- 1949 Armistice Agreements
The 1949 Armistice Agreements are a set of agreements signed during
1949between Israeland its neighbors Egypt, [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/9ec4a332e2ff9a128525643d007702e6!OpenDocument Egypt Israel] Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1264/Corr.1 23 February 1949] Lebanon, [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/71260b776d62fa6e852564420059c4fe!OpenDocument Lebanon Israel] Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1296 23 March 1949] Jordan, [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/f03d55e48f77ab698525643b00608d34!OpenDocument Hashemite Jordanian Kingdom Israel] Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1302/Rev.1 3 April 1949] and Syria. [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/e845ca0b92be4e3485256442007901cc!OpenDocument Syria Israel] Armistice Agreement UN Doc S/1353 20 July 1949] The agreements ended the official hostilities of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and established armisticelines between Israel and the West Bank, also known as the "Green Line", until the 1967 Six-Day War.
6 January 1949, Dr Ralph Buncheannounced that Egypt had finally consented to start talks with Israel on an armistice. The talks began on the Greek island of Rhodeson 12 January, and, shortly after their commencement, Israel agreed to the release of a besieged Egyptian brigade in Faluja. At the end of the month, the talks floundered.
Israel demanded that Egypt withdraw all its forces from the former area of Palestine, Egypt insisted that Arab forces withdraw to the positions which they held on
14 October 1948, as under Security Council Resolution S/1070 of 4 November 1948. One reason for the deadlock was the mounting tension in Egypt, which culminated on 12 February 1949in the murder of Hassan al-Banna, leader of the Islamist group Muslim Brotherhood. In early February, Israel threatened to abandon the talks, where upon the United States appealed to the parties to bring them to a successful conclusion, and on 24 Februarythe "Israel–Egypt Armistice Agreement" was signed in Rhodes.
The main points were:
* The armistice line was drawn along the international border (dating back to 1906) for the most part, except near the
Mediterranean Sea, where Egypt remained in control of a strip of land along the coast, which became known as the Gaza Strip.
* The Egyptian forces besieged in the "
Faluja Pocket" were allowed to return to Egypt with their weapons, and the area was handed over to Israel.
* A zone on both sides of the border around 'Uja al-Hafeer (
Nitzana) was to be demilitarized, and became the seat of the bilateral armistice committee.
The agreement with Lebanon was signed on
23 March 1949. [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm02.htm The Avalon Project: Lebanese-Israeli General Armistice Agreement, March 23, 1949] ] The main points were:
* The armistice line ("
Green Line", see also Blue Line (Lebanon)) was drawn along the international border.
* Unlike the other agreements, there was no clause disclaiming this line as an international border, which was thereafter treated as it had been previously, as a
de jureinternational border.
* Israel withdrew its forces from 13 villages in Lebanese territory, which were occupied during the war.
The agreement with Jordan was signed on
3 April 1949. [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm03.htm The Avalon Project: Jordanian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement, April 3, 1949] ] The main points:
* Jordanian forces remained in most positions held by them in the
West Bank, particularly East Jerusalemwhich included the Old City.
* Jordan withdrew its forces from their front posts overlooking the
Plain of Sharon. In return, Israel agreed to allow Jordanian forces to take over positions in the West Bank previously held by Iraqi forces.
