Airbus A380

Airbus A380
A Singapore Airlines A380 takes off at Zürich Airport.
Role Wide-body, double-deck jet airliner
National origin Multi-national
Manufacturer Airbus
First flight 27 April 2005
Introduction 25 October 2007 with Singapore Airlines
Status In production, in service
Primary users Emirates
Singapore Airlines
Produced 2004–present
Number built 78 as of 20 October 2011 (2011 -10-20)[1]
Unit cost US$375.3 million[2] (approx. €260 million or £229 million)

The Airbus A380 is a double-deck, wide-body, four-engine jet airliner manufactured by the European corporation Airbus, a subsidiary of EADS. It is the largest passenger airliner in the world. Due to its size, many airports had to modify and improve facilities to accommodate it. Designed to challenge Boeing's monopoly in the large-aircraft market, the A380 made its maiden flight on 27 April 2005 and entered commercial service in October 2007 with Singapore Airlines. The aircraft was known as the Airbus A3XX during much of its development, before receiving the A380 designation. The nickname Superjumbo has since become associated with it.

The A380's upper deck extends along the entire length of the fuselage, and its width is equivalent to that of a widebody aircraft. This allows for an A380-800's cabin with 478 square metres (5,145.1 sq ft) of floor space; 49% more floor space than the current next-largest airliner, the Boeing 747-400 with 321 square metres (3,455.2 sq ft), and provides seating for 525 people in a typical three-class configuration or up to 853 people in all-economy class configurations. The A380-800 has a design range of 15,400 kilometres (8,300 nmi; 9,600 mi), sufficient to fly from New York to Hong Kong for example, and a cruising speed of Mach 0.85 (about 900 km/h or 560 mph at cruising altitude).

As of November 2011 there had been 238 firm orders for the A380, of which 60 have been delivered.[3] The largest order, for 90 aircraft, was from Emirates.




In the summer of 1988, a group of Airbus engineers led by Jean Roeder began work in secret on the development of an ultra-high-capacity airliner (UHCA), both to complete its own range of products and to break the dominance that Boeing had enjoyed in this market segment since the early 1970s with its 747.[4] McDonnell Douglas unsuccessfully offered its smaller, double-deck MD-12 concept for sale.[5][6] Roeder was given approval for further evaluations of the UHCA after a formal presentation to the President and CEO in June 1990. The megaproject was announced at the 1990 Farnborough Air Show, with the stated goal of 15% lower operating costs than the 747-400.[7] Airbus organised four teams of designers, one from each of its partners (Aérospatiale, Deutsche Aerospace AG, British Aerospace, CASA) to propose new technologies for its future aircraft designs. The designs would be presented in 1992 and the most competitive designs would be used.[8]

In January 1993, Boeing and several companies in the Airbus consortium started a joint feasibility study of an aircraft known as the Very Large Commercial Transport (VLCT), aiming to form a partnership to share the limited market.[9][10] This joint study was abandoned two years later, Boeing's interest having declined because analysts thought that such a product was unlikely to cover the $15-billion in development costs. Despite the fact that only two airlines had expressed public interest in purchasing such a plane, Airbus was already pursuing its own large plane project. Analysts suggested that Boeing instead would pursue stretching their 747 design, and that air travel was already moving away from the hub and spoke system that consolidated traffic into large planes, and toward more non-stop routes that could be served by smaller planes.[11]

The first completed A380 at the "A380 Reveal" event held in Toulouse, France, 18 January 2005

In June 1994, Airbus began developing its own very large airliner, designated the A3XX.[12][13] Airbus considered several designs, including an odd side-by-side combination of two fuselages from the A340, which was Airbus’s largest jet at the time.[14] The A3XX was pitted against the VLCT study and Boeing’s own New Large Aircraft successor to the 747.[15][16] From 1997 to 2000, as the East Asian financial crisis darkened the market outlook, Airbus refined its design, targeting a 15 to 20% reduction in operating costs over the existing Boeing 747–400. The A3XX design converged on a double-decker layout that provided more passenger volume than a traditional single-deck design,[17][18] in line with traditional hub-and-spoke theory as opposed to the point-to-point theory of the Boeing 777,[19] after conducting an extensive market analysis with over 200 focus groups.[20][21]

On 19 December 2000, the supervisory board of newly restructured Airbus voted to launch a €8.8-billion programme to build the A3XX, re-christened as the A380,[22][23] with 50 firm orders from six launch customers.[24][25] The A380 designation was a break from previous Airbus families, which had progressed sequentially from A300 to A340. It was chosen because the number 8 resembles the double-deck cross section, and is a lucky number in some Asian countries where the aircraft was being marketed.[14] The aircraft’s configuration was finalised in early 2001, and manufacturing of the first A380 wing box component started on 23 January 2002. The development cost of the A380 had grown to €11 billion when the first aircraft was completed.[10]


Diagram showing flow of aircraft part in western Europe. Land is white, with the sea being pale blue
Geographical logistics sequence for the A380, with final assembly in Toulouse

Major structural sections of the A380 are built in France, Germany, Spain, and the United Kingdom. Due to their size, they are brought to the assembly hall (the Jean-Luc Lagardère Plant) in Toulouse in France by surface transportation, though some parts are moved by the A300-600ST Beluga aircraft used in the construction of other Airbus models.[26] Components of the A380 are provided by suppliers from around the world; the five largest contributors, by value, are Rolls-Royce, Safran, United Technologies, General Electric and Goodrich.[20]

Transporting A380 components from the port of Bordeaux.

For the surface movement of large A380 structural components, a complex route known as the Itinéraire à Grand Gabarit was developed. This involved the construction of a fleet of roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships and barges, the construction of port facilities and the development of new and modified roads to accommodate oversized road convoys.[27] The front and rear sections of the fuselage are loaded onto one of three roll-on/roll-off (RORO) ships in Hamburg in northern Germany, from where they are shipped to the United Kingdom.[28]

The wings, which are manufactured at Filton in Bristol and Broughton in North Wales, are transported by barge to Mostyn docks, where the ship adds them to its cargo.[29] In Saint-Nazaire in western France, the ship trades the fuselage sections from Hamburg for larger, assembled sections, some of which include the nose. The ship unloads in Bordeaux. Afterwards, the ship picks up the belly and tail sections by Construcciones Aeronáuticas SA in Cádiz in southern Spain, and delivers them to Bordeaux. From there, the A380 parts are transported by barge to Langon, and by oversize road convoys to the assembly hall in Toulouse.[30]

After assembly, the aircraft are flown to Hamburg Finkenwerder Airport (XFW) to be furnished and painted. It takes 3,600 L (950 US gal) of paint to cover the 3,100 m2 (33,000 sq ft) exterior of an A380.[31] Airbus sized the production facilities and supply chain for a production rate of four A380s per month.[29]


A380 MSN001 about to land after its maiden flight

Five A380s were built for testing and demonstration purposes.[32] The first A380, serial number MSN001 and registration F-WWOW, was unveiled at a ceremony in Toulouse on 18 January 2005.[33] Its maiden flight took place at 8:29 UTC (10:29 am local time) 27 April 2005.[34] This plane, equipped with Trent 900 engines, flew from Toulouse Blagnac International Airport with a crew of six headed by chief test pilot Jacques Rosay. After landing three hours and 54 minutes later, Rosay said flying the A380 had been “like handling a bicycle”.[35]

On 1 December 2005 the A380 achieved its maximum design speed of Mach 0.96 (versus typical cruising speed of Mach 0.85), in a shallow dive, completing the opening of the flight envelope.[32] In 2006, the A380 flew its first high-altitude test at Bole International Airport, Addis Ababa. It conducted its second high-altitude test at the same airport in 2009.[36] It arrived in North America on 6 February 2006, landing in Iqaluit, Nunavut in Canada for cold-weather testing.[37]

Flight test engineer's station on the lower deck of A380 F-WWOW

On 14 February 2006, during the destructive wing strength certification test on MSN5000, the test wing of the A380 failed at 145% of the limit load, short of the 150% necessary to meet the certification. Airbus announced modifications adding 30 kg to the wing to provide the required strength.[38] On 26 March 2006 the A380 underwent evacuation certification in Hamburg. With 8 of the 16 exits blocked, 853 passengers and 20 crew left the aircraft in 78 seconds, less than the 90 seconds required by certification standards.[39] Three days later, the A380 received European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) and United States Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) approval to carry up to 853 passengers.[40]

