Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport


Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport
Ronald Reagan
Washington National Airport
MWAA Logo.svg
Washington national airport.jpg
IATA: DCAICAO: KDCAFAA LID: DCA
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
Operator Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority
Serves Washington Metropolitan Area
Location Arlington County, Virginia
Elevation AMSL 15 ft / 5 m
Coordinates 38°51′08″N 077°02′16″W / 38.85222°N 77.03778°W / 38.85222; -77.03778Coordinates: 38°51′08″N 077°02′16″W / 38.85222°N 77.03778°W / 38.85222; -77.03778
Website http://mwaa.com/reagan/reagan.htm
Maps
A map with a grid overlay showing the terminals runways and other structures of the airport.
FAA airport diagram
DCA is located in District of Columbia
DCA
Location within Virginia
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
1/19 6,869 2,094 Asphalt
4/22 4,911 1,497 Asphalt
15/33 5,204 1,586 Asphalt
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[1]

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (IATA: DCAICAO: KDCAFAA LID: DCA) is a public airport located 3 statute miles (4.8 km) south of downtown Washington, D.C., in Arlington County, Virginia.[1] It is the commercial airport nearest to Washington, D.C. For many decades, it was called Washington National Airport, but this airport was renamed in 1998 to honor former President Ronald Reagan. The Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (MWAA) operates the airport.

With a few exceptions, flights into and out of DCA are not allowed to exceed 1,250 statute miles (2,010 km) great-circle nonstop, in an effort to control aviation noise and send the major air traffic volume to the larger but more distant Dulles International Airport. In 2006, the airport served about 18.5 million passengers.[2] Reagan National is a focus city for US Airways, Reagan National's largest carrier. The US Airways Shuttle offers near-hourly air shuttle service to LaGuardia Airport in New York City and Logan International Airport in Boston, Massachusetts. Delta Air Lines' Delta Shuttle also offers near-hourly air shuttle service to LaGuardia.

Reagan National only provides U.S. immigration and customs facilities for corporate jet traffic; the only international flights allowed to land at DCA are those from airports with U.S. Customs and Border Protection preclearance, which includes the international airports in the Bahamas and Bermuda, as well as some major Canadian airports. For all other international passenger flights, those in the Washington Metropolitan Area can use Dulles International Airport west of the city and Baltimore-Washington International Airport northeast of the city.

Contents

History

Hoover Field, near the present site of the Pentagon, was the first major terminal to be developed in the Capital area, opening its doors in 1926. The facility's single runway was intersected by a local street; guards had to stop automobile traffic during takeoffs and landings. The following year Washington Airport, another privately operated field, began service next door.[3] In 1930, the economics of the Great Depression caused the two terminals to merge to form Washington-Hoover Airport. Bordered on the east by U.S. Route 1, with its accompanying high-tension electrical wires, and obstructed by a high smokestack on one approach and a dump nearby, the field was less than adequate.

Although the need for a better airport was acknowledged in 37 studies conducted between 1926 and 1938,[3] there was a statutory prohibition against federal development of airports. When Congress lifted the prohibition in 1938, President Franklin Roosevelt made a recess appropriation of $15 million to build National Airport by reallocating funds from other purposes. Construction of Washington National Airport began in 1940–41 by a company led by John McShain. Congress challenged the legality of FDR's recess appropriation, but construction of the new airport continued.[4]

The airport is southwest of Washington, D.C. The western part of the airport was once within a large Virginia plantation, a remnant of which is now inside a historic site located near the airport's Metrorail station (see Abingdon (plantation) for history). The eastern part of the airport was constructed in the District of Columbia on and near mudflats that were within the tidal Potomac River near Gravelly Point, about 4 statute miles (6.4 km) from the United States Capitol, using landfill dredged from the Potomac.