* Exchange of territory: According to Article 6 Israel received a territory in the area known as
Wadi Araand the Little Trianglein exchange for territory in the southern hills of Hebron. [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm03.htm#art6 The Avalon Project: Jordanian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement, April 3, 1949] ] In March 1949 as the Iraqi forces withdrew from Palestine and handed over their positions to the smaller Jordanian legion, 3 Israeli brigades manoeuvred into threatening positions in Operation "Shin-Tav-Shin" in a form of coercive diplomacy. The operation allowed Israel to renegotiate the cease fire line in the Wadi Ara area of the Northern West Bank in a secret agreement reached on 23 March 1949 and incorporated into the General Armistice Agreement. The green line was then redrawn in blue ink on the southern map to give the impression that a movement into green line had been made. [The Politics of Partition; King Abdullah, The Zionists, and Palestine 1921–1951 Avi Shlaim Oxford University Press Revised Edition 2004 ISBN 019829459-x pp. 299, 312] The events that led to a change in the Green line was an exchange of fertile land in the Bethlehem area to Israeli control and the village of Wadi Fukin being given to Jordanian control. On 15 July when the Israeli Army expelled the population of Wadi Fukin after the village had been transferred to the Israeli-occupied area under the terms of the Armistice Agreement concluded between Israel and the Jordan Kingdom The Mixed Armistice Commission decided on 31 August, by a majority vote, that Israel had violated the Armistice Agreement by expelling villagers across the demarcation line and decided that the villagers should be allowed to return to their homes. However, when the villagers returned to Wadi Fukin under the supervision of the United Nations observers on September 6, they found most of their houses destroyed and were again compelled by the Israeli Army to return to Jordanian controlled territory. The United Nations Chairman of the Mixed Commission, Colonel Garrison B. Coverdale (US), pressed for a solution of this issue to be found in the Mixed Armistice Commission, in an amicable and UN spirit. After some hesitation, this procedure was accepted and finally an agreement was reached whereby the Armistice line was changed to give back Wadi Fukin to the Jordanian authority who, in turn, agreed to transfer some uninhabited, but fertile territory south of Bethlehem to the Israelis. [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/7b5942522358001885256a76006377eb!OpenDocument Press Release PAL/537 4 November 1949] ]
* A Special Committee was to be formed to make arrangements for safe movement of traffic between
Jerusalemand Mount Scopuscampus of Hebrew University, along the Latrun- JerusalemHighway, free access to the Holy Places, and other matters.
The agreement with Syria was signed on
July 20, 1949. [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm04.htm The Avalon Project: Israeli-Syrian General Armistice Agreement, July 20, 1949] ] Syria withdrew its forces from most of the territories it controlled west of the international border, which became demilitarized zones. It was emphasised that the armistice line was "not to be interpreted as having any relation whatsoever to ultimate territorial arrangements." (Article V)
Iraq, whose forces took an active part in the war (although it has no common border with Israel), withdrew its forces from the region in March 1949. The front occupied by Iraqi forces was covered by the armistice agreement between Israel and Jordan and there was no separate agreement with Iraq.
Cease-fire line vs. permanent border
The areas under
Israeli control, as set by the agreements, encompassed about 78% of mandatory Palestine as it stood after the independence of Transjordan(now Jordan) in 1946. From the early 1920s to 1946, the British mandate of Palestinehad also encompassed Transjordan, ruled under different arrangements from the area west of the Jordan river. Israel inside the armistice lines composed about 18% of this larger area including Transjordan. The areas of Palestinenot occupied by Israel (the Gaza Stripand West Bank) were occupied by Egypt and Jordan respectively until 1967. See the related articles Occupation of the Gaza Strip by Egyptand Occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan.
The armistice agreements were intended to serve only as interim agreements until replaced by permanent peace treaties. However, no peace treaties were actually signed until decades later.