The maiden flight of the first A380 using GP7200 engines—serial number MSN009 and registration F-WWEA—took place on 25 August 2006.[41][42] On 4 September 2006, the first full passenger-carrying flight test took place.[43] The aircraft flew from Toulouse with 474 Airbus employees on board, in the first of a series of flights to test passenger facilities and comfort.[43] In November 2006 a further series of route proving flights took place to demonstrate the aircraft's performance for 150 flight hours under typical airline operating conditions.[44]

Airbus obtained type certificates for the A380-841 and A380-842 model from the EASA and FAA on 12 December 2006 in a joint ceremony at the company's French headquarters.[45][46] The A380-861 model obtained its type certificate on 14 December 2007.[46]

Production and delivery delays

Initial production of the A380 was troubled by delays attributed to the 530 km (330 mi) of wiring in each aircraft. Airbus cited as underlying causes the complexity of the cabin wiring (100,000 wires and 40,300 connectors), its concurrent design and production, the high degree of customisation for each airline, and failures of configuration management and change control.[47][48] Specifically, it would appear that German and Spanish Airbus facilities continued to use CATIA version 4, while British and French sites migrated to version 5.[49] This caused overall configuration management problems, at least in part because wiring harnesses manufactured using aluminium rather than copper conductors necessitated special design rules including non-standard dimensions and bend radii; these were not easily transferred between versions of the software.[50]

A380 in original Airbus livery

Airbus announced the first delay in June 2005 and notified airlines that deliveries would be delayed by six months.[49] This reduced the total number of planned deliveries by the end of 2009 from about 120 to 90–100. On 13 June 2006, Airbus announced a second delay, with the delivery schedule undergoing an additional shift of six to seven months.[51] Although the first delivery was still planned before the end of 2006, deliveries in 2007 would drop to only 9 aircraft, and deliveries by the end of 2009 would be cut to 70–80 aircraft. The announcement caused a 26% drop in the share price of Airbus's parent, EADS,[52] and led to the departure of EADS CEO Noël Forgeard, Airbus CEO Gustav Humbert, and A380 programme manager Charles Champion.[49][53] On 3 October 2006, upon completion of a review of the A380 program, the CEO of Airbus, Christian Streiff, announced a third delay,[49] pushing the first delivery to October 2007, to be followed by 13 deliveries in 2008, 25 in 2009, and the full production rate of 45 aircraft per year in 2010.[54] The delay also increased the earnings shortfall projected by Airbus through 2010 to €4.8 billion.[49][55]

As Airbus prioritised the work on the A380-800 over the A380-800F,[56] freighter orders were cancelled by FedEx[57][58] and UPS,[59] or converted to A380-800 by Emirates and ILFC.[60] Airbus suspended work on the freighter version, but said it remained on offer,[61] albeit without a service entry date.[62] For the passenger version Airbus negotiated a revised delivery schedule and compensation with the 13 customers, all of which retained their orders with some placing subsequent orders, including Emirates,[63] Singapore Airlines,[64] Qantas,[65] Air France,[66] Qatar Airways,[67] and Korean Air.[68]

On 13 May 2008 Airbus announced reduced deliveries for the years 2008 (12) and 2009 (21).[69] After further manufacturing setbacks, Airbus reduced plans to deliver 14 A380s in 2009, down from the previously revised target of 18.[70] A total of 10 A380s were delivered in 2009.[71] In 2010 Airbus delivered only 18 of the expected 20 A380s, due to Rolls-Royce engine availability problems.[72] Airbus plans to deliver "between 20 and 25" A380s in 2011 before ramping up to three a month in 2012.[72]

Entry into service

A Singapore Airlines A380 lines up for take-off at Zürich Airport

The first aircraft, MSN003, (registered as 9V-SKA) was delivered to Singapore Airlines on 15 October 2007 and entered service on 25 October 2007 with flight number SQ380 between Singapore and Sydney.[10][73] Passengers bought seats in a charity online auction paying between $560 and $100,380.[74] Two months later, Singapore Airlines CEO Chew Choong Seng said that the A380 was performing better than both the airline and Airbus had anticipated, burning 20% less fuel per passenger than the airline's existing 747–400 fleet.[75]

Emirates was the second airline to receive the A380 and commenced services between Dubai and New York in August 2008.[76][77] Qantas followed on 19 September 2008, starting flights between Melbourne and Los Angeles in October 2008.[78] By the end of 2008, 890,000 passengers had flown on 2,200 flights totalling 21,000 hours.[79]

In February 2009, the one millionth passenger was flown with Singapore Airlines[80] and by May 2009 1,500,000 passengers had flown on 4,200 flights totalling 41,000 hours.[81] Air France received their first A380 in October 2009.[82][83]

Lufthansa received its first A380 in May 2010.[84] By July 2010, the 31 A380s then in service had transported 6 million passengers on 17,000 flights totalling over 156,000 hours between 20 international destinations.[85]

Korean Air received its first A380, becoming the sixth airline to fly it, and began services in June 2011.[86] By June 2011 over 12 million passengers had flown on 33,000 flights totalling almost 300,000 hours.[87]

China Southern became the seventh airline to operate the aircraft, and the first to use it on scheduled routes in China, commencing operation between Beijing, Guangzhou and Shanghai on 17 October 2011.[88] By late October 2011, A380s have flown some 16 million passengers.[89]



The A380 cabin cross section, showing economy class seating

The new Airbus was initially offered in two models. The A380-800 original configuration carried 555 passengers in a three-class configuration[90] or 853 passengers (538 on the main deck and 315 on the upper deck) in a single-class economy configuration. In May 2007 Airbus began marketing a configuration with 30 fewer passengers, now 525 passengers in three classes, traded for 370 km (200 nmi) more range, to better reflect trends in premium class accommodation.[91] The design range for the −800 model is 15,400 km (8,300 nmi);[92] capable of flying for example from Hong Kong to New York, or from Sydney to Istanbul non-stop. The second model, the A380-800F freighter, would carry 150 tonnes of cargo 10,400 km (5,600 nmi).[93] The −800F development was put on hold as Airbus prioritised the passenger version and all cargo orders were cancelled. Future variants may include an A380-900 stretch seating about 656 passengers (or up to 960 passengers in an all economy configuration) and an extended range version with the same passenger capacity as the A380-800.[14]

The lack of engine noise—it's 50% quieter than a 747–400 on takeoff—was downright eerie. The A380 is so big it's difficult to sense its speed, and its upper deck is so far away from the engines the noise dissipates.


The A380's wing is sized for a maximum take-off weight (MTOW) over 650 tonnes in order to accommodate these future versions, albeit with some strengthening required.[14][95] The stronger wing (and structure) will be used on the A380-800F freighter. This common design approach sacrifices some fuel efficiency on the A380-800 passenger model, but Airbus estimates that the size of the aircraft, coupled with the advances in technology described below, will provide lower operating costs per passenger than the 747-400 and older 747 variants. The A380 also features wingtip fences similar to those found on the A310 and A320 to alleviate the effects of induced drag, increasing fuel efficiency and performance.[96]


A Rolls-Royce Trent 900 engine on the wing of an Airbus A380

The A380 can be fitted with two types of turbofan engines: either the Rolls-Royce Trent 900 (variants A380-841, −842 and −843F) or with the Engine Alliance GP7000 (A380-861 and −863F). The Trent 900 is a derivative of the Trent 800, and the GP7000 has roots from the GE90 and PW4000. The Trent 900 core is a scaled version of the Trent 500, but incorporates the swept fan technology of the stillborn Trent 8104.[97] The GP7200 has a GE90-derived core and PW4090-derived fan and low-pressure turbo-machinery.[98] Noise reduction was an important requirement in the A380's design, and particularly affects engine design.[99][100] Both engine types allow the aircraft to achieve QC/2 departure and QC/0.5 arrival noise limits under the Quota Count system set by London Heathrow Airport,[101] which is a key destination for the A380.[14]

The A380 was initially planned without thrust reversers, being designed to have enough braking capacity to do without them.[102] However Airbus elected to fit the two inboard engines with thrust reversers in a late stage of development.[103][104] The two outboard engines do not have reversers, reducing the amount of debris stirred up during landing. The A380 has electrically actuated thrust reversers, giving them better reliability than their pneumatic or hydraulic equivalents, in addition to saving weight.[105]

The A380 was used to demonstrate the viability of a synthetic fuel comprising standard jet fuel with a natural-gas-derived component. On 1 February 2008, a three hour test flight operated between Britain and France, with one of the A380's four engines using a mix of 60% standard jet kerosene and 40% gas to liquids (GTL) fuel supplied by Shell.[106] The aircraft needed no modification to use the GTL fuel, which was designed to be mixed with normal jet fuel. Sebastien Remy, head of Airbus SAS's alternative fuel programme, said the GTL used was no cleaner in CO2 terms than standard fuel but it had local air quality benefits because it contains no sulphur.[107]

