Ted Stevens

Ted Stevens

Infobox Officeholder
name = Theodore Fulton Stevens

|thumb|right|250px|Senate portrait
imagesize =

caption =
jr/sr=Senior Senator
term_start = December 24, 1968
alongside =Lisa Murkowski
term_end =
vicepresident =
viceprimeminister =
deputy =
president =
primeminister =
predecessor = Bob Bartlett
successor =
birth_date = birth date and age|mf=yes|1923|11|18
birth_place = Indianapolis, Indiana
death_date =
death_place =
residence = Girdwood, Alaska
party = Republican
profession =
spouse = 1. Ann Cherrington, deceased
2. Catherine Ann Chandler
children = Ben Stevens
Susan Stevens
Beth Stevens
Walter Stevens
Ted Stevens, Jr.
Lily Stevens
religion = Episcopalian
occupation = attorney
website = [http://stevens.senate.gov/public/ United States Senator Ted Stevens]
order2 = 106th President pro tempore of the United States Senate
term_start2 = January 3, 2003
term_end2 = January 3, 2007
leader2 = Bill Frist
predecessor2 = Robert Byrd (D)
successor2 = Robert Byrd (D)
order3 = 19th Majority Whip of the United States Senate
term_start3 = January 3, 1981
term_end3 = January 3, 1985
leader3 = Howard Baker
predecessor3 = Alan Cranston (D)
successor3 = Alan Simpson (R)
order4 = 15th Minority Whip of the United States
term_start4 = January 3, 1977
term_end4 = January 3, 1981
leader4 = Howard Baker
predecessor4 = Robert Griffin (R)
successor4 = Alan Cranston (D)
order5 = 16th Senate Republican Whip
term_start5 = January 3, 1977
term_end5 = January 3, 1985
leader5 = Howard Baker
predecessor5 = Robert Griffin
successor5 = Alan Simpson
order6 = 3rd President pro tempore emeritus of the United States Senate
term_start6 = January 4, 2007
term_end6 =
president6 = Robert Byrd
predecessor6 = Robert Byrd
successor6 =
footnotes =
branch=United States Army Air Corps
battles=World War II

Theodore Fulton Stevens (born November 18, 1923) is the senior United States Senator from Alaska, serving since December 24, 1968. As the longest serving Republican in the Senate, Stevens served as President pro tempore from January 3, 2003, to January 3, 2007.

Stevens has had a six-decade career in government, beginning with his service in World War II. In the 1950s, he held senior positions in the Eisenhower Interior Department. He has served continuously in the Senate since December 1968. He played key roles in legislation that shaped Alaska's economic and social development, including the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act, the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act, the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act, and the Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act. He is also known for his sponsorship of the Amateur Sports Act of 1978, which resulted in the establishment of the United States Olympic Committee.

When the 110th Congress convened and Democrats took control of the chamber, he was replaced as President pro tem by Robert Byrd, and thus took Byrd's previous honorary role of "President pro tempore emeritus". He is one of three persons, alongside Byrd and Strom Thurmond, who served previously as president pro tem and remained in Senate.

On July 29, 2008 Stevens was indicted by a federal grand jury on seven counts of failing to report gifts received from VECO Corporation and its CEO Bill Allen on his Senate financial disclosure forms, formally charged with violation of provisions of the Ethics in Government Act. Stevens pled not guilty and asserted his right to a speedy trial, which began on September 25 in Washington DC, to have the opportunity to clear his name before the November election.

Early life and career

Childhood and youth

Stevens was born November 18, 1923, in Indianapolis, Indiana, the third of four children [http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.com/~battle/senators/stevens.htm Theodore Fulton “Ted” Stevens genealogy.] Rootsweb.com. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.] Whitney, David. (1994-08-08). [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AS&p_theme=as&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headline(formative%20years)%20AND%20section(all)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(formative%20years)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes "Formative years: Stevens' life wasn't easy growing up in the depression with a divided family."] "Anchorage Daily News". Retrieved 2007-06-01.] , in a small cottage built by his paternal grandfather after the marriage of his father, George A. Stevens, to Gertrude S. Chancellor. The family later lived in Chicago, where George Stevens was an accountant before the stock market crash of 1929 instigated the Great Depression, ending his job.Mitchell, Donald Craig. (2001). "Take My Land, Take My Life: The Story of Congress's Historic Settlement of Alaska Native Land Claims, 1960–1971". Fairbanks, AK: University of Alaska Press, p. 220.] Around this time, when Ted Stevens was six years old, his parents divorced, and Stevens and his three siblings went back to Indianapolis to live with their paternal grandparents, followed shortly thereafter by their father, who developed problems with his eyes and went blind for several years. Stevens' mother moved to California and sent for Stevens' siblings as she could afford to, but Stevens stayed in Indianapolis helping to care for his father and a mentally retarded cousin, Patricia Acker, who also lived with the family. The only adult in the household with a job was Stevens' grandfather. Stevens helped to support the family by working as a newsboy, and would later remember selling a lot of newspapers on March 1, 1932, when newspaper headlines blared the news of the Lindbergh kidnapping.

In 1934, Stevens' grandfather punctured a lung in a fall down a tall flight of stairs, contracted pneumonia, and died. By the time Stevens was fifteen, in 1938, his father had died of cancer. Stevens and his cousin Patricia moved to city|Manhattan Beach|California to live with Patricia's mother, Gladys Swindells. Stevens attended Redondo Union High School, participating in extracurricular activities including working on the school newspaper and becoming a member of a student theater group, a service society affiliated with the YMCA, and, during his senior year, the lettermen's society. Stevens also worked at jobs before and after school, but also had time for surfing with his friend Russell Green, son of the president of Signal Gas and Oil Company, who remained a close friend through Stevens' life.