The armistice agreements, except for the one with Lebanon, were clear (at Arab insistence) that they were not creating permanent or "
de jure" borders. The Egyptian-Israeli agreement stated "The Armistice Demarcation Line is not to be construed in any sense as a political or territorial boundary, and is delineated without prejudice to rights, claims and positions of either Party to the Armistice as regards ultimate settlement of the Palestine question." [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm01.htm The Avalon Project: Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement, February 24, 1949] ]
The Jordanian-Israeli agreement stated: "... no provision of this Agreement shall in any way prejudice the rights, claims, and positions of either Party hereto in the peaceful settlement of the Palestine questions, the provisions of this Agreement being dictated exclusively by military considerations" (Art. II.2), "The Armistice Demarcation Lines defined in articles V and VI of this Agreement are agreed upon by the Parties without prejudice to future territorial settlements or boundary lines or to claims of either Party relating thereto." (Art. VI.9) [ [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm03.htm The Avalon Project: Jordanian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement,
April 3, 1949] ]
As the armistice lines were technically not borders the Arabs considered that Israel was restricted in its rights to develop the DMZ and exploitation of the water resources. Further that as a state of war still existed with the Arab nations, the Arab League was not hindered in their right to deny Israel the freedom of navigation through the Arab League waters. Also it was argued that the Palestinians had the right of return and that the Israeli use of abandoned property was therefore not legitimate. [Avi Shlaim (2000) p. 57]
Knessetthen Foreign Minister and future Prime Minister Moshe Sharettcalled the armistice lines "provisional boundaries" and the old international borders which the armistice lines, except with Jordan, were based on, "natural boundaries". [ [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Foreign%20Relations/Israels%20Foreign%20Relations%20since%201947/1947-1974/2%20Israel-s%20position%20on%20its%20frontiers 2 Israel-s position on its frontiers ] ] . Israel did not lay claim to territory beyond them and proposed them, with minor modifications except at Gaza, as the basis of permanent political frontiers at the Lausanne Conference, 1949. [ [http://www.mfa.gov.il/MFA/Foreign%20Relations/Israels%20Foreign%20Relations%20since%201947/1947-1974/3%20Attitude%20of%20the%20parties%20on%20the%20territorial%20issue 3 Attitude of the parties on the territorial issue ] ]
1967 Six Day Warseveral Israeli leaders argued against turning the armistice lines into permanent borders on the grounds of Israeli security:
* Prime Minister
Golda Meirsaid the pre-1967 borders were so dangerous that it "would be treasonable" for an Israeli leader to accept them ( New York Times, December 23, 1969).
* The Foreign Minister
Abba Ebansaid the pre-1967 borders have "a memory of Auschwitz" ( Der Spiegel, November 5, 1969).
* Prime Minister
Menachem Begindescribed a proposal for a retreat to the pre-1967 borders as "national suicide for Israel."
The internationally recognized border between Egypt and Israel was eventually demarcated as part of the
Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty. The border between Israel and Jordan (except for Jordan's border with the post-1967 West Bank) was demarcated as part of the Israel-Jordan Peace Treaty.
In each case
Mixed Armistice Commissions(MACs) were formed under the auspices of the United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, (UNTSO) which investigated complaints by all parties and made regular reports to the UN Security Council.
Israel refused to attend the meetings of the
Israel/Syria Mixed Armistice Commissionsince 1951. This refusal on the part of Israel not only constitutes a flagrant violation of the General Armistice Agreement, but also contributed to an increase of tension in the area. The Security Council itself strongly condemned the attitude of Israel, in its resolution of 18 May 1951, as being "inconsistent with the objectives and intent of the Armistice Agreement".
The discussion of complaints by the
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan/Israel Mixed Armistice Commissionduring the year 1952 resulted in:
* 1. Jordan being condemned for 19 violations of the General Armistice Agreement;
* 2. Israel being condemned for 12 violations of the General Armistice Agreement;
Statistics Taken from The Official Records of The Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan/Israel Mixed Armistice Commission Period from 1 January 1953 Through 15 October 1953:-
* The discussion of the 171 Israeli complaints by the Mixed Armistice Commission resulted in Jordan being condemned for 20 violations of the General Armistice Agreement.
28-29 January 1953 Israeli military forces estimated at 120 to 150 men, using 2-inch mortars, 3-inch mortars, P.I.A.T. (projectors, infantry, anti-tank) weapons, bangalore torpedoes (long metal tubes containing an explosive charge), machine-guns, grenades and small arms, crossed the demarcation line and attacked the Arab villages of Falameh and Rantis. At Falameh the mukhtar was killed, seven other villagers were wounded, and three houses were demolished. The attack lasted four and a half hours. Israel was condemned for this act by the Mixed Armistice Commission. [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/017eefb458011c9d05256722005e5499!OpenDocument UN Doc S/PV.630] of 27 October 1953 Report the Chief of Staff of the Truce Supervision Organization.] ]
22 April 1953, firing broke out at sunset within Jerusalem along the demarcation line on a length of about 4 kilometres. It lasted two hours, until the cease-fire arranged by United Nations observers came into effect. On the following day, there were isolated shots in the early morning and in the afternoon. There were twenty Jordanian casualties-ten killed and ten wounded. Six Israelis were wounded. The Jerusalem incident was investigated by United Nations observers. After studying the evidence thus collected, my predecessor, General Riley, in a report to the Security Council on the violation of the cease-fire [S/3607] , stated that it appeared impossible to determine who fired the first shot.