A planform view of an Airbus A380 belonging to Singapore Airlines

Advanced materials

While most of the fuselage is aluminium, composite materials comprise more than 20% of the A380's airframe.[108] Carbon-fibre reinforced plastic, glass-fibre reinforced plastic and quartz-fibre reinforced plastic are used extensively in wings, fuselage sections (such as the undercarriage and rear end of fuselage), tail surfaces, and doors.[109][110][111] The A380 is the first commercial airliner to have a central wing box made of carbon fibre reinforced plastic. It is also the first to have a smoothly contoured wing cross section. The wings of other commercial airliners are partitioned span-wise into sections. This flowing, continuous cross section optimises aerodynamic efficiency. Thermoplastics are used in the leading edges of the slats.[112] The new material GLARE (GLAss-REinforced fibre metal laminate) is used in the upper fuselage and on the stabilisers' leading edges.[113] This aluminium-glass-fibre laminate is lighter and has better corrosion and impact resistance than conventional aluminium alloys used in aviation.[114] Unlike earlier composite materials, it can be repaired using conventional aluminium repair techniques.[115] Newer weldable aluminium alloys are also used. This enables the widespread use of laser beam welding manufacturing techniques — eliminating rows of rivets and resulting in a lighter, stronger structure.[116]


The A380 employs an Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) architecture, first used in advanced military aircraft, such as the F-22 Raptor, F-35,[117] and Dassault Rafale.[118] The main IMA systems on the A380 were developed by Thales Group.[119] Designed and developed by Airbus, Thales and Diehl Aerospace, the IMA suite is first used on the A380. The suite is a technological innovation, with networked computing modules to support different applications.[119] The data communication networks use Avionics Full-Duplex Switched Ethernet, following the ARINC 664 standard. The data networks are switched, full-duplex, star-topology and based on 100baseTX fast-Ethernet.[120] This reduces the amount of wiring required and minimises latency.[121]

Port view of front fuselage of aircraft with staircase.
Front fuselage view of A380

Airbus used similar cockpit layout, procedures and handling characteristics to other Airbus aircraft, reducing crew training costs. The A380 has an improved glass cockpit, using fly-by-wire flight controls linked to side-sticks.[122][123] The cockpit displays feature eight 15-by-20 cm (5.9-by-7.9 in) liquid crystal displays, all of which are physically identical and interchangeable; comprising two Primary Flight Displays, two navigation displays, one engine parameter display, one system display and two Multi-Function Displays. The MFDs were introduced on the A380 to provide an easy-to-use interface to the flight management system—replacing three multifunction control and display units.[124] They include QWERTY keyboards and trackballs, interfacing with a graphical "point-and-click" display system.[125][126]

The Network Systems Server (NSS) is the heart of A380's paperless cockpit; it eliminates bulky manuals and charts traditionally used.[127][128] The NSS has enough inbuilt robustness to eliminate onboard backup paper documents. The A380's network and server system stores data and offers electronic documentation, providing a required equipment list, navigation charts, performance calculations, and an aircraft logbook. This is accessed through the MFDs and controlled via the keyboard interface.[121]

A380 flight deck

Power-by-wire flight control actuators have been used for the first time in civil aviation to back up primary hydraulic actuators. Also, during certain manoeuvres they augment the primary actuators.[129] They have self-contained hydraulic and electrical power supplies. Electro-hydrostatic actuators (EHA) are used in the aileron and elevator, electric and hydraulic motors to drive the slats as well as electrical backup hydrostatic actuators (EBHA) for the rudder and some spoilers.[130]

The A-380's 350 bar (35 MPa or 5,000 psi) hydraulic system is a significant difference from the typical 210 bar (21 MPa or 3,000 psi) hydaulics used on most commercial aircraft since the 1940s.[131][132] First used in military aircraft, higher pressure hydraulics reduce the weight and size of pipelines, actuators and related components. The 350 bar pressure is generated by eight de-clutchable hydraulic pumps.[132][133] Pipelines are typically made from titanium; the system features both fuel- and air-cooled heat exchangers. Self-contained electrically powered hydraulic power packs serve as backups for the primary systems, instead of a secondary hydraulic system, saving weight and reducing maintenance.[134]

The A380 uses four 150 kVA variable-frequency electrical generators,[135] eliminating constant speed drives and improving reliability.[136] The A380 uses aluminium power cables instead of copper for weight reduction. The electrical power system is fully computerised and many contactors and breakers have been replaced by solid-state devices for better performance and increased reliability.[130]

Passenger provisions

Business class on the upper deck of an Emirates A380.

The cabin has features to reduce traveller fatigue such as a quieter interior and higher pressurisation than previous aircraft; the A380 has 50% less cabin noise than the 747-400 and is pressurised to the equivalent of 1,520 m (5,000 ft) altitude versus 2,440 m (8,000 ft) on the 747-400.[137][138] The A380 has 50% more cabin area and volume, larger windows, bigger overhead bins, and 60 cm (2.0 ft) extra headroom versus the 747-400.[139] Seating options range from 4-abreast in first class up to 11-across in economy.[140][141] On other aircraft, economy seats range from 41.5 cm (16.3 in) to 52.3 cm (20.6 in) in width,[142] A380 economy seats are up to 48 cm (19 in) wide in a 10-abreast configuration;[143] compared with the 10-abreast configuration on the 747-400 which typically has seats 44.5 cm (17.5 in) wide.[144]

Economy class on the main deck of an Air France A380

The A380's upper and lower decks are connected by two stairways, fore and aft, wide enough to accommodate two passengers side-by-side; this cabin arrangement allows multiple seat configurations. The maximum certified carrying capacity is 853 passengers in an all-economy-class layout,[39] Airbus lists the typical three-class layout as accommodating 525 passengers, with 10 first, 76 business, and 439 economy class seats.[91] Airline configurations range from Korean Air's 407 passengers to Air Austral's 840 passengers.[145][146] The A380's illumination system uses bulbless LEDs in the cabin, cockpit, and cargo decks. The LEDs in the cabin can be altered to create an ambience simulating daylight, night, or levels in between.[147] On the outside of the aircraft, HID lighting is used for brighter illumination.

Airbus's publicity has stressed the comfort and space of the A380's cabin,[148] and advertised onboard relaxation areas such as bars, beauty salons, duty-free shops, and restaurants.[149][150] Proposed amenities resembled those installed on earlier airliners, particularly 1970s wide-body jets,[151] which largely gave way to regular seats for more passenger capacity.[151] Airbus has acknowledged that some cabin proposals were unlikely to be installed,[150] and that it was ultimately the airlines' decision how to configure the interior.[151] Industry analysts suggested that implementing customisation has slowed the production speeds, and raised costs.[152] Due to delivery delays, Singapore Airlines and Air France debuted their seat designs on different aircraft prior to the A380.[153][154]

Bar on board an Emirates A380.

Initial operators typically configured their A380s for three-class service, while adding extra features for passengers in premium cabins. Launch customer Singapore Airlines debuted partly-enclosed first class suites on its A380s in 2007, each featuring a leather seat with a separate bed; center suites could be joined to create a double bed.[155][156] A year later, Qantas debuted a new first class seat-bed and a sofa lounge at the front of the upper deck on its A380s.[157][158] In late 2008, Emirates introduced "shower spas" in first class on its A380s,[159] along with a bar lounge and seating area on the upper deck,[160][161] and in 2009 Air France unveiled an upper deck electronic art gallery.[140] In addition to lounge areas, some A380 operators have installed amenities consistent with other aircraft in their respective fleets, including self-serve snack bars,[162] premium economy sections,[154] and redesigned business class seating.[153]

Integration with infrastructure and regulations

Ground operations

An A380 served by three separate jetways at Frankfurt Airport in 2007: two for the main deck and one for the upper deck.