Military service

After graduating from high school in 1942, Stevens enrolled at Oregon State University to study engineering,Mitchell, 2001, p. 221.] attending for a semester. With World War II in progress, Stevens attempted to join the Navy Air Corps, but failed the vision exam. He corrected his vision through a course of prescribed eye exercises, and in 1943 was accepted for a Army Air Corps Air Cadet program at Montana State College. After scoring near the top of an aptitude test for flight training, Stevens was transferred to preflight training in city|Santa Ana|California and received his wings in early 1944. He went on to Bergstrom Field in Texas, where he trained to fly P-38s, but due to an incident during graduation, in which a graduate booed at the colonel who delivered the graduation address, Stevens never flew a fighter in combat. Instead, Stevens later recalled, "Suddenly we were copilots in a troop carrier squad."

Stevens served in the China-Burma-India theater with the Fourteenth Air Force Transport Section, which supported the "Flying Tigers," from 1944 to 1946. He and other pilots in the transport section flew C-46 and C-47 transport planes, often without escort, mostly in support of Chinese units fighting the Japanese. Stevens received the Distinguished Flying Cross for flying behind enemy lines, the Air Medal, and the Yuan Hai medal awarded by the Chinese Nationalist government. [http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Biographies.CoChairman "About the Committee: Vice Chairman" (biography of Ted Stevens).] United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. Retrieved on 2007-06-01.] He was discharged from the Army Air Forces in March 1946.

Higher education and law school

After the war, Stevens attended UCLA, where he earned a bachelor's degree in political science in 1947. At UCLA he was a member of Delta Kappa Epsilon fraternity. He applied to law school at Stanford University and the University of Michigan, but on the advice of his friend Russell Green's father to "look East," he applied also to Harvard Law School, and ended up attending there. Stevens' education was partly financed by the G.I. Bill; he made up the difference by borrowing money from an uncle, selling his blood, and working several jobs, including one as a bartender in Boston. During the summer of 1949, Stevens was a research assistant in the office of the U.S. Attorney for the Southern District of California, now the Central District of California."With the editors..." 64 "Harvard Law Review" vii (1950).] Mitchell, 2001, p. 222.]

While at Harvard, Stevens wrote a paper on maritime law which received honorable mention for the Addison Brown prize, a Harvard Law School award made for the best essay by a student on a subject related to private international law or maritime law. The essay later became a "Harvard Law Review" articleStevens, Theodore F. "Erie R.R. v. Tompkins and the Uniform General Maritime Law." 64 "Harvard Law Review" 88–112 (1950).] whose scholarship Justice Jay Rabinowitz of the Alaska Supreme Court praised 45 years later, telling the "Anchorage Daily News" in 1994 that the high court had issued a recent opinion citing the article. Stevens graduated from Harvard Law School in 1950.

Early legal career

After graduation, Stevens went to work in the Washington, D.C. law offices of Northcutt Ely.Whitney, David. (1994-08-09). [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AS&p_theme=as&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headline(%22the%20road%20north%20needing%20work%22)%20AND%20section(all)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(%22the%20road%20north%20needing%20work%22)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes "The road north: Needing work, Stevens borrows $600, answers call to Alaska."] "Anchorage Daily News". Retrieved 2007-06-01.] Twenty years previously Ely had been executive assistant to Secretary of the Interior Ray Lyman Wilbur during the Hoover administration,Ely, Northcutt. (1994-12-16). [http://www.redlandsfortnightly.org/papers/persgulf.htm "Doctor Ray Lyman Wilbur: Third President of Stanford & Secretary of the Interior."] Paper presented at the Fortnightly Club of Redlands, California, meeting #1530. Retrieved on 2007-06-05.] and by 1950 headed a prominent law firm specializing in natural resources issues. One of Ely's clients, Emil Usibelli, founder of the Usibelli Coal Mine in city|Healy|Alaska,Alaska Mining Hall of Fame Foundation. (2006). [http://alaskamininghalloffame.org/inductees/usibelli.php "Emil Usibelli (1893–1964)."] Retrieved on 2007-06-05.] was trying to sell coal to the military, and Stevens was assigned to handle his legal affairs.

Marriage and family

In early 1952 Stevens married Ann Mary Cherrington. Ann, a Democrat, was the adopted daughter of University of Denver chancellor Ben Mark Cherrington. She had graduated from Reed College in city|Portland|Oregon and during the Truman administration had worked for the State Department.

On December 4, 1978, Stevens survived the crash of a Lear Jet 25C at Anchorage International Airport. The crash killed five people, including his first wife, Ann. [Michael Crowley, [http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=20070910&s=crowley091007 "In Praise of Ted Stevens, the Senate's Angriest Man"] , "New Republic", posted August 31, 2007, print date September 10, 2007] In 2000, the Alaska Legislature voted to rename the airport the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport.

Stevens' son, Ben Stevens, was appointed to the Alaska Senate in 2001 by Democratic Governor Tony Knowles, and was the Senate President until the fall of 2006.

Aside from Ben, Stevens and his first wife Ann had two daughters, Susan and Beth, and two sons, Walter and Ted. He and his second wife Catherine have a daughter, Lily.

Stevens' current home in Alaska is in Girdwood, a ski resort community near Anchorage. However, he lives in Washington for most of the year. [Bresnahan, John. [http://www.politico.com/blogs/thecrypt/0908/Sullivan_Ted_Stevens_doesnt_really_live_in_Alaska.html Sullivan: Ted Stevens doesn't really live in Alaska] . The Politico, 2008-09-25.]

Early Alaska career

In 1952, while still working for Norcutt Ely, Stevens volunteered for the presidential campaign of Dwight D. Eisenhower, writing position papers for the campaign on western water law and lands. By the time Eisenhower won the election that November, Stevens had acquired contacts who told him, "We want you to come over to Interior." Stevens left his job with Ely, but a job in the Eisenhower administration didn't come through as a result of a temporary hiring freeze instituted by Eisenhower in an effort to reduce spending.

Instead, Stevens was offered a job with the city|Fairbanks|Alaska law firm of Emil Usibelli's Alaska attorney, Charles Clasby, whose firm, Collins and Clasby, had just lost one of its attorneys. Stevens and his wife had met and liked both Usibelli and Clasby, and decided to make the move. They loaded up their 1947 BuickMitchell, 2001, p. 223.] and, traveling on a $600 loan from Clasby, they drove across country from Washington, D.C. and up the Alaska Highway in the dead of winter, arriving in Fairbanks in February 1953. Stevens later recalled kidding Gov. Walter Hickel about the loan. "He likes to say that he came to Alaska with 37 cents in his pocket," he said of Hickel. "I came $600 in debt." Ann Stevens recalled in 1968 that they made the move to Alaska "on a six-month trial basis."