On 25, 26 and
27 May, the two parties submitted complaints alleging violation of the General Armistice Agreement by civilians and military personnel in the Al-Dawayimaarea. In an emergency meeting of the Mixed Armistice Commission, both parties agreed to a mixed investigation. United Nations observers accompanied the representatives to the demarcation line to establish the facts. Despite the cease-fire which had been previously arranged, heavy firing broke out during the investigation. The origin of the incident was the illegal cultivation by Jordanians of land in Israel territory. Armed Jordanians had penetrated Israel territory to harvest crops, and other Jordanians had fired across the demarcation line to protect the harvesters. On the other hand, Israel troops had fired across the demarcation line at Jordanians in Jordan territory, and Israeli soldiers had burned crops in Jordan territory.
During the latter part of May 1953, incidents took place which cost the lives of three persons and in which six others were wounded. There seemed to be no motive for these crimes other than killing for the sake of killing. On the night of 25-26 May, an armed group from Jordan attacked two homes in Beit Arif, wounding two women. The same night, armed Jordanians attacked a home in Beit Nabala, killing a woman and wounding her husband and two children. Jordan was condemned for all three of these attacks. On the night of
9 June, armed Jordanians blew up a house in Tirat Yehuda, killing one man, And two nights later an armed band struck at a house in Kfar Hess, killing a woman and seriously wounding her husband. Jordan was again condemned by the Mixed Armistice Commission for these attacks. Both Governments were greatly concerned over the happenings during this fortnight, and a great effort was made to stop the work of these groups, which seemed bent on creating tension along the border. 11 August 1953, Israel military forces using demolition mines, bangalore torpedoes, 2-inch mortars, machine-guns and small arms attacked the villages of Idna, Surif and Wadi Fukin, inflicting casualties among the inhabitants and destroying dwellings. The body of an Israel soldier in full uniform with identification tag was found in the village of Idna after the attack. The Mixed Armistice Commission condemned Israel for these attacks. 3 September 1953: Sovereignty over the DMZ between Syria Israel is questioned when Israel start a creeping border attempt by using a water diversion in DMZ as an excuse the UN orders work halted; USA threatens to end aid channelled to Israel by the Foreign Operations Administration: Israel moves intake out of DMZ.
September 1953 the General Headquarters orders Unit 101 to drive Bedouins out from the Negev and push them southward to Sinai. Unit 101 soldiers act aggressively: they raid the Bedouin camp, shooting aimlessly, confiscating arms and burning tents. The Bedouins run away, leaving many wounded behind. For a few days Unit 101 pursuits the Bedouins until they are out of the Negev.
2 October 1953: The explosion of a land mine on the Israel railway north of Eyal derailed an Israel freight train. The Mixed Armistice Commission has held Jordan responsible for this act of violence which fortunately caused no loss of life and relatively little damage, as the train was made up of empty tank cars.
14-15 October 1953:
Qibya massacreThe crossing of the demarcation line by a force approximating one half of a fully equipped battalion from the Israel regular army. Into Qibya village, to attack the inhabitants by firing from automatic weapons, throwing grenades, and using Bangalore torpedoes together with TNT explosive. Forty-one dwelling houses and a school building were destroyed. Resulting in the cold-blooded murder of forty-two lives (later increased to 53) including men, women [and] children, and the wounding of fifteen persons and the damage of a police car, [and] at the same time, the crossing of a part of the same group into Shuqba village, [are] a breach of article III, para-graph 2 of the General Armistice Agreement.
Israel Unit 101 commanded by Ariel Sharon, attacks Qibia in the West Bank killing 53 Palestinians. between thirty and forty buildings had been completely demolished, including the school, the water-pumping station, the police station and the telephone office. Bullet-riddled bodies near the doorways and multiple bullet hits on the doors of the demolished houses indicated that the inhabitants had been forced to remain inside until their homes were blown up over them. Witnesses were uniform in describing their experience as a night of horror, during which Israel soldiers moved about in their village blowing up buildings, firing into doorways and windows with automatic weapons and throwing hand grenades. A number of unexploded hand grenades, marked with Hebrew letters indicating recent Israel manufacture, and three bags of TNT were found in and about the village.
