- Kamboja cavalry
Kambojashad been famous throughout all periods of history for their excellent breed of horses as well as as famous horsemen or cavalry [The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 239, Dr B. C. Law.] [Hindu Polity, 1978, pp 121, 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal.] [::Sanskrit::Panchaldeshamarambhya mlechhad dakishinahpurvatah
:Kambojadesho deveshi vajiraashi.prayanah || 24 |
:"(Shakati-Sangam-Tantra, 'Shatpanchashadddeshavibhag' , Verse 24)".] [ History, Literature and Religion of the Hindus, 1820, p 451; A View of the History, Literature, and Mythology of the Hindus, 1818, p 559, William Ward - India.] [India in Early Greek Literature: academic dissertation, 1989, p 225, Klaus Karttunen - Greek literature.] . "They repeatedly appear in the characteristic Iranian roles of splendid
horsemenand breeders of notable horses" [A history of Zoroastrianism: Zoroastraianism Under Macedonian and Roman Rule, 1991, p 129, Mary Boyce, Frantz Grenet, Roger Beck.] . The epic, the Puranic and numerous other ancient literature profusely attest the Kambojas among the finest horsemen [The Social and Military Position of the Ruling Caste in Ancient India, 1889, p 257, Edward Washburn Hopkins; Journal of the American Oriental Society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society - Oriental philology.] .
The profession of breeding, domesticating, training and utilizing the
horses in warfare had originated in the vast Steppesof Central Asia. The Iranian Kambojaslocated in Transoxianahad introduced this art as a skillful and specialized profession in north-west, probably in the early Vedic age itself. The entire Sanskrit/Pali literature sings tonnes of paeans and glories of the world class Kamboja horses.
"Nadistuti" of the
Rigveda[Rig Veda X.75.8.] makes first reference to Sindhuriver as svashva ("famous for its fine horses") and vaajinivati ("rich in race-horses") but without identifying any particular country. The post Vedic Sanskrit literature, however, has numerous references to horses from North-west regions of the Kamboja, Sindhu, Sauvira, Gandhara, Bahlika ( Bactria) etc. The Puranas, the Epics, ancient Sanskritplays, the Buddhist" Jatakas", the Jaina Canon, and numerous other ancient sources, all agree that the horses of the Kambojas were a foremost breed.
According to principles of linguistics, a plant, animal or a product native to a certain geographical location gets named after that location. Thus the ancient
lexicons attest that the horses born or raised in Kamboja were also known as "Kamboja", "Kambojika" or "Kamboji" [Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, p 255, Dr J. L. Kamboj; cf: Willimas Sanskrit-English Dictionary; cf: The Student's Sanskrit-English Dictionary, p 144, Vaman Shivaram Apte; Barat's Pronouncing, Etymological, and Pictorial Dictionary of the English and of the Bengali... ,1882, p 312, Troilokya Nath Barat.] [:"Kambojah pu.n (Kambojodese bhavah iti aN) Kambojodeso.ghotakah":(Halayudh Kosh).] .
From the post-Vedic era onwards, the horses of the Kambojas had undoubtedly dominated the scene of history of
Indian sub-continent[cf: Some Ksatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 238, Dr B. C. Law; The Indian Historical Quarterly, 1963, p 103; History of civilizations of Central Asia, 1999, p 404, Ahmad Hasan Dani, Vadim Mikhaĭlovich Masson, János Harmatta, Boris Abramovich Litvinovskiĭ, Clifford Edmund Bosworth, Unesco; History and Culture of the Palas of Bengal and Bihar, 1993, p 63, Jhunu Bagchi; The Early History of Bengal: From the Earliest Times to the Muslim Conquest, 1939, p 143, Pramode Lal Paul; Balakanda: Rāmāyaṇa as literature and cultural history, 1997, p 29, Varadaraja V. Raman; The Story of Udayana: Dr. U.V. Swaminathaiyer's Tamil Prose Work, 1983, p 181, T. R. Rajagopala Aiyar; Chandragupta Maurya and His Times, 1966, p 173, Radhakumud Mookerji; The Military History of Bengal, 1977, p 24, P. Sensarma; Rise and Fall of the Imperial Guptas, 19990, p 72, Ashvini. Agrawal; India as Known to Pāṇini: A Study of the Cultural Material in the Ashtādhyāyī, 1953, p 219, Vasudeva Sharana Agrawala; The Mārkandeya Purāna, 1969, p 318; cf: The Greco-Sunga Period of Indian History, Or, the North-West India of the Second Century B.C., 1973, p 24, Mehta Vasishtha Dev Mohan.] .