In Fairbanks, Stevens cultivated the city's Republican establishment. He befriended conservative newspaper publisher C.W. Snedden, who had purchased the "Fairbanks Daily News-Miner" in 1950. Snedden's wife Helen later recalled that her husband and Stevens were "like father and son." "The only problem Ted had was that he had a temper," she told the a reporter in 1994, crediting her husband with helping to steady Stevens "like you would do with your children" and with teaching Stevens the art of diplomacy.

U.S. Attorney

Stevens had been with Charles Clasby's law firm for six months when Bob McNealy, a Democrat appointed as U.S. Attorney for Fairbanks during the Truman administration, informed U.S. District Judge Harry Pratt that he would be resigning effective August 15, 1953,Mitchell, 2001, p. 224.] having already delayed his resignation by several months at the request of Justice Department officials newly appointed by Eisenhower, who asked McNealy to delay his resignation until Eisenhower could appoint a replacement. Despite Stevens' short tenure as an Alaska resident and his relative lack of trial or criminal law experience, Pratt asked Stevens to serve in the position until Eisenhower acted. Stevens agreed. "I said, 'Sure, I'd like to do that,' " Stevens recalled years later. "Clasby said, 'It's not going to pay you as much money, but, if you want to do it, that's your business.' He was very pissed that I decided to go." Most members of the Fairbanks Bar Association were outraged at the appointment of a newcomer, and members in attendance at the association's meeting that December voted to support Carl Messenger for the permanent appointment, an endorsement seconded by the Alaska Republican Party Committee for the Fairbanks-area judicial division. However, Stevens was favored by Attorney General Herbert Brownell, by Senator William F. Knowland of California, and by the Republican National Committee, (Alaska itself had no Senators at this time, as it was still a territory). Eisenhower sent Stevens' nomination to the U.S. Senate,Mitchell, 2001, p. 225.] which confirmed him on March 30, 1954.

Stevens soon gained a reputation as an active prosecutor who vigorously prosecuted violations of federal and territorial liquor, drug, and prostitution laws, characterized by Fairbanks area homesteader Niilo Koponen (who later served in the Alaska State House of Representatives from 1982-1991) as "this rough tough shorty of a district attorney who was going to crush crime." Stevens sometimes accompanied U.S. Marshals on raids. As recounted years later by Justice Jay Rabinowitz, "U.S. marshals went in with Tommy guns and Ted led the charge, smoking a stogie and with six guns on his hips." However, Stevens himself has said the colorful stories spread about him as a pistol-packing D.A. were greatly exaggerated, and recalled only one incident when he carried a gun: on a vice raid to the town of Big Delta about convert|75|mi|km|0 southeast of Fairbanks, he carried a holstered gun on a marshal's suggestion.

Stevens also became known for his explosive temper, which was focused particularly on a criminal defense lawyer named Warren A. Taylor who would later go on to become the Alaska Legislature's first Speaker of the House in the First Alaska State Legislature.Voice of the Times. (2004-12-31). [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AS&p_theme=as&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=allfields(%22Warren%20A.%20Taylor%22)%20AND%20section(all)%20AND%20date(2004)&p_field_date-0=YMD_date&p_params_date-0=date:B,E&p_text_date-0=2004&p_field_advanced-0=&p_text_advanced-0=(%22Warren%20A.%20Taylor%22)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes "Test your legislative knowledge."] "Anchorage Daily News". Retrieved 2007-06-07.] "Ted would get red in the face, blow up and stalk out of the courtroom," a former court clerk later recalled of Stevens' relationship with Taylor.

In 1956, in a trial which received national headlines, Stevens prosecuted Jack Marler, a former Internal Revenue Service agent accused of failing to file tax returns. Marler's first trial, which was handled by a different prosecutor, had ended in a deadlocked jury and a mistrial. For the second trial, Stevens was up against Edgar Paul Boyko, a flamboyant Anchorage attorney who built his defense of Marler on the theory of no taxation without representation, citing the Territory of Alaska's lack of representation in the U.S. Congress. As recalled by Boyko, his closing argument to the jury was a rabble-rousing appeal for the jury to "strike a blow for Alaskan freedom," claiming that "this case was the jury's chance to move Alaska toward statehood." Boyko remembered that "Ted had done a hell of a job in the case," but Boyko's tactics paid off, and Marler was acquitted on April 3, 1956. Following the acquittal, Stevens issued a statement saying, "I don't believe the jury's verdict is an expression of resistance to taxes or law enforcement or the start of a Boston Tea Party. I do believe, however, that the decision will be a blow to the hopes for Alaska statehood."

Department of the Interior

Alaska statehood

In March 1956, Stevens' friend Elmer Bennett, legislative counsel in the Department of the Interior, was promoted by Secretary of the Interior Douglas McKay to the Secretary's office. Bennett successfully lobbied McKay to replace him in his old job with Stevens, and Stevens returned to Washington, D.C. to take up the position.Mitchell, 2001, p. 226.] By the time he arrived in June 1956, McKay had resigned in order to run for the U.S. Senate from his home state of Oregon and Fred Andrew Seaton had been appointed to replace him.Whitney, David. (1994-08-10). [http://nl.newsbank.com/nl-search/we/Archives?p_product=AS&p_theme=as&p_action=search&p_maxdocs=200&s_dispstring=headline(%22seeking%20statehood%20stevens%22)%20AND%20section(all)%20AND%20date(all)&p_field_advanced-0=title&p_text_advanced-0=(%22seeking%20statehood%20stevens%22)&xcal_numdocs=20&p_perpage=10&p_sort=_rank_:D&xcal_ranksort=4&xcal_useweights=yes "Seeking statehood: Stevens bent rules to bring Alaska into the union."] "Anchorage Daily News". Retrieved 2007-06-01.] Seaton, a newspaper publisher from Nebraska, was a close friend of "Fairbanks Daily News-Miner" publisher C.W. Snedden, and in common with Snedden was an advocate of Alaska statehood, unlike McKay, who had been lukewarm in his support. Seaton asked Snedden if he knew any Alaskan who could come to Washington, D.C. to work for Alaska statehood; Snedden replied that the man he needed — Stevens — was already there working in the Department of the Interior. The fight for Alaska statehood became Stevens' principal work at Interior. "He did all the work on statehood," Roger Ernst, Seaton's assistant secretary for public land management, later said of Stevens. "He wrote 90 percent of all the speeches. Statehood was his main project." A sign on Stevens' door proclaimed his office "Alaskan Headquarters" and Stevens became known at the Department of the Interior as "Mr. Alaska."