By the time the acting chairman of the Mixed Armistice Commission left Qibya, twenty-seven bodies had been dug from the rubble. The villagers were digging for others who they claimed were still buried beneath the building stones. They believed that the number of dead might reach sixty. Six wounded persons were seen in the village, and the acting chairman was told that there were other wounded persons in the hospital.
Following the Security Council resolution 101 of
24 November 1953condemning Israel for the attack on Qibya the Security Council "took note of the fact that there is substantial evidence of crossing of the demarcation line by unauthorized persons, ten resulting in acts of violence and requests the Government of Jordan to continue and strengthen the measures which they are already taking to prevent such crossing." The Jordanian authorities carried out the following measures:- [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/cbf7840e8148df86852560c2006feaeb!OpenDocument UN Doc S/RES/101(1953) S/3139/Rev.2 24 November 1953] Attack on West Bank village Qibya - SecCo censures Israel's action, requests Jordan to prevent crossings]
*(a) Increase of the number of police assigned to the border area;
*(b) Increase of the number of patrols;
*(c) Replacement of village mukhtars and area commanders, where laxity of border control was suspected;
*(d) Removal from the border area of suspected infiltrators and imposing of heavy sentences on known infiltrators;
16 December 1953, two Israeli soldiers were killed while on patrol inside Israel territory (approximate M. R. 1433-1097). On 21 December, the Mixed Armistice Commission condemned Jordan for this incident. 18 December 1953, a car was ambushed on the Hebron road (approximate M.R. 1658-1221) inside Jordan and an Arab Legion medical officer was killed. Israel was condemned by the Mixed Armistice Commission for this incident ( 21 December). 21 December 1953, an armed group attacked a Bedouin camp near Tarqumyia (approximate M.R. 1512-1092) wounding one man. Israel was condemned by the Mixed Armistice Commission for this incident ( 23 December). 21 December, an armed group, using explosives and automatic weapons, attacked a house near Hebron (approximate M.R. 1591-1066) killing one pregnant woman and two men, and wounding another man. Israel was condemned for this incident ( 24 December).The last three incidents were apparently reprisal attacks for the killing of the two Israeli soldiers on 16 December. Two Arabs responsible for this crime were arrested by the Jordan police a few days later. 14 February 1954, an Israeli villager on guard duty at Mahasyia, near Deiraban, (approximate M. R. 1510-1282) in the central area, was killed. No evidence was introduced to indicate that Jordanians were guilty of this crime and on 18 Februarythe Chairman voted against the Israeli draft resolution condemning Jordan. 17 February 1954: the Israel delegation complained that five armed persons (two of them Negroes) dressed in khaki, crossed the demarcation line during the night and, on the morning of 16 February, stole a flock of 260 sheep belonging to an Israeli kibbutz. According to the complaint, the Israeli shepherd and his flock were taken into caves and kept there till 5.30 p.m. when the shepherd was released and the marauders returned to the Gaza Strip with the flock crossing the demarcation line at M.R. 1067-1024. The Israel delegation considered that "the above was a carefully planned action ordered by the Egyptian authorities and carried out by a well-trained military unit." 17 February 1954: the Israel delegation complained that two Arabs crossed the demarcation line into Israel at M.R. 1018-0992, on 16 February. According to the complaint, they started to escape when challenged by Israeli guards, and fire having been opened on them, one was hit and was dragged over the demarcation line by the second. 