Sanskritand Pali literatureis overflowing with excellent references and compliments to the famed Kamboja steeds.
Buddhisttexts like "Manorathapurni", "Kunala Jataka" and "Samangalavilasini" etc speak of Kamboja land as the "land of horses":
Kambojo assa.nam ayata.nam.... [Samangalavilasini, Vol I, p 124.] .
"Aruppa-Niddesa" of Visuddhimagga by
Buddhaghosaalso describes the Kamboja land as the "base of horses" [Aruppa-Niddesa, 10.28.] .
In the "Mahavastu", the superb horses of Kamboja ("Kambojaka Asvanara") are referred to and glorified [ Mahavastu, II. 185.] .
Jataka" [verse 23.] , "Kunala Jataka" [verse 28.] , "Vinaya Pitaka" [Vol III.] etc also make highly laudatory references to the Kamboja horses.
Besides Kamboja horses, the "Champeya Jataka" also makes mention of well-trained
mules from Kamboja.
"Kunala Jataka" also furnishes detailed procedures followed by the
Kambojasto catch the wild horses for training them as warhorses [Jataka Vol V, p 446.] .
Jaina Canon "Uttaradhyana-Sutra" informs us that a trained Kamboja horse exceeded all other horses in speed and no noise could ever frighten it [:Prakrit:"jaha se Kamboyanam aiiyne kanthai siya"
:"assai javeyan pavre ayam havayi bahuassuye" |
:(Uttaradhyana Sutra XI.16).] .
Puranas and numerous other ancient Sanskrittexts all agree that the horses of the Kamboja, Bahlikaand Sindhuregions were the finest breed.
The Valmiki Ramayana refers to the horses from the
Kamboja, Bahlika, Vanayu lands and addresses them as of best quality. It puts the horses from the Kamboja at the head of list of best breed and styles them as equal to "Ucchaisrava", the steed of god Indra, the Lord of Heavens [:Sanskrit::"Kambojavishhaye jatair Bahlikaishcha hayottamaih" | :"vanayujairnadijaihshcha purna harihayottamaih" || 22 |
:(Ramayana I.6.22).] .
Rama Chandra, the Prince of Ayodhya, was the proud possessor of the magnificent, powerful and sleek stallions of Kamboja breed [Prince of Ayodhya , 2004, pp 138, 306, 444, A. K. Banker.] .
Kekayais said to have made a gift of ten thousand Kamboja horses [Foreign trade and commerce in ancient india, 2003, p 215, Prakash Chandra Prasad; Ramayana, Uttara-kanda, Ch 113, V-2 quoted in the preceding text by Prakash Chander.]
Mahabharataranks the horses from Kamboja as of the finest breed[:Sanskrit :"syandanes.u ca Kamboja.yukta.parama-vajinah" |
:(MBH 10.18.13).] . "Most famous horses are said to come either from
Sindhu or Kamboja; of the latter (i.e the Kamboja), the Indian pseudo-epic Mahabharata speaks among the finest horsemen" [Journal of American Oriental society, 1889, p 257, American Oriental Society; Mahabharata 10.18.13.] .
Bhishamaparva of Mahabharata refers to the quality war horses from various lands and puts the steeds from the Kamboja at the head of the list specifically styling them as the leaders ("Mukhyanam") among the best breed of horses [:Sanskrit::"tatah "Kamboja.mukhyanam" nadijana.n cha vajinam "| :"Arattanam Mahijana.n Sindhujana.n cha sarvashah "|| 3 || :"Vanayujana.n shubhrana.n tatha parvatavasinam "| :"ye chapare tittiraja javana vatara.nhasah "|| 4 || :(MBH 6.90.3-4).] .