In the 1990s, aircraft manufacturers were planning to introduce larger planes than the Boeing 747. In a common effort of the International Civil Aviation Organization, ICAO, with manufacturers, airports and its member agencies, the "80-metre box" was created, the airport gates allowing planes up to 80 m (260 ft) wingspan and length to be accommodated.[163] Airbus designed the A380 according to these guidelines,[164][165] and to operate safely on Group V runways and taxiways, and while the U.S. FAA opposed this at an early stage,[166][167] in July 2007, the FAA and EASA agreed to let the A380 operate on 45 m runways without restrictions.[168] The A380-800 is approximately 30% larger in overall size than the 747-400,[169][170] and can land or take off on any runway that can accommodate a 747. Runway lighting and signage may need changes to provide clearance to the wings and avoid blast damage from the engines and taxiway shoulders may be required to be stabilised to reduce the likelihood of foreign object damage caused to (or by) the outboard engines, which overhang more than 25 m (82 ft) from the centre line of the aircraft.[171]

The A380's 20-wheel main landing gear

Airbus measured pavement loads using a 540-tonne (595 short tons) ballasted test rig, designed to replicate the landing gear of the A380. The rig was towed over a section of pavement at Airbus' facilities that had been instrumented with embedded load sensors.[172] It was determined that the pavement of most runways will not need to be reinforced despite the higher weight,[171] as it is distributed on more wheels than in other passenger aircraft with a total of 22 wheels.[173] The A380 landing gear is in a similar layout as the 747, except for four more wheels via the incorporation of six wheels on each main body gear.[173]

The A380 requires service vehicles with lifts capable of reaching the upper deck,[174] as well as tractors capable of handling the A380's maximum ramp weight.[175] Using two jetway bridges the boarding time is 45 min, using an extra jetway to the upper deck it is reduced to 34 min.[176] The A380 test aircraft have participated in a campaign of airport compatibility testing to verify the modifications already made at several large airports, visiting a number of airports around the world.[177]

Takeoff and landing separation

A video of an A380 taxiing

In 2005, the ICAO recommended that provisional separation criteria for the A380 on takeoff and landing be substantially greater than for the 747 because preliminary flight test data suggested a stronger wake turbulence.[178][179] These criteria were in effect while the ICAO's wake vortex steering group, with representatives from the JAA, Eurocontrol, the FAA, and Airbus, refined its 3-year study of the issue with additional flight testing. In September 2006, the working group presented its first conclusions to the ICAO.[180][181]

In November 2006, the ICAO issued new interim recommendations. Replacing a blanket 10 nautical miles (19 km) separation for aircraft trailing an A380 during approach, the new distances were 6 nmi (11 km), 8 nmi (15 km) and 10 nmi (19 km) respectively for non-A380 "Heavy", "Medium", and "Light" ICAO aircraft categories. These compared with the 4 nmi (7.4 km), 5 nmi (9.3 km) and 6 nmi (11 km) spacing applicable to other "Heavy" aircraft. Another A380 following an A380 should maintain a separation of 4 nmi (7.4 km). On departure behind an A380, non-A380 "Heavy" aircraft are required to wait two minutes, and "Medium"/"Light" aircraft three minutes for time based operations. The ICAO also recommends that pilots append the term "Super" to the aircraft's callsign when initiating communication with air traffic control, in order to distinguish the A380 from "Heavy" aircraft.[182]

In August 2008, the ICAO issued revised approach separations of 4 nmi (7.4 km) for Super (another A380), 6 nmi (11 km) for Heavy, 7 nmi (13 km) for medium/small, and 8 nmi (15 km) for light.[183]

Future variants

Improved A380-800

Mostly-white jet airliner landing with undercarriage extended, against cloudless blue sky. Under each of the wings are two engines.
Emirates, the largest A380 customer, has ordered a higher weight A380-800 variant.

From 2013, Airbus will introduce a new A380 build standard incorporating a strengthened airframe structure and a 1.5° increase in wing twist. Airbus will also offer, as an option, an improved maximum take-off weight, thus providing a better payload/range performance. Maximum take-off weight is increased by 4 t (8,800 lb), to 573 t (1,260,000 lb) and an additional 190 km (100 nmi) in range. This is achieved by reducing flight loads, partly from optimising the fly-by-wire control laws.[184] British Airways and Emirates will be the first customers to receive this new option.[185] Vietnam Airlines has shown interest in the higher-weight variant.[186]


In November 2007, Airbus top sales executive and chief operating officer John Leahy confirmed plans for an enlarged variant, the A380-900, which would be slightly longer than the A380-800 (79.4–73 m or 260–240 ft).[187] This version would have a seating capacity of 650 passengers in standard configuration, and approximately 900 passengers in economy-only configuration. In May 2010, Airbus announced that A380-900 development was postponed, until production of the A380-800 has stabilised.[188] Airlines that have expressed interest in the model include Emirates,[189] Virgin Atlantic,[190] Cathay Pacific,[191] Air France-KLM, Lufthansa,[192] Kingfisher Airlines,[193] as well as the leasing company ILFC.[194]

A380-800 freighter

Airbus originally accepted orders for the freighter version, offering the second largest payload capacity of any cargo aircraft, exceeded only by the Antonov An-225.[195] However, production has been suspended until the A380 production lines have settled with no firm availability date.[56][57][58]


Prototype at the 2005 Paris Air Show

In 2006, industry analysts Philip Lawrence of the Aerospace Research Centre in Bristol and Richard Aboulafia of the consulting Teal Group in Fairfax anticipated 880 and 400 A380 sales respectively by 2025.[20] According to Lawrence, parallel to the design of the A380, Airbus conducted the most extensive and thorough market analysis of commercial aviation ever undertaken, justifying its VLA (very large aircraft, those with more than 400 seats) plans,[20] while according to Aboulafia, the rise of mid-size aircraft and market fragmentation reduced VLAs to niche market status, making such plans unjustified.[20] The two analysts' market forecasts differed in the incorporation of spoke-hub and point-to-point models.[20]

In 2007, Airbus estimated a demand for 1,283 passenger planes in the VLA category for the next 20 years if airport congestion remains at the current level. According to this estimate, demand could reach up to 1,771 VLAs if congestion increases. Most of this demand will be due to the urbanisation and rapid economic growth in Asia.[196] The A380 will be used on relatively few routes, between the most saturated airports. Airbus also estimates a demand for 415 freighters in the category 120-tonne plus. Boeing, which offers the only competition in that class, the 747-8, estimates the demand for passenger VLAs at 590 and that for freighter VLAs at 370 for the period 2007–2026.[197]

At one time the A380 was considered as a potential replacement for the existing Boeing VC-25 serving as Air Force One,[198][199] but in January 2009 EADS declared that they were not going to bid for the contract, as assembling only three planes in the US would not make financial sense.[200]

As of February 2011 there were 244 orders for the A380-800. The break-even for the A380 was initially supposed to be reached at 270 units, but due to the delays and the falling exchange rate of the US dollar, it increased to 420 units.[47] In 2010, EADS CFO Hans Peter Ring said that break-even (on the aircraft that are delivered) could be achieved by 2015, despite the delays; there should be around 200 deliveries by that time, on current projections.[201] As of March 2010 the average list price of an A380 was US$ 375.3 million (about €261 million or £229 million), depending on equipment installed.[202]

Orders and deliveries

Airbus A380 firm net orders and deliveries
(cumulative by year)

Eighteen customers have ordered the A380, including one VIP order by Airbus Executive and Private Aviation.[203] Total orders for the A380 stand at 238 as of 31 October 2011.[204] The biggest customer is Emirates, which in June 2010 increased its order by 32 aircraft to 90 total, or nearly 40% of all A380 orders at the time.[204][205] A total of 27 orders originally placed for the freighter version, A380-800F, were either cancelled (20) or converted to A380-800 (7), following the production delay and the subsequent suspension of the freighter programme.

