Name = Pyrrole
ImageFile = Pyrrole.png
ImageSize = 300px
ImageName = Chemical structure of pyrrole
IUPACName = Pyrrole
Section1 = Chembox Identifiers
CASNo = 109-97-7
SMILES = C1=CC=CN1
Section2 = Chembox Properties
Formula = C4H5N
MolarMass = 67.09 g/mol
Density = 0.967 g/cm3
MeltingPt = −23 °C
BoilingPt = 129–131 °C
Pyrrole, or pyrrol, is a
heterocyclic aromatic organic compound, a five-membered ring with the formula C4H4NH. [cite book
author = Loudon, Marc G.
year = 2002
title = Organic Chemistry
chapter = Chemistry of Naphthalene and the Aromatic Heterocycles.
edition = Fourth Edition
pages = 1135–1136
publisher = Oxford University Press
location = New York
id = ISBN 0-19-511999-1] Substituted derivatives are also called pyrroles. For example, C4H4NCH3 is "N"-methylpyrrole.
Porphobilinogenis a trisubstituted pyrrole, which is the biosynthetic precursor to many natural products. [cite book |author=Cox, Michael; Lehninger, Albert L; Nelson, David R. |title=Lehninger principles of biochemistry |publisher=Worth Publishers |location=New York |year=2000 |pages= |isbn=1-57259-153-6 |oclc= |doi= ]
Pyrroles are components of more complex macrocycles, including the
porphyrins of heme, the chlorins and bacteriochlorins [cite journal | title = The aromatic pathways of porphins, chlorins and bacteriochlorins | author = Jonas Jusélius and Dage Sundholm | journal = Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys.| year = 2000 | volume = 2 | pages = 2145–2151 | doi = 10.1039/b000260g | format = Open access] of chlorophyll, and porphyrinogens.
Pyrrole has very low basicity compared to
amines and other aromatic compounds like pyridine, wherin the ring nitrogenis not bonded to a hydrogen atom. This decreased basicity is attributed to the delocalization of the lone pairof electrons of the nitrogen atom in the aromatic ring. Pyrrole is a very weak base with a pKaH of about −4. Protonation results in loss of aromaticity, and is, therefore, unfavorable.
Many methods exist for the
organic synthesisof pyrrole and its derivatives. Classic named reactions are the Knorr pyrrole synthesis, the Hantzch pyrrole synthesis, and the Paal-Knorr synthesis.
The starting materials in the Piloty-Robinson pyrrole synthesis are 2 equivalents of an
aldehydeand hydrazine. [cite journal | author = Piloty, O. | journal = Chem. Ber.| year = 1910 | volume = 43 | pages = 489 | doi = 10.1002/cber.19100430182 | title = Synthese von Pyrrolderivaten: Pyrrole aus Succinylobernsteinsäureester, Pyrrole aus Azinen] [cite journal | journal = J. Chem. Soc.| year = 1918 | volume = 113 | pages = 639| doi = 10.1039/CT9181300639 | title = LIV.—A new synthesis of tetraphenylpyrrole | author = Robinson, Gertrude Maud] The product is a pyrrole with specific substituents in the 3 and 4 positions. The aldehyde reacts with the diamine to an intermediate di- imine(R–C=N−N=C–R), which, with added hydrochloric acid, gives ring-closure and loss of ammoniato the pyrrole.
In one modification,
propionaldehydeis reacted first with hydrazineand then with benzoyl chlorideat high temperatures and assisted by microwave irradiation: [cite journal | title = Microwave-Assisted Piloty-Robinson Synthesis of 3,4-Disubstituted Pyrroles | author = Benjamin C. Milgram, Katrine Eskildsen, Steven M. Richter, W. Robert Scheidt, and Karl A. Scheidt | journal = J. Org. Chem.| year = 2007 | volume = 72 | issue = 10 | pages = 3941–3944 | format = Note | doi = 10.1021/jo070389]
In the second step, a [3,3]
sigmatropic reactiontakes place between two intermediates.
Both NH and CH protons in pyrroles are moderately acidic and can be deprotonated with strong bases such as
butyllithiumand the metal hydrides. The resulting "pyrrolides" are nucleophilic. Trapping of the conjugate basewith an electrophile(e.g., an alkyl or acyl halide) reveals which sites were deprotonated based on which ring positions actually react as nucleophiles. The product distribution of such a reaction can often be complex and depends on the base used (especially the counterion, such as lithium from butyllithium or sodium from sodium hydride), existing substitution of the pyrrole, and the electrophile.
The resonance contributors of pyrrole provide insight to the reactivity of the compound. Like
furanand thiophene, pyrrole is more reactive than benzene towards nucleophilic aromatic substitutionbecause it is able to stabilize the positive charge of the intermediate carbanion. This is because the nitrogen can donate a lone pair into the ring by resonance
electrophilic aromatic substitutionpredominantly at the 2 and 5 positions, though the substitution product at positions 3 and 4 is obtained in low yields. Two such reactions that are especially significant for producing functionalized pyrroles are the Mannich reactionand the Vilsmeier-Haack reaction(depicted below) [cite journal | title = Comparison of Benzene, Nitrobenzene, and Dinitrobenzene 2-Arylsulfenylpyrroles | author = Jose R. Garabatos-Perera, Benjamin H. Rotstein, and Alison Thompson | journal = J. Org. Chem.| year = 2007 | volume = 72 | pages = 7382–7385 | doi = 10.1021/jo070493r] [The 2- sulfenylgroup in the pyrrole substrate acts as an activating groupand as a protective groupthat can be removed with Raney nickel] , both of which are compatible with a variety of pyrrole substrates. Reaction of pyrroles with formaldehydeform porphyrins.
Pyrrole compounds can also participate in
cycloaddition( Diels-Alder) reactions under certain conditions, such as Lewis acid catalysis, heating, or high pressure.
In a 1994 report released by five top cigarette companies, pyrrole is one of the 599 additives to cigarettes. [quitsmoking.about.com [http://quitsmoking.about.com/cs/nicotineinhaler/a/cigingredients.htm Link] ]
Arsole, a moderately-aromatic arsenicanalog
Furan, an analog with an oxygeninstead of the nitrogen
Indole, a derivative with a fused benzenering
Phosphole, a non-aromatic phosphorusanalog
Pyrroline, a partially saturated analog with one double bond
Pyrrolidine, the saturated hydrogenated analog
Simple aromatic rings
Thiophene, an analog with a sulfurinstead of the nitrogen atom.
* [http://chemistry.tidalswan.com/index.php?title=Heteroaromatics#Pyrrole_.28Azole.29 General Synthesis and Reactivity of Pyrrole]
* [http://www.organic-chemistry.org/synthesis/heterocycles/pyrroles.shtm Synthesis of pyrroles (overview of recent methods)]
* [http://users.ox.ac.uk/~mwalter/web_05/year2/arom2/hetarom_rxn_mech.shtml Substitution reaction mechanisms of nitrogen-containing heteroaromatics]
* [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=PublicationURL&_tockey=%23TOC%235289%232006%23999379949%23636416%23FLA%23&_cdi=5289&_pubType=J&view=c&_auth=y&_acct=C000043357&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=789722&md5=b22786bd8332b5d556d8620f8928ca28 Recent Review on Pyrrole Protection ]
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