The airport opened on June 16, 1941.[3] In 1945, Congress passed a law that established the airport was legally within Virginia but under the jurisdiction of the federal government.[3]

The April 1957 Official Airline Guide shows 316 weekday departures: 95 Eastern (plus six flights a week to/from South America), 77 American, 61 Capital, 23 National, 17 TWA, 10 United, 10 Delta, 6 Allegheny, 6 Braniff, 5 Piedmont, 3 Northeast and 3 Northwest.[citation needed]

Service to the airport's dedicated Metro station began in 1977.[5]

Expansion

The runway layout — limited due to the location and orientation of the airport — has changed little, except for the 1956 closure of a fourth, east-west runway now used for taxiing and aircraft parking. The terminal building was supplemented by the completion of the North Terminal in 1958; the two were connected in 1961. A United Airlines holdroom complex was built in 1965, and a facility for American Airlines was completed in 1968. A commuter terminal was constructed in 1970.[3]

Despite the expansions, several efforts have been made to restrict the growth of the airport. The advent of jet aircraft as well as traffic growth led Congress to pass the Washington Airport Act of 1950, which resulted in the opening of Dulles Airport in 1962. Concerns about aviation noise led to the imposition of noise restrictions even before jet service began in 1966. To reduce congestion and drive traffic to alternative airports, the Federal Aviation Administration imposed landing slot and perimeter restrictions on National and four other high-density airports in 1969.[citation needed]

Transfer of control and renaming

In 1984, Secretary of Transportation Elizabeth Dole appointed a commission to study transferring National and Dulles Airports from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to a local entity, which could use airport revenues to finance improvements.[4] The commission recommended that one multi-state agency administer both Dulles and National, over the alternative of having Virginia control Dulles and the District of Columbia control National.[4] In 1987, Congress, through legislation,[6] transferred control of the airport from the FAA to the new Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority with the Authority's decisions being subject to a Congressional review panel. The constitutionality of the review panel was later challenged in the Supreme Court and the Court has twice declared the oversight panel unconstitutional.[7] Even after this decision, however, Congress has continued to intervene in the management of the airports.[8]

On February 6, 1998, President Bill Clinton signed legislation[9] changing the airport's name from Washington National Airport to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, to honor the former president on his 87th birthday.[10] The legislation, passed by Congress in 1998, was drafted against the wishes of MWAA officials and political leaders in Northern Virginia and Washington, D.C.[11][12] Opponents of the renaming argued that a large federal office building had already been named for Reagan (the Ronald Reagan Building and International Trade Center) and that the airport was already named for a United States President (George Washington).[12] The bill expressly stated that it did not require the expenditure of any funds to accomplish the name change.

Construction of current terminal buildings

DCA control tower and new terminal C.

With the addition of more flights and limited space in the aging main terminal, the airport began an extensive renovation and expansion in the 1990s. Hangar 11 on the northern end of the airport was converted into The USAir Interim Terminal, designed by Joseph C. Giuliani, FAIA. Soon after an addition for Delta Air Lines was added in 1989 and was later converted to Authority offices. These projects allowed for the relocation of several gates in the main terminal until the new $450 million terminal complex became operational. On July 27, 1997, the new terminal complex, consisting of terminals B and C and two parking garages, opened. Argentine architect César Pelli designed the new terminals of the airport. The USAir Interim Terminal closed immediately after the opening and was converted back into a hangar. One pier of the main terminal (now Terminal A), which mainly housed American Airlines and Pan Am, was demolished; the other pier, originally designed for Northwest/TWA remains operational today as gates 1–9. Both the American Airlines and the Northwest/TWA Terminals were designed by Joseph C. Giuliani, FAIA.

Before 1999, Runway 1/19 and 4/22 were originally designated 18/36 and 3/21.

Operations

Tightened security and safety concerns

Many pilots[citation needed] regard the "River Visual" approach as one of the more interesting in the United States.

Given Reagan National Airport's proximity to the city and high-security facilities, Reagan National has extra security precautions required by the Washington Air Defense Identification Zone that were in place since the airport began operations.[13]

Prior to the September 11 attacks in 2001, the most notable security measure was the southbound approach into the airport. Most of central Washington D.C. is prohibited airspace up to 18,000 feet (5,500 m). Due to this restriction, pilots approaching from the north follow the path of the Potomac River and make a steep turn shortly before landing on the southbound runway. This approach is known as the River Visual. Similarly, flights taking off to the north are required to climb quickly and take a steep left turn, to avoid contact with the Washington Monument or flight over the White House.[14]

After the attacks, the airport was closed for several weeks, and security was tightened extensively when it reopened. Increased security measures included:

  • A ban on aircraft with more than 156 seats (lifted in April 2002)[15]
  • A ban on the "River Visual" approach (lifted in April 2002)[15]
  • A requirement that, 30 minutes prior to landing or following takeoff, passengers were required to remain seated; if anyone stood up, the aircraft was to be diverted to Washington Dulles International Airport under military escort and the person standing would be detained and questioned by federal law enforcement officials (lifted in July 2005)[16]
  • A ban on general aviation (lifted in October 2005, subject to the restrictions below)[17]

On October 18, 2005, Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport was reopened to general aviation on a limited basis (48 operations per day) and under serious restrictions: passenger and crew manifests must be submitted to the Transportation Security Administration 24 hours in advance, and all planes must pass through one of 27 "gateway airports" where re-inspections of aircraft, passengers, and baggage take place. An armed security officer must be on board before departing a gateway airport.[18]

On March 23, 2011, the duty air traffic controller at the airport reportedly fell asleep during the night shift. Two aircraft on approach to the airport were unable to contact anyone in the control tower and subsequently landed unassisted.[19]

The "River Visual" approach

A U.S. Airways A319 on final approach for National as seen from the Arlington Memorial Bridge.

Reagan National Airport also has noise restrictions that are some of the most restrictive in the country.[20] Pilots are required to use the "River Visual" approach (used for runway 19), which follows the course of the Potomac River, is only possible with a ceiling of at least 3,500 feet (1,100 m) and visibility of 3 statute miles (4.8 km) or more.[21] There are lights on the Key Bridge, Theodore Roosevelt Bridge, Arlington Memorial Bridge, and the George Mason Memorial Bridge to aid pilots following the river. Aircraft using the approach can be observed from various parks on the river's west bank. Passengers seated on the left side of an airplane that is landing can easily see the Capitol, the Washington Monument, the Jefferson Memorial, the World War II Memorial, Georgetown University, the National Mall, and the White House. Passengers seated on the right side can see CIA headquarters, Arlington National Cemetery, the Pentagon, and the United States Air Force Memorial.

When visibility and ceiling are below the minimums for the River Visual and southerly winds restrict northbound runway operations, aircraft fly an offset localizer or GPS approach to Runway 19, again involving a final turn moments before touchdown, or they fly a VOR or GPS approach to either of the shorter Runways 15 and 22, which are marginally usable by air carrier jets.[citation needed]

Perimeter restrictions

A plane flying the River Visual approach by the Lincoln Memorial.

Reagan National Airport is subject to a federally-mandated perimeter limitation and may not accommodate nonstop flights to or from cities beyond a 1,250-statute mile (2,010 km) radius, with limited exceptions. The U.S. Department of Transportation has issued "beyond-perimeter slot exemptions" which allow specified carriers to operate 12 daily round-trip flights to cities outside the perimeter. These exemptions are allocated as follows:

In 1999, Senator John McCain of Arizona introduced legislation to remove the 1,250-statute mile (2,010 km) perimeter restriction,[citation needed] infuriating some local residents concerned about noise and traffic from increased service by larger, long-haul aircraft. McCain argued that the move would improve competition, while critics[specify] charged he was supporting the interests of Phoenix, Arizona-based America West Airlines (AWA). In the end the restriction was not lifted, but the FAA was permitted to add additional exemptions, which went not to AWA but to competitor Alaska Airlines. America West (now US Airways) later gained additional exemptions for non-stop service to Phoenix in 2004.

Originally the airport had no perimeter rule; in 1954-1960 airlines scheduled nonstop flights to California on piston-engine airliners.[citation needed] Scheduled jet airliners were not allowed at all until April 1966; the perimeter rule arrived with them, and apparently applied only to them. The initial perimeter was 650 statute miles (1,050 km), except that airports under 1,000 statute miles (1,600 km) that had scheduled nonstops in 1965 were allowed to retain them. This meant Minneapolis-St Paul was allowed nonstop jet flights but Kansas City, New Orleans, and Fort Lauderdale were not. In 1981 the perimeter became a flat 1,000 statute miles (1,600 km); it expanded to 1,250 statute miles (2,010 km), enough to encompass Houston, in 1986-87.

Traffic and statistics

This is a view of the airport from the north, showing terminals B and C. It was taken from Gravelly Point, a popular park where people can watch planes take off or land.