Delivery takes place in Hamburg for customers from Europe and the Middle East and in Toulouse for customers from the rest of the world.[206]

A380 firm net orders, by year[207]
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 Total
Orders A380-800 78 0 34 10 10 24 33 9 4 32[208] 9[209][210][211] 243[204]
A380-800F 7 10 0 0 10 −17 −10 0 0 0 0 0
Deliveries A380-800 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 12 10 18[212] 19 60

Commercial operators

Emirates is currently the largest operator of the A380 with 16 in service of its 90 on order, itself the largest amount of any carrier.[citation needed] The shortest route that the A380 flies regularly is from Seoul Incheon to Tokyo Narita with Korean Air, although Air France has also operated the A380 on the even shorter Paris to London route in mid-2010.[213]

Airline First commercial flight
Singapore Singapore Airlines 2007102525 October 2007[73]
United Arab Emirates Emirates 200808011 August 2008[77]
Australia Qantas 2008102020 October 2008[78]
France Air France 2009112020 November 2009[214]
Germany Lufthansa 201006066 June 2010[215]
South Korea Korean Air 2011061717 June 2011[216]
China China Southern Airlines 2011101717 October 2011[217][218]

Incidents and accidents

The A380 has been involved in one aviation incident as of 3 August 2011 (2011 -08-03).[219][220]

  • On 4 November 2010, Qantas Flight 32, en route from Singapore Changi Airport to Sydney Airport, suffered an uncontained engine failure, resulting in a series of related problems, and forcing the flight to return to Singapore. There were no injuries to the passengers, crew or people on the ground despite debris falling onto the Indonesian island of Batam.[221] Qantas subsequently grounded all of its A380s that day subject to an internal investigation taken in conjunction with the engine manufacturer Rolls-Royce plc. Other operators of Rolls-Royce-powered A380s were also affected. Investigators later determined the cause of the explosion to be an oil leak in the Trent 900 engine.[222]


Comparison between four of the largest aircraft, the Hughes H-4 Hercules (gold), the Antonov An-225 (green), the Airbus A380-800 (pink), and the Boeing 747-8 (blue).
Layout of A380-800, 519 seats total
Measurement A380-800 A380-800F
Cockpit crew Two
Seating capacity 525 (3-class)[92]
644 (2-class)
853 (1-class)
12 couriers
Length overall 72.73 m (238.6 ft)[223]
Wingspan 79.75 m (261.6 ft)[224]
Height 24.45 m (80.2 ft)[223]
Wheelbase 33.58 m (110.2 ft) wing landing gear
36.85 m (120.9 ft) body landing gear[223]
Wheel track 12.46 m (40.9 ft)[223]
Outside fuselage width 7.14 m (23.4 ft)
Outside fuselage height 8.41 m (27.6 ft)
Maximum cabin width 6.58 m (21.6 ft) Main deck
5.92 m (19.4 ft) Upper deck (floor level)
Cabin length 49.9 m (164 ft) Main deck
44.93 m (147.4 ft) Upper deck
Wing area 845 m2 (9,100 sq ft)
Aspect ratio 7.5
Wing sweep 33.5°
Maximum taxi/ramp weight 571,000 kg (1,260,000 lb) 592,000 kg (1,310,000 lb)
Maximum take-off weight 569,000 kg (1,250,000 lb) 590,000 kg (1,300,000 lb)
Maximum landing weight 391,000 kg (860,000 lb) 427,000 kg (940,000 lb)
Maximum zero fuel weight 366,000 kg (810,000 lb) 402,000 kg (890,000 lb)
Typical Operating empty weight 276,800 kg (610,000 lb) 252,200 kg (556,000 lb)
Maximum structural payload 89,200 kg (197,000 lb) 149,800 kg (330,000 lb)
Maximum cargo volume 176 m3 (6,200 cu ft)[225] 1,134 m3 (40,000 cu ft)[226]
Maximum operating speed
at cruise altitude
Mach 0.89[92]
(945 km/h, 587 mph, 510 knots)
Maximum design speed
in dive at cruise altitude
Mach 0.96[227]
(at cruise altitude: 1020 km/h, 634 mph, 551 knots)
Take off run at MTOW/SL ISA 2,750 m (9,020 ft)[164] 2,900 m (9,500 ft)[164]
Range at design load 15,400 km (8,300 nmi, 9,500 mi)[92] 10,400 km (5,600 nmi, 6,400 mi)
Service ceiling 13,115 m (43,028 ft)[228]
Maximum fuel capacity 320,000 L
(84,600 US gal)
310,000 L
(81,893 US gal),
320,000 L
(84,600 US gal) option[citation needed]
Engines (4 x) GP7270 (A380-861)
Trent 970/B (A380-841)
Trent 972/B (A380-842)
GP7277 (A380-863F)
Trent 977/B (A380-843F)
Thrust (4 x) 310 kN (70,000 lbf) – GP7270[229]
310 kN (70,000 lbf) – Trent 970/B[230]
320 kN (72,000 lbf) – Trent 972/B
340 kN (76,000 lbf) – GP7277
340 kN (76,000 lbf) – Trent 977/B

Sources: Airbus A380 specifications[92]

See also

External images
Airbus A380-800 cutaway
Airbus A380-800 cutaway from
Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era