18 February, the Mixed Armistice Commission condemned Israel and Jordan for firing across the demarcation line on 14 Februarynear Deir el Ghusun (approximate M. R. 1575-1955) in the northern area. This firing resulted in the killing, of one Jordanian. 18 February: the Israel delegation complained that on 18 Februaryat 1 p.m. two armed Egyptian soldiers crossed the demarcation line at M.R. 10884-10486. According to the complaint, the Egyptian soldiers refused to stop, when challenged by an Israeli patrol; two warning shots were fired; one of the Egyptian soldieries escaped, and the other was killed 15 meters inside Israel territory 18 February: the Israel delegation complained that on 18 Februaryfour armed infiltrators crossed the demarcation line into Israel and that when challenged by an Israel patrol at M.R. 1023-1123 they started to escape while firing on the patrol. During the exchange of fire one of the infiltrators was killed. 19 February: the Egyptian delegation complained that on 18 February, at M.R. 1087-1050, a patrol of two Egyptian soldiers in Egyptian territory was attacked by armed Israelis hiding in ambush. One of the Egyptian soldiers was kidnapped and killed inside Israel-controlled territory, close to the demarcation line (Cf. sub-paragraph (c) above summarizing an Israeli complaint dated 18 February). 19 February: the Egyptian delegation complained that on 19 Februaryarmed Israelis opened automatic fire across the demarcation line at an Arab working in his field at M.R. 0952-0931. The Arab was seriously injured. 24 FebruaryOne Arab was reported killed and another wounded by the Egyptian Delegation. 16 March 1954, Israelis of the Ein Gev colony began ploughing 130 dunums of land situated near the colony and belonging to the Arab population of demilitarised Nuqeib, in violation of the verbal agreement concluded at Samara in 1950 to the effect that the two parties should retain and work the said land until the problem was settled. 17 March 1954: Ma'ale Akrabim [Scorpion Pass] .Terrorists ambushed a bus traveling from Eilat to Tel Aviv, and opened fire at short range when the bus reached the area of Maale Akrabim in the northern Negev. In the initial ambush, the terrorists killed the driver and wounded most of the passengers. The terrorists then boarded the bus, and shot each passenger, one by one. Eleven passengers were murdered. Survivors recounted how the murderers spat on the bodies and abused them. The Israeli claimed that the terrorists could clearly be traced back to the Jordanian border, some 20 km from the site of the terrorist attack. The MAC investigation found that the claim could not be substantiated and that the attack was more likely to have been by Bedu tribesman from within Israel and the Israeli complaint was not upheld. [E H Hutchison “Violent Truce”] 23 March 1954: The Israel Government has severed all connections with the Mixed Armistice Commission. It has also discontinued attendance at the local commanders' meetings provided for under a separate Israel-Jordan agreement. Israel communications referring to alleged violations by Jordan of the General Armistice Agreement have been addressed to the Secretary-General of the United Nations, with the request that they should be circulated to the members of the Security Council. The Chief of Staff of the Truce Supervision Organization in Jerusalem has been informed of such alleged violations of the General Armistice Agreement only on receiving from New York a copy of the Security Council document. The non-co-operation of the Israel Government has prevented the investigation of such alleged violations in conformity with the provisions of the General Armistice Agreement.
29 March 1954, at 07.00 hours, local time, the Jordanian delegation presented to the Chairman of the Mixed Armistice Commission a verbal complaint dealing with an incident which had occurred at Nahhalin village seven hours earlier and requested an immediate investigation as well as an emergency meeting of the Commission to consider the incident.