In 2010, Reagan National Airport handled 18,118,713 passengers.[2] US Airways has the largest share of traffic at the airport, accounting for 21.56% as of February 2011. Delta Air Lines, the second-largest, accounts for 14.53% of traffic, with American Airlines in third at 13.38%.[22]

Busiest Domestic Routes from DCA (August 2010 - July 2011)[22]
Rank Airport Passengers Carriers
1 Flag of Georgia (U.S. state).svg Atlanta, Georgia 823,000 AirTran, Delta
2 Flag of Illinois.svg Chicago (O'Hare), Illinois 718,000 American, United
3 Flag of Massachusetts.svg Boston, Massachusetts 625,000 Delta, JetBlue, US Airways
4 Flag of Texas.svg Dallas/Fort Worth, Texas 518,000 American, US Airways
5 Flag of Florida.svg Miami, Florida 425,000 American, Delta
6 Flag of New York.svg New York (LaGuardia), New York 377,000 Delta, US Airways
7 Flag of Florida.svg Orlando, Florida 369,000 AirTran, Delta, JetBlue, US Airways
8 Flag of North Carolina.svg Charlotte, North Carolina 302,000 US Airways
9 Flag of Florida.svg Fort Lauderdale, Florida 291,000 JetBlue, Spirit, US Airways
10 Flag of Texas.svg Houston (Intercontinental), Texas 264,000 Continental
Traffic by calendar year
Passengers Change from previous year Aircraft operations Cargo
(pounds)[23]
1999 15,185,348 291,765 83,199,747
2000 15,888,199 increase4.63% 297,879 83,199,394
2001 13,265,387 decrease16.51% 244,008 55,534,294
2002 12,881,601 decrease2.89% 215,691 12,925,992
2003 14,223,123 increase10.41% 250,802 12,732,373
2004 15,944,542 increase12.10% 268,576 11,182,022
2005 17,847,884 increase11.94% 276,056 8,751,702
2006 18,550,785 increase3.94% 276,419 7,963,107
2007 18,679,343 increase0.69% 275,433 5,544,936
2008 18,028,287 decrease3.49% 277,298 7,321,546
2009 17,577,359 decrease2.50% 272,146 12,811,229
2010 18,118,713 increase3.08% 271,097 14,506,056
Source: Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority[2]

Terminals

The main hall connecting Terminals B and C.

Terminal A

Terminal A opened in 1941 and was expanded in 1955 to accommodate more passengers and airlines. This terminal is currently undergoing renovation to restore its original architecture, and is expected to be completed in a couple of years.[citation needed]

Terminals B and C

Terminals B and C opened in 1997, replacing a collection of airline-specific terminals built during the 1960s. The new terminals were designed by architect Cesar Pelli and house 35 gates. There is no Gate 13, possibly due to superstition.[citation needed] Terminals B and C offer many different dining options including TGI Friday's and Cinnabon.