Efforts to make Alaska a state had been going on since 1943, and had nearly come to fruition during the Truman administration in 1950 when a statehood bill passed in the U.S. House of Representatives, only to die in the Senate. The national Republican Party opposed statehood for Alaska, in part out of fear that Alaska would elect Democrats to Congress. At the time Stevens arrived in the Washington, D.C. to take up his new job, a constitutional convention to write an Alaska constitution had just been concluded on the campus of the University of Alaska in Fairbanks.University of Alaska. (ca. 2004). [http://www.alaska.edu/creatingalaska/convention/ "Constitutional Convention."] "Creating Alaska: The Origins of the 49th State" (website). Retrieved on 2007-06-21.] The 55 delegates also elected three unofficial representatives, all Democrats, as unofficial delegates to Congress: Ernest Gruening and William Egan as U.S. "senators" and Ralph Rivers as U.S. "representative."

President Eisenhower, a Republican, regarded Alaska as too large and sparsely populated to be economically self-sufficient as a state, and furthermore saw statehood as an obstacle to effective defense of Alaska should the Soviet Union seek to invade it. Eisenhower was especially worried about the sparsely populated areas of northern and western Alaska. In March 1954, he had drawn a line on a map indicating his opinion of the portions of Alaska which he felt ought to remain in federal hands even if Alaska were granted statehood.

Seaton and Stevens worked with Gen. Nathan Twining, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, who had served in Alaska, and Jack L. Stempler, a top Defense Department attorney, to create a compromise that would address Eisenhower's concerns. Much of their work was conducted in a hospital room at Walter Reed Army Hospital, where Seaton was being treated for back problems. Their work concentrated on refining the line on the map that Eisenhower had drawn in 1954, which became known as the PYK Line after three rivers — the Porcupine, Yukon, and Kuskokwim — whose courses defined much of the line. The PYK Line was the basis for Section 10 of the Alaska Statehood Act, which Stevens wrote. Under Section 10, the land north and west of the PYK Line — which included the entirety of Alaska's North Slope, the Seward Peninsula, most of the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta, the western portions of the Alaska Peninsula, and the Aleutian and Pribilof Islands — would be part of the new state, but the President would be granted emergency powers to establish special national defense withdrawals in those areas if deemed necessary. [http://www.lbblawyers.com/statetoc.htm Alaska Statehood Act, Pub. L. 85-508, 72 Stat. 339. July 7, 1958.] Codified at [http://www.law.cornell.edu/uscode/html/uscode48/usc_sup_01_48_10_2notes.html 48 U.S.C., Chapter 2.] ] "It's still in the law but it's never been exercised," Stevens later recollected. "Now that the problem with Russia is gone, it's surplusage. But it is a special law that only applies to Alaska."

Stevens also took part — illegally — in lobbying for the statehood bill, working closely with the Alaska Statehood Committee from his office at Interior. Stevens hired Margaret Atwood, daughter of "Anchorage Times" publisher Robert Atwood, who was chairman of the Alaska Statehood Committee,University of Alaska. (ca. 2004). [http://www.alaska.edu/creatingalaska/StatehoodFiles/whoswho/alaskans/atwood.xml "Alaskans for Statehood: Robert B. Atwood."] "Creating Alaska: The Origins of the 49th State" (website). Retrieved on 2007-06-21.] to work with him in the Interior Department. "We were violating the law," Stevens told a researcher in an October 1977 oral history interview for the Eisenhower Library. " [W] e were lobbying from the executive branch, and there's been a statute against that for a long time.... We more or less, I would say, masterminded the House and Senate attack from the executive branch." Stevens and the younger Atwood created file cards on members of Congress based on "whether they were Rotarians or Kiwanians or Catholics or Baptists and veterans or loggers, the whole thing," Stevens said in the 1977 interview. "And we'd assigned these Alaskans to go talk to individual members of the Senate and split them down on the basis of people that had something in common with them." The lobbying campaign extended to presidential press conferences. "We set Ike up quite often at press conferences by planting questions about Alaska statehood," Stevens said in the 1977 interview. "We never let a press conference go by without getting someone to try to ask him about statehood." Newspapers were also a targeted, according to Stevens. "We planted editorials in weeklies and dailies and newspapers in the district of people we thought were opposed to us or states where they were opposed to us so that suddenly they were thinking twice about opposing us."

The Alaska Statehood Act became law with Eisenhower's signature on July 7, 1958, and Alaska formally was admitted to statehood on January 3, 1959, when Eisenhower signed the Alaska Statehood Proclamation.University of Alaska. (ca. 2004). [http://www.alaska.edu/creatingalaska/StatehoodFiles/infodocs/pictures/statehoodproclamation.xml "Signing of the Alaska Statehood Proclamation, January 3, 1959."] "Creating Alaska: The Origins of the 49th State" (website). Retrieved on 2007-06-21.]

Alaska House of Representatives

After returning to Alaska, Stevens practiced law in Anchorage. He was elected to the Alaska House of Representatives in 1964, and became House majority leader in his second term.