Related lists


  1. ^ "A380 production list". March 2011. Retrieved 19 March 2011. 
  2. ^ "Airbus to Charge $29 Million More for A380 Superjumbo". Business Week. 18 January 2011. 
  3. ^ - Orders & deliveries
  4. ^ Norris, 2005. p. 7.
  5. ^ "MDC brochures for undeveloped versions of the MD-11 and MD-12". Retrieved 14 April 2008. 
  6. ^ "McDonnell Douglas Unveils New MD-XX Trijet Design". McDonnell Douglas. 4 September 1996. 
  7. ^ Norris, 2005. pp. 16-17.
  8. ^ Norris, 2005. pp. 17-18.
  9. ^ Norris, 2005. p. 31.
  10. ^ a b c "Creating A Titan". Flight International. 14 June 2005. 
  11. ^ "Boeing, partners expected to scrap Super-Jet study". Los Angeles Times. 10 July 1995. 
  12. ^ Bowen, David (4 June 1994). "Airbus will reveal plan for super-jumbo: Aircraft would seat at least 600 people and cost dollars 8bn to develop". The Independent (UK). 
  13. ^ Sweetman, Bill (1 October 1994). "Airbus hits the road with A3XX". Interavia Business & Technology. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  14. ^ a b c d e Norris, Guy; Mark Wagner (2005). Airbus A380: Superjumbo of the 21st Century. Zenith Press. ISBN 978-0-7603-2218-5. 
  15. ^ "Aviation giants have Super-jumbo task". Orlando Sentinel. 27 November 1994. 
  16. ^ Norris, Guy (10 September 1997). "Boeing looks again at plans for NLA". Flight International. 
  17. ^ "Superjumbo or white elephant?". Flight International. 1 August 1995. 
  18. ^ Harrison, Michael (23 October 1996). "Lehman puts $18bn price tag on Airbus float". The Independent (UK). 
  19. ^ Cannegieter, Roger. "Long Range vs. Ultra High Capacity". Retrieved 8 April 2010. 
  20. ^ a b c d e f Babka, Scott (5 September 2006). "EADS: the A380 Debate" (PDF). Morgan Stanley. Retrieved 13 September 2006. 
  21. ^ Lawler, Anthony (4 April 2006). "Point-To-Point, Hub-To-Hub: the need for an A380 size aircraft". Retrieved 9 April 2010. 
  22. ^ Pae, Peter (20 December 2000). "Airbus Giant-Jet Gamble OKd in Challenge to Boeing; Aerospace: EU rebuffs Clinton warning that subsidies for project could lead to a trade war". Los Angeles Times. 
  23. ^ "The Casino in the Sky". Associated Press. 19 December 2000. 
  24. ^ "Airbus jumbo on runway". CNN. 19 December 2000. 
  25. ^ "Virgin orders six A3XX aircraft, allowing Airbus to meet its goal". Wall Street Journal. 15 December 2000. 
  26. ^ "Airbus delivers first A380 fuselage section from Spain". Airbus. 6 November 2003. Retrieved 1 July 2011. 
  27. ^ "Convoi Exceptionnel". Airliner World (Key Publishing Limited). May 2009. 
  28. ^ "A380: topping out ceremony in the equipment hall. A380: special transport ship in Hamburg for the first time". Airbus Press Centre. 10 June 2004. Archived from the original on 12 March 2008. Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  29. ^ a b "Towards Toulouse". Flight International. 20 May 2003. Retrieved 8 June 2011. 
  30. ^ "A380 convoys". IGG.FR. 28 October 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007. 
  31. ^ "Airbus starts painting first A380". Airbus. 11 April 2007. Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 29 June 2009. 
  32. ^ a b Kingsley-Jones, Max (20 December 2005). "A380 powers on through flight-test". Flight International. Retrieved 25 September 2007. 
  33. ^ Madslien, Jorn (18 January 2005). "Giant plane a testimony to 'old Europe'". BBC News. 
  34. ^ "A380, the 21st century flagship, successfully completes its first flight". Airbus. 27 April 2005. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  35. ^ "It flies! But will it sell? Airbus A380 makes maiden flight, but commercial doubts remain". Associated Press. 27 April 2005. 
  36. ^ "Airbus 380 conducts test flights in Addis Ababa". Ethiopian Reporter. 21 November 2009. 
  37. ^ "Airbus tests A380 jet in extreme cold of Canada". MSNBC. 8 February 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  38. ^ "Airbus to reinforce part of A380 wing after March static test rupture". Flight International. 23 May 2006. Retrieved 7 March 2008. 
  39. ^ a b Daly, Kieran (6 April 2006). "Airbus A380 evacuation trial full report: everyone off in time". Flight International. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  40. ^ "Pictures: Airbus A380 clears European and US certification hurdles for evacuation trial". Flight International. 29 March 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  41. ^ "GE joint venture engines tested on Airbus A380". Business Courier. 25 August 2006. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  42. ^ "First GP7200-Powered Airbus A380 Takes Its First Flight". PR Newswire. 25 August 2006. 
  43. ^ a b "Airbus A380 completes test flight". BBC News. 4 September 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  44. ^ Ramel, Gilles (11 November 2006). "Airbus A380 jets off for tests in Asia from the eye of a storm". USA Today. 
  45. ^ "EASA Type-Certificate Data Sheet TCDS A.110 Is sue 03" (PDF). EASA. 14 December 2007. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 19 May 2008. 
  46. ^ a b "FAA Type Certificate Data Sheet NO.A58NM Rev 2" (PDF). FAA. 14 December 2007.$FILE/A58NM.pdf. Retrieved 7 January 2008. 
  47. ^ a b Heinen, Mario (19 October 2006). "The A380 programme" (PDF). EADS. Archived from the original on 3 November 2006. Retrieved 19 October 2006. 
  48. ^ Kingsley-Jones, Max (18 July 2006). "The race to rewire the Airbus A380". Flight International. 
  49. ^ a b c d e Clark, Nicola (6 November 2006). "The Airbus saga: Crossed wires and a multibillion-euro delay". International Herald Tribune. 
  50. ^ Kenneth Wong (6 December 2006). "What Grounded the Airbus A380?". Cadalyst Manufacturing. 
  51. ^ Crane, Mary (6 June 2006). "Major turbulence for EADS on A380 delay". Forbes. 
  52. ^ Clark, Nicola (5 June 2006). "Airbus delay on giant jet sends shares plummeting". International Herald Tribune. 
  53. ^ Clark, Nicola (4 September 2006). "Airbus replaces chief of jumbo jet project". International Herald Tribune. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  54. ^ "Airbus confirms further A380 delay and launches company restructuring plan". Airbus. 3 October 2006. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006. Retrieved 3 October 2006. 
  55. ^ Robertson, David (3 October 2006). "Airbus will lose €4.8bn because of A380 delays". The Times (UK).,,9077-2387999,00.html. 
  56. ^ a b "A380 Freighter delayed as Emirates switches orders". Flight International. 16 May 2006. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  57. ^ a b Quentin Wilber, Dell (8 November 2006). "Airbus bust, Boeing boost". Washington Post. Retrieved 8 November 2006. 
  58. ^ a b "Fedex pulls out of superjumbo". Europe Intelligence Wire. 8 November 2006. Retrieved 8 November 2008. 
  59. ^ "Back to the drawing board". Flight International. 13 March 2006. 
  60. ^ "ILFC to defer its Airbus A380 order until at least 2013, ditching freighter variants for passenger configuration". Flight International. 4 December 2006. 
  61. ^ "Airbus says A380F development 'interrupted'". Flight International. Retrieved 6 March 2007. 
  62. ^ "Airbus has no timeline on the A380 freighter". Flight International. Retrieved 20 March 2008. 
  63. ^ "Emirates Airlines reaffirms commitment to A380 and orders additional four". Airbus. Archived from the original on 23 December 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  64. ^ "Singapore Airlines boosts Airbus fleet with additional A380 orders". Airbus. Archived from the original on 28 December 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  65. ^ "Qantas signs firm order for eight additional A380s". Airbus. Archived from the original on 20 April 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  66. ^ "Air France to order two additional A380s and 18 A320 Family aircraft". Airbus. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  67. ^ "Qatar Airways confirms order for 80 A350 XWBs and adds three A380s". Airbus. Archived from the original on 22 June 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  68. ^ "Korean Air expands A380 aircraft order". Airbus. Archived from the original on 2 August 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  69. ^ "A380 production ramp-up revisited". Airbus. 13 May 2008. Archived from the original on 17 May 2008. Retrieved 13 May 2008. 
  70. ^ "Airbus Expects Sharp Order Drop In 2009". Aviation Week and Space Technology. 15 January 2009. Retrieved 20 January 2009. 
  71. ^ Rothman, Andrea (30 December 2009). "Airbus Fell Short with 10 A380s in 2009". Business Week. 
  72. ^ a b Rothman, Andrea (17 January 2011). "Airbus Beats Boeing on 2010 Orders, Deliveries as Demand Recovery Kicks In". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 January 2011. 
  73. ^ a b "Singapore Airlines - Our History". Singapore Airlines. 16 August 2007. Retrieved 16 August 2007. 
  74. ^ "A380 superjumbo lands in Sydney". BBC. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  75. ^ "SIA's Chew: A380 pleases, Virgin Atlantic disappoints". ATW Online. 13 December 2007. Retrieved 13 December 2007. 
  76. ^ "Emirates A380 arrives in New York!". 3 August 2008. Retrieved 3 August 2008. 
  77. ^ a b "Emirates A380 Lands At New York's JFK". 1 August 2008. Retrieved 5 August 2008. 
  78. ^ a b "Qantas A380 arrives in LA after maiden flight". The Age (Australia). 21 October 2008. Retrieved 22 October 2008. 
  79. ^ "Airbus narrowly meets delivery target of 12 A380s in 2008". Flight International. 30 December 2008. Retrieved 2 January 2009. 
  80. ^ "Singapore Airlines celebrates its first millionth A380 passenger". WebWire. 19 February 2009. 
  81. ^ "Airbus A380: Mehr als 1,5 Millionen Passagiere". FlugRevue. 11 May 2009. 
  82. ^ Michaels, Danial (30 October 2009). "Strong Euro Weighs on Airbus, Suppliers". Wall Street Journal. 
  83. ^ "Air France set to get Europe's first A380 superjumbo". MSN News. 30 October 2009. 
  84. ^ "Lufthansa übernimmt A380 am 19. Mai – Trainingsflüge in ganz Deutschland". Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  85. ^ "Airbus delivers tenth A380 in 2010" (Press release). 16 July 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  86. ^ "Korean Air embarks on test flight of A380" (in (Korean)). 16 June 2011. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  87. ^ "Skymark Airlines orders two more A380s" (Press release). Airbus. 23 June 2011. Retrieved 7 August 2011. 
  88. ^ "First A380 for China Southern grounded two weeks after maiden flight". The Age. 31 October 2011. Retrieved 8 November 2011. 
  89. ^ "Transaero Airlines commits to four A380s". Airbus, 28 October 2011.
  90. ^ "Airbus A380 Cabin". Airbus. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  91. ^ a b Martin, Mike (18 June 2007). "Honey, I shrunk the A380!". Flight International. Retrieved 17 September 2007. 
  92. ^ a b c d e "A380 Specifications". Airbus. Retrieved 18 June 2009. 
  93. ^ "The triple-deck cargo hauler". Airbus. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  94. ^ Saporito, Bill (23 November 2009). "Can the A380 Bring the Party Back to the Skies?". TIME (magazine).,8599,1942120,00.html#ixzz108QAXPDm. Retrieved 21 September 2010. 
  95. ^ Bray, Rob (June 2007). Supersize Wings. Ingenia. 
  96. ^ Pang, Damon (4 September 2007). "A380 superjumbo gives thrilling morning air show". The Standard. Hong Kong. 
  97. ^ "Trent 900 engine". Rolls-Royce. Archived from the original on 7 September 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  98. ^ "GP7200 engine features". Engine Alliance. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  99. ^ "Environment". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on 3 July 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  100. ^ "A380 Family". Airbus. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  101. ^ National Air Traffic Services (2003-02) (PDF). Review of the Quota Count (QC) System used for Administering the Night Noise Quotaa at Heathrow, Gatwick and Stansted Airports. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 15 September 2009. 
  102. ^ "Designed for increased operational performance". Honeywell. Retrieved 28 October 2009. "Stopping performance eliminates requirements for 2 thrust reversers" 
  103. ^ "More on A380 Special Conditions". Air Safety Week. 2 June 2005.;col1. 
  104. ^ "Airbus ponders A380 thrust reverser options". Flight International. 3 April 2001. 
  105. ^ "Innovative Honeywell helps to curb A380 weight". Flight International. 15 June 2005. "Some systems, like the electromagnetic thrust reversers are a first for a commercial aircraft" 
  106. ^ Dunn, Graham (1 February 2008). "Airbus conducts A380 alternative-fuel demonstration flight". Flight International. Retrieved 1 February 2008. 
  107. ^ Lalor, Dan (1 February 2008). "A380 makes test flight on alternative fuel". Reuters. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  108. ^ Marks, Paul (29 June 2005). "Aviation – The shape of wings to come". New Scientist. "More than 20% of the A380 is made of lightweight-but-strong composite materials, mainly carbon-fibre-reinforced plastic" 
  109. ^ Roberts, Tony (1 February 2007). "Rapid growth forecast for carbon fibre market". Reinforced Plastics. 
  110. ^ Marsh, George (11 October 2002). "Composites strengthen aerospace hold". Science Direct. 
  111. ^ "How to make an elephant fly". Scenta. 31 July 2007. 
  112. ^ "Thermoplastic composites gain leading edge on the A380". Composites World. 3 January 2006. 
  113. ^ "Reducing A380 weight: GLARE is key". Airline Business. 20 May 2003. 
  114. ^ Rothman, Andrea (17 July 2004). "Airbus' 'big baby' is too big". Seattle PI. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  115. ^ "Airbus A380 Superjumbo". Retrieved 26 September 2006. 