Airlines and destinations

Passenger service

Destinations with non-stop service from Reagan National.
An American Eagle ERJ outbound from Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport, Washington, D.C. (2006)
Airlines Destinations Terminal
Air Canada Toronto-Pearson A
Air Canada Express operated by Jazz Air Montréal-Trudeau, Ottawa A
AirTran Airways Atlanta, Fort Myers, Milwaukee, Orlando A
Alaska Airlines Los Angeles, Seattle/Tacoma B (Pier 1)
American Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, St. Louis [ends February 8] B (Pier 2)
American Eagle Chicago-O'Hare, Nashville, New York-JFK, Raleigh/Durham, St. Louis [begins February 9] B (Pier 2)
Continental Airlines Houston-Intercontinental B (Pier 1)
Continental Connection operated by Colgan Air Cleveland, Newark B (Pier 1)
Continental Express operated by Chautauqua Airlines Cleveland B (Pier 1)
Continental Express operated by ExpressJet Airlines Cleveland, Newark B (Pier 1)
Delta Air Lines Atlanta, Detroit, Memphis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Orlando, Salt Lake City
Seasonal: Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky
B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Atlantic Southeast Airlines Atlanta, Boston, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Indianapolis, Jackson, New Orleans, St. Louis B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Chautauqua Airlines Charleston (SC), Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Columbus (OH), Hartford, Indianapolis B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Comair Boston, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky, Hartford/Springfield, Miami, Memphis, Providence
Seasonal: Grand Rapids
B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Compass Airlines Atlanta, Detroit, Omaha, Orlando, Tampa B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Mesaba Airlines Des Moines, Detroit, Madison, New Orleans, New York-JFK B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Pinnacle Airlines Charleston (SC), Columbus (OH), Hartford, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Lexington, New York-JFK
Seasonal: Grand Rapids
B (Pier 1)
Delta Connection operated by Shuttle America Atlanta B (Pier 1)
Delta Shuttle operated by Shuttle America New York-LaGuardia B (Pier 1)
Frontier Airlines Denver, Grand Rapids [begins January 4], Madison [begins January 5], Milwaukee A
Frontier Airlines operated by Republic Airlines Kansas City, Omaha A
JetBlue Airways Boston, Fort Lauderdale, Orlando A
Spirit Airlines Fort Lauderdale, Myrtle Beach A
Sun Country Airlines Lansing A
United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Denver B (Pier 2)
United Express operated by Shuttle America Chicago-O'Hare B (Pier 2)
United Express operated by SkyWest Airlines Cleveland B (Pier 1)
US Airways Boston, Charlotte, Fort Lauderdale, Hartford/Springfield, Jacksonville (FL), Las Vegas, Nassau, New York-LaGuardia, Orlando, Philadelphia, Phoenix, Providence, Tampa, West Palm Beach
Seasonal: Albany, Bermuda, Fort Myers, Syracuse
C
US Airways Express operated by Air Wisconsin Albany, Buffalo, Charleston (SC), Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Dayton, Detroit, Greensboro, Greenville/Spartanburg, Hartford/Springfield, Huntsville, Norfolk/Virginia Beach, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Providence, Raleigh/Durham, Rochester (NY), Syracuse, White Plains
Seasonal: Bangor, Halifax, Martha's Vineyard, Myrtle Beach, Nantucket, Savannah
C
US Airways Express operated by Chautauqua Airlines Columbia (SC), Columbus (OH), Greensboro, Indianapolis, Louisville, Norfolk/VirginiaBeach, Philadelphia, Providence, Raleigh/Durham C
US Airways Express operated by Colgan Air Charleston (WV) C
US Airways Express operated by Piedmont Airlines Buffalo, Norfolk/Virginia Beach, Philadelphia, Rochester (NY), White Plains
Seasonal: Hilton Head, Wilmington
C
US Airways Express operated by PSA Airlines Akron/Canton, Charlotte, Chattanooga, Dayton, Greensboro, Huntsville, Knoxville, Nashville, Philadelphia, White Plains
Seasonal: Myrtle Beach, Savannah
C
US Airways Express operated by Republic Airlines Albany, Buffalo, Burlington (VT), Charleston (SC), Charlotte, Columbus (OH), Dallas/Fort Worth, Hartford/Springfield, Huntsville, Indianapolis, Jacksonville (FL), Kansas City, Louisville, Manchester (NH), Nassau, New Orleans, Orlando, Philadelphia, Pittsburgh, Portland (ME), Providence, Sarasota/Bradenton, Syracuse, West Palm Beach C

Cargo Airlines

Airlines Destinations
FedEx Express Memphis, Nashville

Ground transportation

The airport is served by a Metro stop, and has shuttle buses connecting to Terminal A.

Rail

The Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport station on the Washington Metro is located on an elevated outdoor platform (with a canopy) connected to the concourse level of Terminals B and C, and offers service on the Yellow and Blue lines.

Bus

Metrobus provides service on weekend mornings before the Metrorail station opens.

Taxi

All taxicabs from DCA to either the District of Columbia or Virginia are metered.

Airport Shuttle

Door-to-door service is available from several providers.

Roads

Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport is located on the George Washington Memorial Parkway, and connected to U.S. Route 1 by the Airport Viaduct (State Route 233). Interstate 395 is just north of DCA, and is accessible by the G.W. Parkway and U.S. Route 1.[24]

Abingdon Plantation Historical Site

A part of the airport is located on the former site of the 18th and 19th century Abingdon plantation, which was associated with the prominent Alexander, Custis, Stuart, and Hunter families.[25] In 1998, MWAA opened a historical display around the restored remnants of two Abingdon buildings and placed artifacts collected from the site in an exhibit hall in Terminal A.[26][27] The Abingdon site is located on a knoll between parking Garage A and Garage B/C, near the south end of the Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport Metrorail station.[26][28][29][30]

Accidents

Air Florida Flight 90 wreckage being removed from the Potomac River (January 19, 1982).