U.S. Senator


In 1968, Stevens ran for the Republican nomination for U.S. Senate, but lost in the primary to Anchorage Mayor Elmer E. Rasmuson. Rasmuson lost the general election to Democrat Mike Gravel. In December 1968, after the death of Alaska's other senator, Democrat Bob Bartlett, Governor Wally Hickel appointed Stevens to the U.S. Senate. [http://stevens.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=AboutSenatorStevens.Biography "About Senator Stevens" (official biography).] United States Senator Ted Stevens (official website). Retrieved on 2007-05-31.]

In a special election in 1970, Stevens won the right to finish the remainder of Bartlett's term. He won the seat in his own right in 1972, and was reelected in 1978, 1984, 1990, 1996 and 2002 elections. His current term will expire in January 2009. Since his first election to a full term in 1972, Stevens has never received less than 66% of the vote. [Aaron Blake, [http://thehill.com/campaign-2008/begichs-entry-tees-up-first-tough-reelection-race-in-stevenss-career-2008-02-27.html "Begich’s entry tees up first tough reelection race in Stevens's career"] , TheHill.com, February 27, 2008.] He is currently the fourth-longest serving member of the Senate, after Democrats Robert Byrd, Ted Kennedy and Daniel Inouye.

Stevens is running for re-election to his Senate seat in 2008. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Ted Stevens -- and Senate GOP -- In Trouble |url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/thenation/20070731/cm_thenation/45218868 |work=The Nation |publisher= |date=2007-07-30 |accessdate=2007-05-29 ] He won the Republican primary in August [Kim Murphy, [http://www.latimes.com/news/printedition/asection/la-na-alaska27-2008aug27,0,4017397.story "Alaska: Sen. Stevens wins; Rep. Young in tight race"] , "Los Angeles Times", August 27, 2008.] and will face Anchorage Mayor Mark Begich in the general election. [cite news |first= |last= |title=Senator predicts Democrats will win Alaska Senate race |url=http://juneauempire.com/stories/072408/sta_309065755.shtml |work=Associated Press |publisher=Juneau Empire |date=2008-07-24 |accessdate=2008-07-26 ] Stevens' campaign political action committee is called the "Northern Lights PAC."


Stevens served as the Assistant Republican Whip from 1977 to 1985. In 1994, after the Republicans took control of the Senate, Stevens was appointed Chairman of the Senate Rules Committee. Stevens became the Senate's President Pro Tempore when Republicans regained control of the chamber as a result of the 2002 mid-term elections, during which the previous most senior Republican senator and former President Pro Tempore Strom Thurmond retired.

Stevens chaired the Senate Appropriations Committee from 1997 to 2005, except for the 18 months when Democrats controlled the chamber. The chairmanship gave Stevens considerable influence among fellow Senators, who relied on him for home-state project funds. Due to Republican Party rules that limited committee chairmanships to six years, Stevens gave up the Appropriations gavel at the start of the 109th Congress, in January 2005. He chaired the United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation during the 109th Congress. He resigned his ranking member position on the committee due to his indictment. [http://www.cqpolitics.com/wmspage.cfm?docid=news-000002929015 CQ Politics | Stevens Surrenders Committee Posts ] ]

Stevens also has been Chairman of the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee, the Senate Ethics Committee, the Arms Control Observer Group, and the Joint Committee on the Library of Congress.

Due to Stevens' long tenure and that of the state's sole congressman, Don Young, Alaska is considered to have clout in national politics well beyond its small population (the state was long the smallest in population and is currently 47th, ahead of only Wyoming, North Dakota and Vermont.

Political issues

teering federal dollars to Alaska

Long before becoming the chairman of the Appropriations Committee, Stevens' ability to steer federal dollars to Alaska was the stuff of legend both in Washington and his home state.

Internet and network neutrality

On June 28, 2006, the Senate commerce committee was in the final day of three days of hearings, [http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Hearings.Hearing&Hearing_ID=1779 "Full Committee Markup - Communications Reform Bill."] U.S. Senate Committee on Commerce, Science & Transportation, June 28, 2006. (The audio from the day's hearing is available at a streaming media file in RealMedia format. Stevens' speech begins at 1:13:11 and ends at 1:24:19.)] during which the Committee members considered over 200 amendments to an omnibus telecommunications bill. Senator Stevens authored the bill, S. 2686 [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d109:s.02686: "S.2686. A bill to amend the Communications Act of 1934 and for other purposes."] ] , the Communications, Consumer's Choice, and Broadband Deployment Act of 2006.

Senators Olympia Snowe (R-ME) and Byron Dorgan (D-ND) cosponsored and spoke on behalf of an amendment that would have inserted strong network neutrality mandates into the bill. In between speeches by Snowe and Dorgan, Stevens gave a vehement 11 minute speech using colorful language to explain his opposition to the amendment. Stevens infamously referred to the Internet as "not a big truck," but a "series of tubes" that could be clogged with information, and may have confused the terms "Internet" and "e-mail". Soon after, Stevens' interpretation of how the Internet worked became a topic on the blogosphere, with many writers and commentators deriding Stevens' understanding of Internet technology and his qualifications to form strong opinion on a topic which he may not have fully understood.Singel, Ryan and Kevin Poulsen. (2006-06-30). [http://blog.wired.com/27BStroke6/index.blog?entry_id=1512499 "Your Own Personal Internet."] 27B Stroke 6, Wired.com. Retrieved on 2006-08-24.] This Internet phenomenon sparked mainstream media attention, and was prominently featured on several episodes of Comedy Central's "The Daily Show". "Series of tubes" has now become an Internet meme.


Stevens has been a long-standing proponent of logging. He championed a plan that would allow convert|2400000|acre|km2 of roadless old growth forest to be clear-cut. Stevens has stated that this would revive Alaska's timber industry and bring jobs to unemployed loggers; however, the proposal would mean that thousands of miles of roads would be constructed at the expense of the United States Forest Service, judged to cost taxpayers $200,000 per job created.