  116. ^ Rötzer, Isolde (1 January 2005). "Laser Beam Welding" (PDF). Fraunhofer Society Material and Beam Technology — IWS, Dresden, Germany. Archived from the original on 23 February 2006. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  117. ^ "Integrated Modular Avionics: Less is More". Aviation Today. 1 February 2007. "Some believe the IMA concept originated in the United States with the new F-22 and F-35 fighters and then migrated to the commercial jetliner arena. Others say the modular avionics concept, with less integration, has been used in business jets and regional airliners since the late 1980s or early 90s" 
  118. ^ "Rafale". Dassault Aviation. 12 June 2005. 
  119. ^ a b "Thales technologies onboard the A380". Thales Group. 30 October 2009. "The A380 is the first aircraft ever to be fitted with the Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) suite, a major technical evolution of global importance for airlines and operators. Designed by Airbus and co-developed with Thales and Diehl Aerospace, the IMA is a leap-ahead technological innovation, with all onboard computing modules networked and able to support different applications. The result is a substantial improvement in computing power, reliability, maintainability, volume, weight and scalability." 
  120. ^ "Networking". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  121. ^ a b Adams, Charlotte (1 July 2002). "Test cards for the Airbus A380". Aviation Today. Retrieved 16 October 2007. 
  122. ^ "Cockpit". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on 12 June 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  123. ^ O’Connell, Dominic (26 March 2006). "Flying the Airbus giant of the skies". The Times (UK). Retrieved 26 March 2006. 
  124. ^ "Barco extends its success in the civil avionics market with new Airbus deal". Barco. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  125. ^ "A380 flight deck". Airbus S.A.S. Archived from the original on 25 August 2006. Retrieved 16 September 2006. 
  126. ^ "Flash-based view of A380's cockpit". Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  127. ^ "A350 cockpit borrows A380 innovations". Air Transport Briefing. 6 March 2006. 
  128. ^ "Lufthansa Systems database plots route to the paperless cockpit". Flight International. 5 October 2004. 
  129. ^ "Advances in more-electric aircraft technologies". Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology (Emerald Group) 73 (3). 2001. 
  130. ^ a b Adams, Charlotte (1 October 2001). "A380: ‘more electric’ aircraft". Aviation Today. Retrieved 26 September 2006. 
  131. ^ Henry, P.J.. "A380 pushes 5000 psi into realm of the common man". Hydraulics & Pneumatics Magazine. Retrieved 27 October 2009. 
  132. ^ a b Wiebusch, Bruce (8 September 2002). "High pressure, low weight". Design News. 
  133. ^ "Eaton wins hydraulic system contract for A380, $200 million potential for U.S. company". Business Wire. 10 October 2001. 
  134. ^ "Hydraulic services contract for Airbus A380 wing jigs". Aircraft Engineering and Aerospace Technology (Emerald Group) 76 (2). 2004. 
  135. ^ "Innovative Variable Frequency Power". Goodrich. Retrieved 27 October 2009. 
  136. ^ Adams, Charlotte (1 October 2001). "A380: 'More Electric' Aircraft". Avionics Magazine. 
  137. ^ "Inside the A380". Retrieved 28 October 2007. 
  138. ^ "Global Aircraft – Airbus A380". Retrieved 19 June 2009. 
  139. ^ "Fascinating figures about the A380". Airbus. Retrieved 1 August 2008. 
  140. ^ a b "Comparing Airlines' Airbus A380s". Los Angeles Times.,0,4538781.photogallery. Retrieved 30 November 2009. 
  141. ^ Rochfort, Scott (7 June 2007). "Super jet could fit 1000, says maker". The Age (Melbourne). Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  142. ^ Verghese, Vijay (2011). "A survey of the best airline economy seats". Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  143. ^ "Onboard the Airbus A380". Fodors. Retrieved 28 October 2007. 
  144. ^ "747-400 Cross Sections". Boeing. Retrieved 19 June 2008. 
  145. ^ "Emirates A380s to Establish New Airliner Seat Record". Aviation. 8 June 2008. 
  146. ^ Buckland, Rob (23 October 2009). "Recession causes turbulence for Airbus A380 sales". Bristol 24-7. 
  147. ^ "Cabin Interior, Mood Lightning". Diehl Aerospace, Germany. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  148. ^ "Airbus Cabin Showroom". Airbus. Retrieved 14 May 2007. 
  149. ^ "Aerospace Notebook: It's no cruise ship of the sky, but A380 is raising the bar for comfort". Seattle Post-Intelligencer. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  150. ^ a b Frost, Laurence (7 February 2007). "Airbus Flight Shows Off Troubled A380". Washington Post. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  151. ^ a b c Stoller, Gary (3 February 2005). " – Flights of fancy". USA Today. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  152. ^ Rothman, Andrea (30 October 2009). "Airbus A380’s bar, flatbeds, showers irk Engineers". Bloomberg. 
  153. ^ a b "SIA is ready at last to start flying the A380". Flight International. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  154. ^ a b "Air France picks business seat; eyeing premium economy for A380". Flight International. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  155. ^ "Seat Map Singapore Airlines Airbus A380". Seat Guru. Retrieved 19 February 2009. 
  156. ^ "Singapore Airlines A380". Singapore Airlines. Archived from the original on 17 October 2007. Retrieved 28 October 2007. 
  157. ^ "Qantas and the A380". Qantas. Archived from the original on 14 December 2007. Retrieved 15 December 2007. 
  158. ^ "SeatGuru Seat Map Qantas Airways Airbus A380-800 (388):". 
  159. ^ Warburton, Simon (30 July 2009). "A first look inside Emirates' A380s". The Times (UK). 
  160. ^ "The Emirates A380: First Class". Emirates. Retrieved 23 October 2009. 
  161. ^ "Showers, Bars, Lounge – the Emirates Airbus A380 has them all". Asia Travel Tips. 30 July 2008. 
  162. ^ "Qantas unveils self-serve bar". Adelaide Now. Retrieved 17 May 2011. 
  163. ^ Milstein, Michael. "Superduperjumbo Double the size of an Airbus A380? No problem, aerodynamicists say.". Air & Space Magazine. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  164. ^ a b c "A380 Airplane Characteristics Rev: 31 Jan. 2008" (PDF). Airbus. 3 January 2008. Retrieved 30 April 2007. 
  165. ^ Harrison, Michael (24 June 2000). "Airbus opens its books for the world's biggest jumbo. But is it a plane too far?". The Independent (UK). 
  166. ^ "Minimum Requirements to Widen Existing 150-Foot Wide Runways for Airbus A380 Operations" (PDF). FAA. 13 February 2004. Retrieved 18 September 2009. 
  167. ^ "Use of non-standard 75-foot-wide straight taxiway sections for Airbus 380 taxiing operations" (PDF). FAA. April 2006. Archived from the original on 8 November 2009. Retrieved 24 September 2006. 
  168. ^ "Airbus A380 approved to operate on 45 m runways". Airbus. 31 July 2007. Archived from the original on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 1 October 2007. 
  169. ^ Oldham, Jennifer (18 March 2007). "Airbus set for U.S. debut of world's largest passenger jet". Los Angeles Times.. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  170. ^ North, David (2 October 2006). "Pilot Report: Flying the Airbus A380". Aviation Week. Retrieved 21 December 2010. 
  171. ^ a b Arnoult, Sandra. "Airports Prepare for the A380". Airport Equipment & Technology. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  172. ^ Dupont, Willy-Pierre. "A380 – A solution for airports" (PDF). Airbus. Retrieved 19 May 2007. 
  173. ^ a b Gerzanics, Mike (25 September 2006). "FLIGHT TEST: Airbus A380". Flight International. Retrieved 15 December 2010. 
  174. ^ "Catering". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on 15 June 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  175. ^ "Aircraft movements". Lufthansa. Archived from the original on 14 June 2008. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  176. ^ Helms, Ina. "Boarding please – aber ein bisschen flott!". Innovate!. Retrieved 25 October 2008. 
  177. ^ "A380 first touchdown in the United States as part of commercial Route Proving". Airbus. 12 March 2007. 
  178. ^ "Airbus A380 wake turbulence may double safe distance between planes". Forbes. 22 November 2005. 
  179. ^ "A380 wake tests prompt call to reassess all large aircraft". Flight International. 29 November 2005. 
  180. ^ "Airbus A380 wake vortex study completed". Airbus S.A.S.. 28 September 2006. Archived from the original on 14 October 2006. Retrieved 30 September 2006. 
  181. ^ "A380 wake vortex study provides some good news for Airbus". ATW. 29 September 2006. 
  182. ^ "Airbus A380 vortex-revised guidance material" (PDF). ICAO. 16 January 2007. Retrieved 9 November 2007. 
  183. ^ "New guidelines show shorter A380 separation distances". Flight International. 22 August 2008. Retrieved 6 September 2008. 
  184. ^ "Airbus poised to start building new higher weight A380 variant". Flight International. 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010. 
  185. ^ "British Airways and Emirates will be first for new longer-range A380". Flight International. 14 May 2009. 
  186. ^ "Vietnam Airlines emerges as possible customer for new A380 variant". flightglobal. 2010. Retrieved 26 June 2010. 
  187. ^ "Airbus plant A380 für 900 Passagiere". 15 November 2007.  (German)
  188. ^ "A380-900 and freighter both on 'back-burner': Enders". Flight International. 2010. Retrieved 20 May 2010. 
  189. ^ Rothman, Andrea (15 November 2007). "Europe – Airbus plans 900-Seat Superjumbo; Emirates would buy". Bloomberg. 
  190. ^ "Branson favors planned Airbus 900-seat A380". Seattle Times. 21 February 2004. 
  191. ^ Rigby, Bill (30 October 2007). "Interview-Cathay Pacific to wait on next-generation planes". Reuters. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  192. ^ "Airbus to extend A380 to accommodate 1,000 passengers". India Times. 29 August 2008. Retrieved 2 July 2011. 
  193. ^ "Kingfisher defers delivery to wait for A380-900". ATW Daily News. 6 February 2009. 
  194. ^ "A stretch version of the A380? It's in the plans". Seattle PI. 25 October 2007. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  195. ^ "A380 Freighter Specifications". Airbus. Retrieved 18 April 2010. 
  196. ^ "Flying by Nature Airbus Global Market Forecast 2007–2026" (PDF). Airbus S.A.S.. 31 January 2008. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008. 
  197. ^ "Boeing Current Market Outlook 2007" (PDF). Boeing Commercial Airplanes. 20 November 2007. Archived from the original on 9 April 2008. Retrieved 14 March 2008. 
  198. ^ Pae, Peter (18 January 2009). "Airbus could build next Air Force One; 747 due to be replaced". Seattle Times. 
  199. ^ "US considers Airbus A380 as Air Force One and potentially a C-5 replacement". Flight International. 17 October 2007. 
  200. ^ "EADS waves off bid for Air Force One replacement". Flight International. 28 January 2009. 
  201. ^ "EADS hopeful A380 could break even in 2015". Flight International. 2010. Retrieved 19 May 2010. 
  202. ^ "Airbus aircraft 2011 average list prices" (PDF). Airbus S.A.S. Retrieved 1 February 2010. 
  203. ^ Snodgrass, James (6 January 2009). "Luxury living at 35,000 ft". CNN. 
  204. ^ a b c Orders & Deliveries summary, spreadsheet. Airbus, September 2011. Retrieved: 17 October 2011.
  205. ^ Caswell, Mark. "Emirates increases A380 order to 90 aircraft". Business Traveller. Retrieved 12 August 2010. 
  206. ^ "Airbus names A380 delivery centre in Hamburg after Jürgen Thomas". Airbus. 4 July 2008. Archived from the original on 22 August 2008. Retrieved 13 October 2009. 
  207. ^ "A380 production list – Airbus". 18 January 2010. 
  208. ^ "Emirates orders 32 Airbus A380 super jumbos". Emirates Airlines. 8 June 2010. Retrieved 8 June 2010. 
  209. ^ "Asiana Airlines to buy 6 Airbus A380 aircraft". Reuters. 5 January 2011. Retrieved 7 June 2011. 
  210. ^ "Japan's Skymark firms up order for up to six A380s". Flight International. 6 January 2011. Retrieved 18 February 2011. 
  211. ^ "In dramatic reversal, Qatar signs $6.5 billion Airbus deal". Reuters. 15 November 2011. Retrieved 15 November 2011. 
  212. ^ "A380 production list". 9 November 2010. 
  213. ^ "Summer period: exceptional Air France Airbus A380 flights on London-Heathrow to Paris-CDG route". Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  214. ^ "Air France gets Europe's first A380 superjumbo". Agence France-Press e. 30 October 2009. 
  215. ^ "Lufthansa flies German team to Johannesburg with A380". Lufthansa. 7 April 2010. 
  216. ^ Eun-joo, Lee (17 June 2011). "East Asia’s first A380 goes into operation today". Korea JoongAng Daily. 
  217. ^ "Airbus delivers China Southern Airlines’ first A380". 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  218. ^ "China Southern Airlines receives its first "Pearl of the sky" A380 jetliner". 2011-10-14. Retrieved 2011-10-22. 
  219. ^ "Airbus A380 incidents". 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  220. ^ "Airbus A380 hull-losses". 3 August 2011. Retrieved 3 August 2011. 
  221. ^ "Indonesians collect debris from Qantas plane engine". Australian Broadcasting Corporation. 4 November 2010. Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  222. ^ Peter Walker (5 November 2010). "Qantas A380 landing: Airlines were warned in August over engine safety". Retrieved 3 April 2011. 
  223. ^ a b c d A380 Airplane Characteristics for Airport Planning
  224. ^ "Interim Aerodrome requirements for the A380" (PDF). Civil Aviation Authority. 4 November 2004. 
  225. ^ Airbus specifications
  226. ^ "Airbus A380-800F Wide-Bodied Freighter". 12 December 2006. Retrieved 9 August 2011. 
  227. ^ "A380 powers on through flight-test". Flight International. 20 December 2005. 
  228. ^ "Exemption No. 8695". Renton, Washington: Federal Aviation Authority. 24 March 2006.$FILE/8695.doc. 
  229. ^ "GP7200 series specification". Engine Alliance. Retrieved 12 August2011. 
  230. ^ "Trent 900 fact sheet". Rolls-Royce. Retrieved 12 August 2011. 