The Jordanian complaint was that On
29 March 1954at 07.00 hours, local time, at Nahhalin village, some 35 kilometers from the demarcation line "an Israel armed force, well equipped, surrounded the village from three directions and penetrated inside the village and opened fire from different automatic weapons, threw hand-grenades and placed mines at some houses, including the mosque of the village. As a result of this brutal attack, 9 persons—8 men and 1 woman—were killed, and 14 others were injured and taken to hospital. Fire lasted for about one hour and a half, and was returned by the village guards. Then the aggressors withdrew. Mines, grenades and other warlike materials bearing Hebrew markings were found on the spot.This complaint was upheld by the Mixed Armistice Commission 30 June 1954, two Israeli armoured launchers attacked the Syrian post of El Koursi, situated on Syrian soil, with their 20-mm. and 57-mm. guns, this time with the support of Israel field artillery sited in the defensive area. This artillery continued firing for approximately one hour and 45 minutes, causing material damage to the post. 5 December 1954, at approximately 16.30 hours, a group of 8 armed Israel State policemen stationed approximately at MR 209600 233400 opened fire on two Arab farmers at approximately MR 209600 233450 in the southern demilitarised zone (Tawafiq). The fire was returned by the two Arabs. One of them was hit by a bullet and immediately taken to hospital. The MAC Decided that the presence of a regular Israel police force in the southern demilitarised zone is a flagrant violation of article V of the General Armistice Agreement and requested that the Israel authorities to pay to the wounded Arab civilian an appropriate compensation
A list of 29 complaints of alleged [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/017eefb458011c9d05256722005e5499!OpenDocument UN Doc S/PV.630] of 27 October 1953 Report the Chief of Staff of the Truce Supervision Organization. See appendix I, II and II for a tabulated list of Israel and Jordanian complaints to the MAC the number of condemnations given to each country as a result of MAC investigations] infractions of the agreement by Jordan was submitted on
April 6, 1954. [http://domino.un.org/unispal.NSF/3822b5e39951876a85256b6e0058a478/724d70bb8b9c17bc0525672100793e4f!OpenDocument UN Doc S/3196/Add.1] dated 6 April 1954from the representative of Israel to the President of the Security Council] These alleged [E H Hutchison “Violent Truce”] infractions included alleged Jordanian attacks on an Israeli civilian bus, killing 11 people (see 17 March above), attacks on Israeli farmers and Bedouin shepherds, sniping at Israeli civilians from the Old City of Jerusalem, kidnappings, shooting at civilian aircraft, ambushing roads and laying mines. In violation of the agreements, the Jordanians denied Jewish access to the holy places in Jerusalem, prohibited visits to Rachel's Tomband vandalized the Jewish cemetery on the Mount of Olives, using tombstones for construction of pavements and latrines. [ |url = http://www.palestinefacts.org/pf_1948to1967_holysites.php
title = Israel 1948-1967: Holy Sites Desecrated
accessdate = 2007-06-27
publisher = palestinefacts.org] The 'Uja al-Hafeer (
Nitzana) demilitarized zone on the Israeli-Egyptian border was the site of numerous border incidents and armistice violations. In September 1955, Ariel Sharon's paratroopers entered the United Nation sector of the demilitarized zone. Benny Morris writes that Sharon "didn't realize that the UN area was off limits for his men." [Benny Morris, "Israel's Border Wars, 1949-1956: Arab Infiltration, Israeli Retaliation, and the Countdown to the Suez War."] On May 28, 1958, Israel reported a shooting incident in the demilitarized zone on Mount Scopusin which 4 Israel police officers patrolling the botanical gardens of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, along with the United Nations observer sent to extricate them, were killed by Jordanian fire from Issawiya. [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.NSF/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/3dd863c66da0823b052564e3004b10ea!OpenDocument Israeli Minister's] Statement to the Knesset, May 28, 1958] [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/b150f4c5505cda730525650000381049!OpenDocument UN Doc S/4030 of 17 June 1958] Report of UN personnel present at the Mount Scopusincident give a different version of events than the Israeli Government position. The route of the patrol was contested (the route was outside the fence of the "Jewish owned property" line)and no firing came from the Hospital a single sniper from the orchard area apparently kept the police patrol under fire and when a Jordanian patrol turned up the Israeli patrol then fired on the Jordanian patrol who returned fire. when the truce was arranged the sniper continued firing and Lt.-Colonel Flint was killed carrying a white flag] Israel sent soldiers into Jordanian territory to conduct raids in retaliation for incursions by armed persons into Israel.Fact|date=November 2007 From their positions on the Golan HeightsSyrian forces shelled Israeli settlements in the demilitarized zone, attacked fishing boats on the Kinneretand fired on agricultural workers. [ [http://www.jafi.org.il/education/100/concepts/d3.html The Zionist Century | Concepts | Struggle and Defense ] ]
1947 UN Partition Plan
1948 Arab-Israeli War
Peace Process in the Israeli-Palestinian Conflict
Arab-Israeli peace diplomacy and treaties
Paris Peace Conference, 1919
*Faisal-Weizmann Agreement (1919)
Camp David Accords (1978)
*Israel-Egypt Peace Treaty (1979)
Madrid Conference of 1991
*Oslo Accords (1993)
*Israel-Jordan Treaty of Peace (1994)
Camp David 2000 Summit
Peace process in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict
Projects working for peace among Israelis and Arabs
List of Middle East peace proposals
International law and the Arab-Israeli conflict
The complete texts of the Armistice Agreements can be found at [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/ The Avalon Project at Yale Law School]
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm01.htm Egyptian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement,
February 24, 1949]
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm03.htm Jordanian-Israeli General Armistice Agreement,
April 3, 1949]
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm02.htm Lebanese-Israeli General Armistice Agreement,
March 23, 1949]
* [http://www.yale.edu/lawweb/avalon/mideast/arm04.htm Israeli-Syrian General Armistice Agreement,
July 20, 1949]
A [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/Web%20Search%20Simple2!OpenForm search] at the
United Nationsweb site for "Mixed Armistice Commission" will reveal many of the reports made to the UN by those commissions.