Stevens considers himself "pro-choice". According to Ontheissues.org [ [http://www.ontheissues.org/Social/Ted_Stevens_Abortion.htm "Ted Stevens on Abortion."] On the Issues: Every Political Leader on Every Issue. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.] and NARAL [ [http://www.naral.org/choice-action-center/in-congress/congressional-record-on-choice/state.html?state=AK "Congressional Record on Choice by State" (Alaska).] NARAL. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.] , Ted Stevens has a mildly pro-life voting record, despite some notable pro-choice votes [ [http://www.senate.gov/legislative/LIS/roll_call_lists/roll_call_vote_cfm.cfm?congress=108&session=1&vote=00048 "U.S. Senate Roll Call Votes 108th Congress - 1st Session: On the Amendment (Harkin Amdt. No. 260).] Vote date March 12, 2003. United States Senate, Legislation & Records. Retrieved on 2007-05-31] .

However, as a former member of the moderate Republican Main Street Partnership, Stevens presumably supported human embryonic stem cell research.cite web
url= http://www.republicanmainstreet.org/members.htm
archiveurl= http://web.archive.org/web/20051124163849/http://www.republicanmainstreet.org/members.htm
archivedate= 2005-11-24
title= Congressional Members: 109th Congress
publisher= Republican Main Street Partnership

Prostate Cancer

Stevens is a survivor of prostate cancer and has publically disclosed his cancer. [http://www.usrf.org/news/colin_powell.html] He was nominated for the first Golden Glove Awards for Prostate Cancer by the National Prostate Cancer Coalition (NPCC). He advocated the creation of the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Program for Prostate Cancer at the Department of Defense which has funded nearly $750 million for prostate cancer research. [http://www.fightprostatecancer.org/site/News2?page=NewsArticle&id=7169&news_iv_ctrl=0] Stevens is a recipient of the Presidential Citation by the American Urological Association for signicantly promoting urology causes. [http://www.auanet.org/about/awards/citations.cfm]

Global Warming

Stevens, once an avowed critic of anthropogenic climate change, began actively supporting legislation to combat climate change in early 2007. "Global climate change is a very serious problem for us, becoming more so every day," he said at a Senate hearing, adding that he was "concerned about the human impacts on our climate."Adair, Bill. (2007-02-24). [http://www.sptimes.com/2007/02/24/Worldandnation/Senator_s_new_views__.shtml "Senator's new views on climate surprise foes."] "St. Petersburg Times". Retrieved on 2007-02-25.]

However, in September 2007, Stevens said:

We're at the end of a long, long term of warming. 700 to 900 years of increased temperature, a very slow increase. We think we're close to the end of that. If we're close to the end of that, that means that we'll starting getting cooler gradually, not very rapidly, but cooler once again and stability might come to this region for a period of another 900 years. [John Tracy, [http://www.ktuu.com/Global/story.asp?S=7020437 "Shishmaref feels heat of global warming"] , KTUU.com, September 3, 2007]

Criticism of political positions and actions

Ted Stevens has taken criticism for a wide variety of positions and actions taken in the Senate. He placed a secret hold on a bill that would allow easier accountability and research of all federal funding measures, described the Internet as a "series of tubes" when taking a strong alliance with the telecommunications industryFact|date=July 2008 against network neutrality, [ [http://commerce.senate.gov/public/index.cfm?FuseAction=Hearings.Hearing&Hearing_ID=1779 "Full Committee Markup - Communications Reform Bill."] June 28, 2006. United States Senate Committee on Commerce, Science and Transportation. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.] and supported perceived pork barrel projects such as the Gravina Island Bridge and the Knik Arm Bridge (collectively known as the "Bridges to Nowhere" by their opponents). He threatened to resign from the Senate if Congress targeted only Alaska's annual transportation funds to help repair Louisiana in the wake of Hurricane Katrina damage if not required from every other state proportionally.Fact|date=September 2008 The funding in consideration would have been redirected from funds restricted by Congress for Alaskan bridges. Citizens Against Government Waste is a frequent critic of Stevens' affinity for pork and keeps a list of his projects. [ [http://www.cagw.org/site/PageServer?pagename=PorkerProfile_Stevens "Senator Ted Stevens' Pork Tally."] Citizens Against Government Waste. Retrieved on 2007-05-31.]

Additionally, he received criticism for introducing a bill [ [http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/bdquery/z?d110:s.00049: Search Results - THOMAS (Library of Congress) ] ] in January 2007 that would heavily restrict access to social networking sites from public schools and libraries. Sites falling under the language of this bill could include MySpace, Facebook, Digg, Wikipedia and Reddit. [ [http://www.computerworld.com/blogs/node/4598 U.S. senator: It's time to ban Wikipedia in schools, libraries | Computerworld Blogs ] ] [ [http://blog.wired.com/27bstroke6/2007/02/fear_and_loathi.html Fear And Loathing on The Anti-Anti-Predator Campaign | Threat Level from Wired.com ] ] [ [http://www.webpronews.com/topnews/2007/02/15/dopa-jr-is-not-a-wikipedia-ban DOPA Jr. Is Not A Wikipedia Ban | WebProNews ] ]

Ethical issues and federal investigations

In December 2003, the "Los Angeles Times" reported that the Stevens had taken advantage of lax Senate rules to use his political influence to obtain a large amount of his personal wealth.cite news |url=http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/latimes/access/500938221.html?dids=500938221:500938221&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&type=current&date=Dec+17%2C+2003&author=Chuck+Neubauer+and+Richard+T.+Cooper&pub=Los+Angeles+Times&edition=&startpage=A.1&desc=THE+NATION |title=Senator's Way to Wealth Was Paved With Favors |publisher=Los Angeles Times |date=December 17, 2003 |first= |last= |accessdate =2007-08-21] According to the article, while Stevens was already a millionaire "thanks to investments with businessmen who received government contracts or other benefits with his help," the lawmaker who is in charge of $800 billion a year, writes "preferences he wrote into law" that he benefits from.