External links

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Airbus A380 — Airbus A380 …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Airbus A380 — Т …   Википедия

  • Airbus A380 — Pour les articles homonymes, voir A380 (homonymie). Airbus A380 A380 en vol au dessus de Toulouse …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Airbus A380 — 800 con los colores de la empresa paneuropea Airbus despegando en el Parí …   Wikipedia Español

  • Airbus A380 — Самый большой пассажирский самолет в мире Самый большой пассажирский самолет в мире, впервые поднявшийся в воздух в 2005 году. Способен перевозить более восьмисот человек на расстояния до 15 тысяч километров. Специалисты европейского консорциума… …   Энциклопедия ньюсмейкеров

  • Airbus A380 — El Airbus A380 es el mayor avión comercial de la historia. Sólo el Antonov An 225, con 600 toneladas al despegue, es más grande, aunque solo se han fabricado dos unidades …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Airbus A380 — авиа Самый большой, просторный и тихий пассажирский авиалайнер в мире, также является и самым экономичным, расходуя менее 3 литров топлива на перевозку одного пассажира на 100 километров пути. Базовый вариант А380 рассчитан на перевозку 525… …   Универсальный дополнительный практический толковый словарь И. Мостицкого

  • Airbus A380-700 — Airbus A380 Typ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Airbus A380-800 — Airbus A380 Typ …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Airbus A380 Flying Palace — Airbus A380 Pour les articles homonymes, voir A380 (homonymie). A380 Constructeur …   Wikipédia en Français