Besides numerous references to excellent breed of Kamboja horses, Mahabharata also numerously refers to the horses of the
Parama-Kambojasand notes them also as of excellent ("shreshtha") quality [:Sanskrit::"yuktaih Parama.Kamboj.airjavanairhemamalibhih" | :"bhishayanto dvishatsainya.n yama vaishravanopamah" || 42 |
:"prabhadrakastu kambojah shatsahasranyudayudhah" | :"nanavarnairhayashreshtha irhemachitrarathadhvajah" || 43 |
:(MBH 6.23.42-43, Gorakhpore rec.; see also: 8.38.13-14, MBH 10.13.1-2).] .
In the great battle fought on the field of
Kurukshetra, the fast and powerful horses of Kamboja were of the greatest service [Some Kṣatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, p 238, Bimala Churn Law - 1975; Felicitation Volume Presented to Professor Sripad Krishna Belvalkar, 1957, p 260, S. Radhakrishnan; Indological Studies, 1950, p 9; Ancient Kamboja, People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboja; MBH 6.71.13.] .
The best steeds are stated to come from
Kamboja, Aratta, Mahi, Sindhuand Vanayu countries, but those from the Kamboja headed the list [Persica-9, p 114, Dr Michael Witzel; MBH 6.90.3.] .
Mahabharata styles the horses from Kamboja as very beautiful to look at ("darshaniya"), decked with feathers of suka bird, and of the colour of the parrots. They are stated to run at sleek speeds with their tails, eyes and ears all remaining motionless [MBH 8.23.7, 8.36.36.] .
Apart of above, there are further references attesting the excellent breed of Kamboja horses in Mahbharata [See: MBH II.49.20, II.51.4; II.53.5, VII.3.2-3, VII.23.7, VII.36.36; VII.36.39, VII.121.27, VII.125.25, VIII.22.42, VIII.7.11, IX.38.13, X.13.22 etc.] .
Kautiliya Arthashastradivides the horses from various countries into three classes (i) best, (ii) good and (iii) ordinary breed. Kautiliya includes the horses from Kambhoja(i.e Kamboja) in the best class, and further, ranks them as the superiormost of all by placing them at the head of the list of the best class [:Sanskrit::"prayogyaanaam uttamaah Kaamboja.Saindhava.Aaratta.Vanaayujaah", :"madhyamaa baahliika.paapeyaka.sauviiraka.taitalaaH", :"zesaah pratyavaraah " || 29|
:(Kautiliya Arthashastra. 2.30.29).] [Dr. Modi Memorial Volume: Papers on Indo-Iranian and Other Subjects, 1930, p 354, Jivanji Jamshedji Modi - Iranian philology.] .
e.g: " "The (horse) breed of Kambhoja, Sindhu, Aratta, and Vanayu countries are the best; those of Bahlíka (
Bactria), Papeya, Sauvira, and Taitala, are of middle quality; and the rest are ordinary (avarah)" " [Trans: Kautiliya Arthashastra, Dr R. Shamashastri, book, II, Ch 30 [http://www.mssu.edu/projectsouthasia/history/primarydocs/Arthashastra/BookII.htm] .]
Karnabhara of Bhaasa
In his play named Karnabhaara, ancient
Sanskritpoet Bhāsa(3rd c AD) makes god Indraspeak very high of the Kamboja horses. God Indra compares the celebrated "horses from respected Kamboja as matching that of god Surya". They are said to bring fortunes, are worthy of all compliments, are a proud possession of all kings, are full of all virtues, and are capable of running with the speed of wind and displaying best behavior in the war [:Sanskrit::"ravituragasamaanam saadhanam raajalakshmyaah sakalanripatimaanyam maanyakambojajatam" | :"sugunam anilvegam yuddhadrishtaapadaanam sapadi bahusahasram vajinaam dadaami" ||19 |
:(Karnabhara, 19).] [Trans: Karnabhāram,1961, p 18, Bhāsa, Samskrita Sahitya Sadana, Original from the University of Michigan.] .
Raghuvamsha of Kalidasa
Raghuvamsaof Kalidasaalso makes references to the Kamboja horses and also styles them as of best quality ("sadashva") [:Sanskrit::"Kambojah samare sodhum tasya viryamaniishvarah":"gajalan.prikilishatairakshotaih sardhmaantah":"teshaam "sadashva".bhuyishthaas.tunga.draviynah.rashyah".:(Raghu 4.69-70).] .