On July 29, 2008 Stevens was indicted by a federal grand jury on seven counts of failing to properly report gifts. The charges relate to renovations to his home and alleged gifts from VECO Corporation, claimed to be worth more than $250,000.cite news |title=Grand jury indicts Alaska senator |url=http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/07/29/stevens.indictment/index.html |publisher=CNN |date=2008-07-29 |accessdate=2008-07-29 ] cite news |title=Justice Department indicts Sen. Ted Stevens |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25916299/ |publisher=MSNBC |date=2008-07-29 |accessdate=2008-07-29] The indictment followed a lengthy investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and the Internal Revenue Service (IRS) for possible corruption into Alaskan politicians and was based on his relationship with Bill Allen. Allen, then an oil service company executive, had earlier pled guilty, with sentencing suspended pending his cooperation in gathering evidence and giving testimony in other trials, to bribing several Alaskan state legislators, including a disputed claim about Stevens' son, former State Senator Ben Stevens. Stevens declared, "I'm innocent," and pled not guilty to the charges in a federal district court on July 31, 2008. Stevens asserted his right to a speedy trial so that he could have the opportunity to promptly clear his name and requested that the trial be held before the 2008 election.cite news |title=Stevens pleads not guilty in corruption case |url=http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/25951568/ |work=Associated Press |publisher=MSNBC |date=2008-07-31 |accessdate=2008-07-31] cite news|title=Stevens pleads not guilty, seeks early trial|url=http://www.adn.com/news/politics/fbi/stevens/story/480507.html|publisher=Anchorage Daily News|date=2007-07-31|accessdate=2007-07-31]

US District Court Judge in Washington DC Emmet G. Sullivan, on October 2, 2008 denied Steven's chief counsel, Brendan Sullivan's mistrial petition due to allegations of withholding evidence by prosecutors. Thus, the latter were admonished, and would submit themselves for internal probe by the United States Department of Justice. Brady v. Maryland requires prosecutors to give a defendant all information for defense. Judge Sulllivan had earlier admonished the prosecution for sending home to Alaska a witness who might have helped the defense. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2008/10/03/us/03stevens.html?bl&ex=1223179200&en=9a2bc36dfc35487b&ei=5087%0A www.nytimes.com, Judge Berates Prosecutors in Trial of Senator] ] [ [http://abcnews.go.com/TheLaw/story?id=5937338&page=1 abcnews.go.com, Judge Denies Mistrial Request in Stevens Case] ]

Home remodeling and VECO

date=May 29, 2007 |first= |last=Richard Mauer |accessdate =2007-08-21] The residential contractor who finished the renovation for VECO, Augie Paone, "believes the [Stevens'] remodeling could have cost ― if all the work was done efficiently ― around $130,000 to $150,000, close to the figure Stevens cited last year." [ [http://www.alaskadispatch.com/features/2-features/14-bill-a-teds-excellent-adventure-the-dark-side-to-alaskas-political-corruption-scandal.html?tmpl=component&print=1&page=] ] The Stevens paid $160,000 for the rennovations "and assumed that covered everything." [ [http://www.startribune.com/politics/national/congress/29877524.html?elr=KArksLckD8EQDUoaEyqyP4O:DW3ckUiD3aPc:_Yyc:aU7EaDiaMDCiUT] ] [ [http://www.forbes.com/feeds/ap/2008/09/26/ap5474774.html] ]

In June, the "Anchorage Daily News" reported that a federal grand jury in Washington, D.C., heard evidence in May about the expansion of Stevens' Girdwood home and other matters connecting Stevens to Veco. [cite news |url=http://www.adn.com/front/story/9006601p-8922071c.html |title=Grand jury examines Stevens' ties to Veco |publisher=Anchorage Daily News |date=June 17, 2007 |first= |last=Richard Mauer |accessdate =2007-08-21] In mid-June, FBI agents questioned several aides who work for Stevens as part of the investigation. [cite news |url=http://news.yahoo.com/s/ap/20070619/ap_on_go_co/stevens_investigation |title=Sen. Stevens aides questioned in probe |publisher=Associated Press |date=June 19, 2007 |first= |last=Matt Apuzzo |accessdate =2007-08-21] In July, Washingtonian magazine reported that Stevens had hired "Washington’s most powerful and expensive lawyer", Brendan Sullivan Jr., in response to the investigation. [Kim The Stevens' paid $160,000 for the rennovations. Eisler, [http://www.washingtonian.com/articles/mediapolitics/4457.html "Sen. Ted Stevens Hires Super-Lawyer Brendan Sullivan"] , "Washingtonian Magazine, July 1, 2007] In 2006, during wiretapped conversations with Bill Allen, Stevens expressed worries over potential misunderstandings and legal complications arising from the sweeping federal investigations into Alaskan politics. [ [http://community.adn.com/adn/node/132300] ] cite news
title=Sen. Stevens on tape: "might serve time in jail"
] On the witness stand, "Allen testified that Veco staff who had worked on his own house had charged 'way too much,' leaving him uncertain how much to invoice Stevens for when he had his staff work on the senator's house ... that he would be embarrassed to bill Stevens for overpriced labor on the house, and said he concealed some of the expense." [ [http://www.cnn.com/2008/POLITICS/10/06/stevens.trial/index.html] ]

Former aide McCabe

The Justice Department is also examining whether federal funds that Stevens steered to the Alaska SeaLife Center may have enriched a former aide.cite news |url=http://www.cnn.com/2007/POLITICS/08/01/stevens.investigation.ap/ |title=Probe eyes money Stevens steered to research center |publisher=CNN |date=August 1, 2007 |first= |last= |accessdate =2007-08-21] Currently the United States Department of Commerce and the Interior Department's inspector general are investigating "how millions of dollars that Stevens (R-Alaska) obtained for the nonprofit Alaska SeaLife Center were spent." According to CNN, "Among the questions is how about $700,000 of nearly $4 million directed to the National Park Service wound up being paid to companies associated with Trevor McCabe, a former legislative director for Stevens."