Air Florida Flight 90

On the afternoon of January 13, 1982,[31] following a period of exceptionally cold weather and a morning of blizzard conditions, Air Florida Flight 90 crashed after waiting forty-nine minutes on a taxiway and taking off with ice and snow on the wings. The Boeing 737 aircraft failed to gain altitude. Less than 1 statute mile (1.6 km) from the end of the runway, the airplane struck the 14th Street Bridge complex, shearing the tops off vehicles stuck in traffic before plunging through the 1-inch-thick (25 mm) ice covering the Potomac River. Rescue responses were greatly hampered by the weather and traffic. Due to heroic action on the part of motorists, a United States Park Service police helicopter crew, and one of the plane's passengers who later perished, five occupants of the downed plane survived. The other 74 people who had been aboard died, as well as four occupants of vehicles on the bridge. President Reagan cited motorist Lenny Skutnik in his State of the Union Address later that year.

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ a b FAA Airport Master Record for DCA (Form 5010 PDF)
  2. ^ a b c "Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA) Air Traffic Statistics". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/1279.htm. Retrieved June 7, 2011. 
  3. ^ a b c d e "History". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/1277.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  4. ^ a b c Feaver, Douglas B. (July 16, 1997). "Years of Deal-Making Enabled Change From 'Disgrace' to Showplace". Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/airport/history.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  5. ^ "History of Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. 2011. http://www.metwashairports.com/2455.htm. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  6. ^ "Metropolitan Washington Airports Act of 1986", Public Law No. 99-500, Section 6001
  7. ^ METROPOLITAN WASHINGTON AIRPORTS AUTHORITY v. CITIZENS FOR THE ABATEMENT OF AIRCRAFT NOISE, INC., 501 U.S. 252 (1991).
  8. ^ This can be seen by Congress's continued use of legislation to control the amount of flights in and out of National Airport, as well as expanding the perimeter and number of exemptions for flights outside that limit.
  9. ^ "Public Law No. 105-154, "To rename the Washington National Airport located in the District of Columbia and Virginia as the `Ronald Reagan National Airport'"". January 27, 1998. http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d105:s.01575:. 
  10. ^ "It's Reagan Airport now". McCook Daily Gazette. Associated Press (Archived by Google News Archive). February 7, 1998. http://news.google.com/newspapers?id=K6cgAAAAIBAJ&sjid=6WgFAAAAIBAJ&pg=4387,3903666&dq=ronald+reagan+washington+national+airport+clinton&hl=en. 
  11. ^ Alvarez, Lizette (February 4, 1998). "G.O.P. Tries to Wrap Up an Airport for Reagan". http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9905E5DA163DF937A35751C0A96E958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=2. 
  12. ^ a b "Congress Votes for Reagan Airport". Washington Post: p. A01. February 5, 1998. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/local/longterm/library/airport/overview5.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  13. ^ "Security-Restricted Airspace". Federal Aviation Administration. December 13, 2005. http://www.faa.gov/news/fact_sheets/news_story.cfm?newsId=6297. Retrieved July 15, 2009. 
  14. ^ "Washington National Airport P56 Avoidance Procedures". Federal Aviation Administration. http://www.faa.gov/ats/dca/dcaweb/p56.htm. Retrieved 2009-12-24. 
  15. ^ a b "Secretary Mineta Announces Beginning of Security Screening Program; BWI First to Deploy Federal Screening Personnel". Transportation Security Administration. 2002-04-24. http://www.tsa.gov/press/releases/2002/press_release_0051.shtm. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  16. ^ "TSA Suspends 30-Minute Rule for Reagan National Airport". Transportation Security Administration. 2005-07-14. http://www.tsa.gov/press/releases/2005/press_release_0607.shtm. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  17. ^ "TSA Opens Ronald Reagan Washington Airport to General Aviation Operations". Transportation Security Administration. 2005-10-18. http://www.tsa.gov/press/releases/2005/press_release_0627.shtm. Retrieved 2007-03-26. 
  18. ^ "Restoration of General Aviation at Washington Reagan National Airport". Transportation Security Administration. http://www.tsa.gov/what_we_do/tsnm/general_aviation/dca_access.shtm. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 
  19. ^ ""Uncontrolled airport" situation at Washington National". eTurboNews. http://www.eturbonews.com/21941/air-traffic-controller-sleeping-planes-land-without-help. Retrieved 25 March 2011. 
  20. ^ "Aircraft Noise Procedures and Guidelines at Reagan National Airport". Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. http://www.mwaa.com/reagan/2544.htm. Retrieved February 21, 2010. 
  21. ^ Garrison, Kevin (1993). Congested Airspace: A Pilot's Guide (Command Decisions Ser.). Riverside, Conn: Belvoir Publications. p. 157. ISBN 1-879620-13-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=1wHJd7_3wqEC&q=%22River+Visual+approach%22&dq=%22River+Visual+approach%22. 
  22. ^ a b "Washington, DC: Ronald Reagan Washington National (DCA)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. http://www.transtats.bts.gov/airports.asp?pn=1&Airport=DCA. Retrieved 13 May 2011. 
  23. ^ Total cargo (Freight, Express, & Mail).
  24. ^ Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (2011). "Directions to Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport (DCA)". Reagan National Airport. http://mwaa.com/reagan/1281.htm. Retrieved 2011-10-21. 
  25. ^ Templeman, Eleanor Lee (1959). Arlington Heritage: Vignettes of a Virginia County. New York: Avenel Books, a division of Crown Publishers, Inc.. pp. 12–13. http://books.google.com/books?id=FBQ8AAAAMAAJ. 
  26. ^ a b Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority (November 12, 1998). "Historic Site At Airport Open to Travelers And Public". Archived from the original on 2008-11-20. http://replay.waybackmachine.org/20081120051853/http://www.metwashairports.com/news_publications/newsroom/press_releases/1998/historic_site_at_airport. Retrieved 2008-03-04. 
  27. ^ Sipress, Alan (1998-11-11). "At National Airport, A Historic Destination". The Washington Post (Washington, D.C.: The Washington Post Company): pp. B1, B7. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/washingtonpost/access/35869785.html?FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=Nov+11%2C+1998&author=Alan+Sipress&desc=At+National+Airport%2C+A+Historic+Destination%3B+On+Acre+Nestled+Between+Parking+Garages+Are+Restored+Ruins+of+Colonial+Plantation. 
  28. ^ "Parking Map". DCA Terminal Map. Metropolitan Washington Airports Authority. June 2011. http://www.metwashairports.com/image/dca_parking_map.jpg. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  29. ^ Cressey, Pamela J. (2002). Walk and Bike the Alexandria Heritage Trail: A Guide to Exploring a Virginia Town's Hidden Past. Capital Books. pp. 16–17. ISBN 1-892123-89-4. http://books.google.com/books?id=E--KzyINwCMC. Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  30. ^ Coordinates of Abingdon Plantation historical site: 38°51′4.8″N 77°2′40.2″W / 38.851333°N 77.0445°W / 38.851333; -77.0445 (Abingdon Plantation historical site)
  31. ^ "We're Going Down, Larry". Time 119 (007): 21. February 15, 1982. http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,925270,00.html. Retrieved 2011-03-24. 

