Duration of English Parliaments before 1660 for notes of which Parliaments included commoners, before they became an invariable part of Parliament from 1320.
The right to vote in Parliamentary elections for county constituencies is believed to have been uniform throughout the country, from the first election of knights of the shire to this Parliament. Most of the members of this and future parliaments were elected from individual boroughs. The list of boroughs which had the right to elect a member grew slowly over the centuries as monarchs gave out more Royal Charters, but the last charter was given to Newark in 1674.
Until legislation in 1430 limited the franchise to all those who owned the freehold of land that brought in an annual rent of at least 40 shillings (Forty Shilling Freeholders), Seymour suggested "it is probable that all free inhabitant householders voted and that the parliamentary qualification was, like that which compelled attendance in the county court, merely a "resiance" or "residence qualification". As women could not own land, they were automatically excluded from any voting rights on the county level. In the Boroughs, the franchise varied and individual boroughs had varying arrangements.
- History of democracy
- Parliament of the United Kingdom
- List of Parliaments of England
- Duration of English Parliaments before 1660
- Electoral Reform in England and Wales, by Charles Seymour (David & Charles Reprints 1970) originally published in 1915, so out of copyright
- The Statutes: Revised Edition, Vol. I Henry III to James II (printed by authority in 1876)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Montfort — or Monfort can refer to: Contents 1 People 2 Feudal fiefs and houses 3 Education 4 Places 4.1 Ca … Wikipedia
Parliament of Georgia — ( ka. საქართველოს პარლამენტი) is the supreme legislature of Georgia. It is unicameral and has 150 members, known as deputies , from which 75 members are proportional representatives and 75 are elected through single member district plurality… … Wikipedia
Parliament of England — c.1300.The Parliament of England was the legislature of the Kingdom of England. Its roots can be traced back to the early medieval period. In a series of developments, it came increasingly to constrain the power of the monarch, and went on after… … Wikipedia
Parliament — This article is about the legislative institution. For other uses, see Parliament (disambiguation). Parliaments redirects here. For the American style doo wop quintet, see The Parliaments. The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of … Wikipedia
Montfort, Simon de, Earl Of Leicester — ▪ French noble born c. 1208, , Montfort, Ile de France, Fr. died Aug. 4, 1265, Evesham, Worcestershire, Eng. leader of the baronial revolt against King Henry III and ruler of England for less than a year. Simon de Montfort, wholly… … Universalium
Montfort, Simon de — I born 1165? died June 25, 1218, Toulouse, France French leader of the Albigensian Crusade. From 1209 he led a Crusade against the Cathari heretics, and he became governor of the lands he conquered in southern France. The fourth Lateran Council… … Universalium
Montfort,Simon de — Mont·fort (mŏntʹfərt, môɴ fôrʹ), Simon de. Earl of Leicester. 1208? 1265. French born English nobleman who led the baronial opposition to Henry III. After his military victory over the king at Lewes in southeast England (1264), Montfort was the… … Universalium
MONTFORT, SIMON DE — son of a French count; came to England in 1230, where he inherited from his grandmother the earldom of Leicester; attached to Henry III., and married to the king s sister, he was sent to govern Gascony in 1248; returned in 1253, and passed… … The Nuttall Encyclopaedia
Simon de Montfort, 6th Earl of Leicester — (1208 – August 4, 1265), was the principal leader of the baronial opposition to King Henry III of England. After the rebellion of 1263 1264, de Montfort became de facto ruler of England and called the first directly elected parliament in medieval … Wikipedia
Simon de Montfort, 6. Earl of Leicester — Das Relief Simons de Montfort im US Repräsentantenhaus Simon V. von Montfort (* 1208; † 4. August 1265), 6. Earl of Leicester, war ein englischer Adeliger französischer Abstammung aus dem Adelsgeschlecht Montfort l’Amaury und Schw … Deutsch Wikipedia