Asvashastra of Nakula
"Laksanaprakasa" quotes numerously on horses from several important old authorities some of which are probably lost to us. Among them are the "Asvayurveda" and "Asvasastra"..... the former attributed to "Jayadeva" and the latter to "Nakula".
"Asvashastra" of "Nakula" divides the horses of this earth into four classes: (i) uttama (best), (ii) madhyama (good), (iii) kanyama (average) and (iv) neechatineecha (inferior).
In the "uttama" or best category, Nakula lists the horses from
Tajik( Kamboja), Khorasanand Tusharacountries. Further in this list of the best class, the horses from "Tajik" are put at the head of the list [:Sanskrit::"chaturdha vajino bhumau jayante deshsanshryat"
:"Tajikah Khurasanashcha Tushanashchottama "|
:"gojikanashcha keikeyanah potaharashcha madhyamah"
:"gahurah sahuranashcha sindhuwarah kaniyasah" | :"anayadeshodhbhava ye cha neechneechasatthaapre "|
:(Virmitryodhye Laksanaprakasa, p 415.] .
Manasollasa of Someshvara
According to "Manasollasa" of the
Chalukyan king Someshvara III of the early twelfth century, there are sixty five types of horses out of which thirty nine varieties are well known while twenty six types are rather unknown. "In the thirty nine well-known types described by him, the Kamboja horses occupy the celebrate position" [Someshara's Manasollasa 4.4.715-30; Journal of Indian History: Golden Jubilee Volume, 1973, p 470, T. K. Ravindran, Trivandrum, India (City). University of Kerala. Dept. of History, University of Kerala Dept. of History. ] .
Vishnu Vardhana, the real founder of
Hoysalagreatness, who later on became ruler of Mysorehad the Kamboja horses and he had made the earth tremble under the tramp of his powerful Kamboja horses [Ancient India, p 236, Dr S. K. Aiyangar.] [ Mysore Inscriptions, 1983, p lxxvii, Benjamin Lewis Rice, Lewis Rice.] .
hakti Sangham Tantra evidence
"Shatt.panchashad.desha.vibhaga" of "Shakti Sangama Tantra" also testifies that the
Kambojawas not only famous for its fine horses but also for its excellent horsemen[:Sanskrit::"Panchaldeshamarambhya mlechhad dakishinahpurvatah"
:"Kambojadesho deveshi vajiraashi.prayanah" || 24 |
:Shakati-Sangam-Tantra, 'Shatpanchashadddeshavibhag' , Verse 24.] [ A View of the History, Literature, and Mythology of the Hindoos, 1818, p 559, William Ward - India.] [ History, Literature and Religion of the Hindoos, 1820, p 451, William Ward.] .
Other Sanskrit literature
Vishnu Puranarefers to excellent breed of thousands of full-blooded horses from the Kamboja in the stables of king "Naraka" of Pragjyotish [Vishnu Purana, p 460, H. H. Wilson.] [ Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland, 1834, p 434, Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland.] .
Upamiti Bhava Prapancha Katha singles out horses from Kamboja,
Bahlika( Balkh) and "Turuksha" ( Tushara) as the best class [Upamiti 474; Trade and Traders in Western India, A.D. 100-1300, 1990, p 123, fn 99, Vardhman Kumar Jain.] .
The Abhidhamma Ratanamala mentions examples of excellent horses from
Kamboja, Persia, Vanayu, Bahlika, Sindhuand the lands bordering on Sindhu [Ed. Aufrecht, II, 284; Indian Inscriptions, No 511, 284; Trade and Traders in Western India, A.D. 100-1300, 1990, p 123, fn 99, Vardhman Kumar Jain.] .
Samaraiccakaha written Hribhadra Suri, one of the non- canonical Jain author known for his authoritative works in Sanskrit and who is believed to have lived in fifth/sixth (or eighth ?) c. AD, refers to the cavalry horses from Vahlika, Kamboja, Turuska and Vajjira. [Samaraiccakaha (2, 100); Nirgrantha, 1995, p 13, Śāradābena Cīmanabhāī Ejyukeśanala Risarca Senṭara, Śāradābena Cīmanabhāī Ejyukeśanala Risarca Senṭara; Prakrit Nerrative Literature: Origin and Growth, 1981, p 153, Dr J. C. Jain; Yaśovarman of Kanauj: A Study of Political History, Social, and Cultural Life of Northern India During the Reign of Yaśovarman, 1977, p 148, Shyam Manohar Mishra; Prakrit Narrative Literature: Origin and Growth, 1981, Jagdish Chandra Jain - Prakrit Jaina literature.] .