Trident Seafoods

In 2007 Stevens added $3.5 million into a Senate spending bill to help finance an airport to serve a remote Alaskan island.cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/cq/2007/08/01/cq_3199.html |title=Stevens’ Earmark Funds Airport Project That Benefits One Company |publisher=CQ Politics |date=August 1, 2007 |first= |last= |accessdate =2007-08-21] The airstrip would connect the roughly 100 permanent residents of Akutan, but the biggest beneficiary is the Seattle-based Trident Seafoods Corp. that operates "one of the world’s largest seafood processing plants on the volcanic island in the Aleutians." In December 2006 a federal grand jury investigating political corruption in Alaska ordered Trident and other seafood companies to produce documents about ties to the senator’s son, former Alaska Fisheries Marketing Board Chairman Ben Stevens. Trident’s chief executive, Charles Bundrant, is a longtime supporter of Sen. Stevens, and Bundrant with his family contributed $17,300 since 1995 to Ted Stevens’ political campaigns and $10,800 to his leadership PAC while Bundrant also gave $55,000 to the National Republican Senatorial Campaign Committee.

Bob Penney

In September, "The Hill" reported that Stevens had "steered millions of federal dollars to a sportfishing industry group founded by Bob Penney, a longtime friend". In 1998, Stevens invested $15,000 in Utah land deal managed by Penney; in 2004, Stevens sold his share of the property for $150,000. [Manu Raju, [http://thehill.com/leading-the-news/catching-fish-netting-earmarks-up-in-alaska-2007-09-06.html "Catching fish, netting earmarks up in Alaska"] , "The Hill", September 6, 2007]

Electoral history

1970 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 59.6%
* Wendell P. Kay (D) 40.4%

1972 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 77.3%
* Gene Guess (D) 22.7%

1978 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 75.6%
* Donald W. Hobbs (D) 24.1%

1984 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 71.2%
* John E. Havelock (D) 28.5%

1990 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 67.2%
* Michael Beasley (D) 32.8%

1996 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 76.7%
* Jeff Whittaker (Green) 12.5%
* Theresa Obermeyer (D) 10.3%

2002 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.) 78%
* Frank J. Vondersaar (D) 11%
* Jim Sykes (Green) 8%
* Jim Dore (American Independent) 3%
* Leonard Karpinski (Lib.) 1%

2008 Alaska United States Senate Election

* Ted Stevens (R) (inc.)
* Mark Begich (D), mayor of Anchorage
* Bob Bird (Alaskan Independence Party)
* Fredrick David Haase (Lib.)

Other notes

Stevens was named "Alaskan of the Century" in 2000. In the same year, the Alaska Legislature renamed the largest airport in Alaska to the Ted Stevens Anchorage International Airport. [ [http://www.adn.com/news/politics/fbi/stevens/story/478874.html "Stevens biographical timeline"] , "Anchorage Daily News", July 29, 2008]

The Ted Stevens Foundation is a charity established to "assist in educating and informing the public about the career of Senator Ted Stevens". The chairman is Tim McKeever, a lobbyist who was treasurer of Stevens' 2004 campaign. In May 2006, McKeever said that the charity was "nonpartisan and nonpolitical," and that Stevens does not raise money for the foundation, although he has attended some fund-raisers. [Michael Kranish, [http://www.boston.com/news/nation/washington/articles/2006/05/07/limits_urged_on_political_charities/?page=2 "Limits urged on political charities: Watchdogs target funds legislators helped create"] , "Boston Globe", May 7, 2006] When he is discussing issues that are especially important to him (such as opening up the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge to oil drilling), Stevens wears a necktie with The Incredible Hulk on it to show his seriousness. [ [http://www.adn.com/news/alaska/v-printer/story/7303381p-7215164c.html adn.com | alaska : Senate to vote today on ANWR ] ] Marvel Comics has sent him free Hulk paraphernalia and has thrown a Hulk party for him. [ [http://alaskalegislature.com/stories/062203/stevens.shtml AKLegislature.com: Anger management: Stevens meets the Hulk ] ] On December 21, 2005, Senator Stevens said that the vote to block drilling in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge "has been the saddest day of my life," [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2005/12/22/politics/22cong.html?ex=1188446400&en=6827cfdd479232b2&ei=5070 Senate Rejects Bid for Drilling in Arctic Area - New York Times ] ] . In May 2006, the Senate Majority Project, a partisan political organization, nominated Stevens as "Drama Queen of the US Senate" for his "entertaining tactics". [http://www.senatemajority.com/node/289] On April 13, 2007, Senator Stevens was recognized as being the longest serving Republican senator in history with a career spanning over 38 years. His colleague, Sen. Daniel Inouye (D-HI), referred to Stevens as 'The Strom Thurmond of the Arctic Circle'. November 18, 2003, the senator's 80th birthday, was declared "Senator Ted Stevens Appreciation Day" by the Governor of Alaska, Frank H. Murkowski. [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1282/is_15_59/ai_n27343453 Sinking in the West: Ted Stevens's last hurrah?] ] Stevens delivered a eulogy of Gerald R. Ford at the 38th President's funeral ceremony on December 30, 2006.


External links

* [http://stevens.senate.gov/ United States Senator Ted Stevens] , U.S. Senate site
* [http://www.tedstevens2008.com/ www.TedStevens2008.com] , 2008 Re-election site
* [http://www.sourcewatch.org/index.php?title=Ted_Stevens SourceWatch Congresspedia — Ted Stevens] profile;Media
* [http://www.adn.com/news/politics/fbi/ "Alaska Political Corruption"] Continuing coverage from the Anchorage Daily News
* [http://www.alaskareport.com/z46129_ted_stevens_corruption.htm Ted Stevens under criminal investigation for corruption]
*NOW on PBS: [http://www.pbs.org/now/shows/347/ An inside look into the Alaskan oil gifts scandal.]
* [http://topics.nytimes.com/top/reference/timestopics/people/s/ted_stevens Ted Stevens News] from The New York Times

U.S. Senator box
before=Bob Bartlett
start=December 24, 1968
alongside=Ernest Gruening, Mike Gravel, Frank Murkowski, Lisa Murkowski

NAME= Stevens, Ted
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=Stevens, Theodore Fulton
SHORT DESCRIPTION=senior United States Senator from Alaska
DATE OF BIRTH=November 18, 1923
PLACE OF BIRTH=city|Indianapolis|Indiana

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