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  • Ronald Reagan — (1983) Ronald Wilson Reagan [ˈreɪgən] (* 6. Februar …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Ronald Reagan (disambiguation) — Ronald Reagan may refer to one of two people:*Ronald Reagan, 40th President of the United States *Ron Reagan, also known as Ronald Prescott Reagan or Ron Reagan Jr. is the son of President Ronald ReaganIn addition two things named after the… …   Wikipedia

  • Ronald reagan (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Ronald Reagan peut fait référence à 2 personnes : Ronald Reagan, 40ème président des États Unis Ronald Prescott Reagan ou Ron Reagan Jr. , fils du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ronald Reagan (homonymie) — Cette page d’homonymie répertorie les différents sujets et articles partageant un même nom. Ronald Reagan peut fait référence à 2 personnes : Ronald Reagan, 40ème président des États Unis Ronald Prescott Reagan ou Ron Reagan Jr. , fils du… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Ronald Reagan Presidential Library — Infobox presidential library name =Ronald Reagan Presidential Library caption = location = Simi Valley, California, USA construction start date =November 21, 1988 completion date = dedication date = November 4, 1991 named for =Ronald Reagan… …   Wikipedia

  • Flughafen Washington-Ronald-Reagan-National — Ronald Reagan Washington National Airport …   Deutsch Wikipedia