Nalanda Grants of king Deva Pala of
Bengalalso refers to Kamboja horses as well as the Kamboja mares. It is notable that the Pala kings of Bengal had obtained their horses as well as cavalry from the Kamboja of north-west (Dr R. C. Majumdar). The Khasas, Hunas, Yavanas ets are also mentioned as being routinely recruited in the armed forces of the Pala kings.
Verse twelve of the third Asama-patra (1185 AD) of king Valabhadeva proudly refers to him as the possessor/rider of the Kamboja horses and elephants [:Sanskrit::"Kambojavajivrajavahnendryantabhavad valabha deva aye"
:Kielhorn, F. (ed) Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 184, 187; Social History of Kamrup, 1983, p 233, Nagendranath Vasu.] .
Besides several references cited above, other ancient texts like
Brahmanda Purana[ Brahama Purana II, 2.16.16.] , Vamsa-Bhaskara, Madhyapithika, Kalidasa's Mandakranta, Kalhana's Rajatrangini [Raghu: 4.163-65.] , Harasha-crita of Bana Bhatta [verses 7.88-90.] , Karnatakadambari of Nagavarman [verse 96, p 305.] and other numerous ancient texts make "very laudatory" references to the Kamboja horses.
All these references sufficiently prove that the steeds from
Kambojawere considered very powerful, magnificent and fastest runners. No doubt, both the Kamboja horses as well as the expert Kamboja cavalry were very much sought after by other nations in ancient times.
It is therefore absolutely no exaggeration if the great epic
Mahabharatastyles the Kambojas as the "horselords" and the "masters of horsemanship" i.e expert cavalrymen ("Ashva-yudha-kushalah") [MBH 12,105.5.] . "Vishnudharmotra Purana" too, attests that the Kambojas and Gandharas were proficient in horse warfare i.e. "Ashva-Yuddha-kushalah" [see: Vishnudharmotra Purana, Part II, Ch 118.] [ Post Gupta Polity (AD 500-700): A Study of the Growth of Feudal Elements and Rural Administration 1972, p 136, Ganesh Prasad Sinha; Military Wisdom in the Purānas, 1979, p 64, Prof P. Sensarma; Ancient Indian Civilization, 1985, p 120, Grigoriĭ Maksimovich Bongard-Levin; Kashmir Polity, C. 600-1200 A.D., 1986, p 237, V. N. Drabu; Polity in the Agni Purāna, 1965, Bambahadur Mishra; etc etc.] .
Noted scholars like Dr K. P. Jayswal observe: "Since the Kambojas were famous for their horses (ashva) and as cavalry-men (Ashva-yudhah kushalah), hence the
Ashvakas i.e. horsemen was the term popularly applied to them" [Hindu Polity, 1978, pp 121, 140, Dr K. P. Jayswal; cf also: MBH VI.90.3.] [See also: Historie du Bouddhisme Indien, p 110, E. Lamotte; Essai sur les origines du mythe d'Alexandre: 336-270 av. J. C:, 1978, p 152, Paul Goukowsky; East and West, 1950, pp 28, 149/158, Istituto italiano per il Medio ed Estremo, Editor, Prof Giuseppe Tucci, Co-editors: Prof Mario Bussagli, Prof Lionello Lanciott; History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100, Etienne Lamotte, Sara Webb-Boin - Religion; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 133, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr B. N. Mukerjee; History of Panjab, Vol I, Publication Bureau, Panjabi University, Patiala, (Editors) Dr Fauja Singh, Dr L. M. Joshi; Ancient Kamboja, People and country, 1981, pp 271-72, 278, Dr J. L. Kamboj; These Kamboj People, 1979, pp 119, 192, K. S. Dardi; Glimpses of Ancient Panjab, 1966, p 23, Punjab (India); Panjab Past and Present, pp 9-10, Dr Buddha Parkash; Raja Poros, 1990, Publication Buareau, Punjabi University, Patiala; History of Poros, 1967, pp 12,39, Dr Buddha Prakash; History of Indian Buddhism: From the Origins to the Saka Era, 1988, p 100 - History; Kambojas, Through the Ages, 2005, pp 129, 218-19, S Kirpal Singh.] .