Shlaim Avi "The Iron Wall; Israel and the Arab World (2000) Penguin Books ISBN 0-140-28870-8
* [http://ia301304.us.archive.org/3/items/violenttrucearab006617mbp/violenttrucearab006617mbp.pdf/ E H Hutchison “Violent Truce”]
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ARMISTICE AGREEMENTS, ISRAEL-ARAB — (1949), series of bilateral agreements concluded between Israel and Egypt (Rhodes, Feb. 24, 1949), Lebanon (Rosh ha Nikrah, March 23, 1949), Jordan (Rhodes, April 3, 1949), and Syria (Maḥanayim, July 20, 1949), terminating the military phase of… … Encyclopedia of Judaism
Armistice Agreements — (1949) In the spring of 1949, Israel and each of the neighboring states signed an armistice agreement terminating the hostilities of Israel s War of Independence (1948 49). Iraq, although a participant in the conflict, refused to do so. The… … Historical Dictionary of Israel
Armistice — An armistice is a situation where the warring parties agree to stop fighting. It is not necessarily the end of a war, but can instead be just a cease fire. It is derived from the Latin arma , meaning weapons and statium , meaning a stopping. A… … Wikipedia
1949–1956 Palestinian exodus — The 1949 1956 Palestinian exodus was the continuation of the 1948 1949 exodus of Palestinian Arabs from Israeli controlled territory after the signing of the Cease fire agreements. [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88… … Wikipedia
Mixed Armistice Commissions — The Mixed Armistice Commissions (MAC) is an organisation for monitoring the ceasefire along the lines set by the General Armistice Agreements. It was composed of United Nations Military Observers and was part of the United Nations Truce… … Wikipedia
Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan/Israel Mixed Armistice Commission — At the closing of the 1948 Arab Israeli War a Truce (General Armistice Agreement) was signed between Hashemite Jordan Kingdom and Israel on the 3 April 1949 [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/f03d55e48f77ab6985256… … Wikipedia
Accords d'armistice israélo-arabes de 1949 — Les accords d armistice israélo arabes de 1949 ont été signés entre Israël et ses pays voisins : l Égypte, le Liban, la Transjordanie et la Syrie entre le 2 … Wikipédia en Français
Israel/Syria Mixed Armistice Commission — Israel–Syria Mixed Armistice Commission (ISMAC) was the United Nations commission for observing the armistice between Israel and Syria after the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, as part of the Mixed Armistice Commissions (MAC). [article. V, para. 5, of the … Wikipedia
Lausanne Conference, 1949 — The Lausanne Conference, 1949 was convened by the United Nations Conciliation Commission for Palestine (UNCCP) from 27 April to 12 September, 1949. During the conference, representatives of Israel, the Arab states Egypt, Transjordan, Lebanon and… … Wikipedia
United Nations Truce Supervision Organization — UNTSO is an acronym for United Nations Truce Supervision Organization, an organization founded on 29 May 1948 [ [http://domino.un.org/unispal.nsf/9a798adbf322aff38525617b006d88d7/a9a8da193bd46c54852560e50060c6fd!OpenDocument UN Doc A/RES/186 (S… … Wikipedia