:"See Main Article:"
The term Kamboja, according to ancient lexicons, also means elephant [Willimas Sanskrit-English Dictionary] [Balakanda: Rāmāyana as literature and cultural history, 1997, p 241, Varadaraja V. Raman.] [
:See also::Kambojo-hastimede.........(Nanarathamanjari 421).] [:And also:Kambojo hastimede cha shankh.deshavisheshayoh :(Shabd.ratan.samanyakosh).] .
This shows that, besides horses, the ancient Kambojas also raised elephants [Op cit, p 255, Dr Kamboj.]
Arrianattests that besides 20000 cavalryand 30000 infantry, the Assakenians had employed 30 war elephants against Alexander in the battle of Massaga [Arrian 4.25.5; Evolution of Heroic Tradition in Ancient Panjab, 1971, p 77, Buddha Prakash; The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, p 131, K. S. Dardi; Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, p 248, Dr Kamboj.] .
Chieftain "Afrikes", the real brother of chieftain "Assakenos" (=
Ashvakachief) is also said to have possessed a fleet of "15 war elephants" which he used against Alexander. The name "Afrikes" is stated to allude to Afridis("Apryte") [Views of Dr L. M. joshi, Dr Fauja S. Singh, Dr Buddha Prakash, Dr J. L. Kamboj.] .
It is pointed out here that 'Assakenian' was a popular term used for "a section of the Kambojas who were specialised in horse-culture and cavalry services". This again affirms that the elephants were domesticated and employed in the war by ancient Kambojas.
Mahabharata refers to wonderful army of war elephants fielded by
Sudakshinaat Kurukshetra [:Sanskrit::"yasya rajan"gajanikam" bahusahasramadbhutam" . :"sudakshinah sa sangrame nihatah savyasachina" || 20 || :MBH 8.5.20.] .
e.g: "Sudakshina, O king, who had a wonderful army of thousands of elephants (i.e numerous elephants) hath been slain in battle by
In the fierce fight that took place between the
princePrapaksha Kamboja (younger brother of Sudakshina) and Arjuna after Sudakshin Kamboj was martyred, Arjuna is said to have slaughtered numerous "steeds and elephants" of his antagonist's division [MBH 8.56.110-114.] .
There are references to Kamboja kings presenting "thousands of elephants", besides
blankets, cows, camels and horses etc as gifts to king Yudhishtraat the time of "Rajasuya Yajna" [:Sanskrit::"Kambojah prahinottasmai parardhyanapi kambalan" ||19 || :"gajayoshid gavashvasya shatasho.atha sahasrashah" | :MBH 2.49.19.] .
And finally as stated earlier, Asama-patra of king Valabhadeva also proudly refers to the "elephants from Kamboja" in his stable [ Epigraphia Indica, Vol V, 1898-99, pp 184, 187, Kielhorn, F. (ed); Social History of Kamrup, 1983, p 233, Nagendranath Vasu.] .
Thus, it is seen that besides horses and well trained ponies, the ancient Kambojas were also noted for their
*Harsha-Chrita by Bana Bhata
*Raghuvamsha by Kalidasa
*Some Kshatriya Tribes of Ancient India, 1924, Dr B. C. Law.
*The Harsa-Charita of Bana Bhatta (Trans: E. B. Cowell and F. W. Thomas. London, Royal Asiatic Society) 1897
*Ancient Kamboja, People & the Country, Dr J. L. Kamboj
*Political History of Ancient India, Dr H. C. Raychaudhury, Dr P. N. Banerjee
*History of Panjab, Dr L. M. Joshi, Dr Fauja Singh
*These Kamboj People, 1979, K. S. Dardi
*Persica, September, 1980
*Studies in Indian Cultural History, Vol I, Hoshiarpur, P.K. Gode
*Journal of Royal Asiatic Society, 1912
*The Kambojas Through the Ages, 2005, Kirpal Singh
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