- Secret police
Secret police (sometimes political police) are a
policeagency which operates in secrecyto maintain national securityagainst internal threats to the state.
Secret police forces are typically associated with totalitarian regimes, as they are often used to maintain the
political powerof the state rather than uphold the rule of law. Secret police are law enforcement agencies typically endowed, sometimes officially, with authority superior to other civil police forces, typically operating outside the normal boundaries of the law, and they are often accountable only to the executive branchof the government. They operate entirely or partially in secrecy, that is, most or all of their operations are obscure and hidden from the general public and from all government officials, except for the topmost executive officials [ [http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/society/A0861009.html "The Nature of a Secret Police"] , Retrieved on October 29, 2007] .
Secret police agencies have often been used as an instrument of
States where the secret police wield significant power are sometimes referred to as
police states. Secret police differ from the domestic security agencies in modern liberal democracies, because domestic security agencies are generally subject to government regulation, reporting requirements, and other accountabilitymeasures. Despite such overview, there still exists the possibility of domestic-security agencies acting unlawfully and taking on some characteristics of secret police.
Which government agencies may be classed or characterised, in whole or part, as "secret police" is disputed by political scientists.
Methods and history
Secret police not only have the traditional police authority to
arrestand detain, but in some cases they are given unsupervised control of the length of detention, assigned to implement punishments independent of the public judiciary, and allowed to administer those punishments without external review. The tactics of investigation and intimidationused by secret police enable them to accrue so much power that they usually operate with little or no practical restraint [Encyclopaedia Britannica, 15th Edition, vol. 25, p. 965, © 2003, Encyclopaedia Britannica, Inc. ] . Secret-police organizations employ internal spies and civilian informants to find protestleaders or dissidents, and they may also employ agents provocateursto incite political opponents to perform illegal acts against the government, whereupon such opponents may be arrested [ [http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G1-21058927.html "Arturo Bocchini and the Secret Political Police in Fascist Italy"] , Retrieved on October 29, 2007] . Secret police may open mail, tap telephone lines, use various techniques to trick, blackmail, or coerce relatives or friends of a suspectinto providing information. The secret police are renowned for raiding homes between midnight and dawn, to apprehend people suspected of dissent[ [http://www.mentalmayhem.net/newswire/2005/03/how_syrian_hack_1.html "How Syrian Hackers are Outsurfing the Mukhabarat"] , Retrieved on October 29, 2007] [ [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m1571/is_33_18/ai_91475068/pg_5 "Symposium - Nonviolent Civilian Insurrection in Iraq"] , Retrieved on October 29, 2007] [ [http://www.slate.com/id/2081185 "Iraq’s Rebuke to the NRA"] , Retrieved on October 29, 2007] .
People apprehended by the secret police are often arbitrarily arrested and detained without due process. While in detention, arrestees may be
tortured or subjected to inhumane treatment [ [http://web.amnesty.org/wire/May2007/Egypt "Torture: Egypt’s Open Secret"] , Retrieved on October 29, 2007] . Suspects may not receive a public trial, and instead may be convicted in a kangaroo court-style show trial, or by a secret tribunal. Secret police known to have used these approaches in history include the secret police of East Germany(the Ministry for State Security or Stasi) and Portugal( PIDE) [R. J. Stove, The Unsleeping Eye: A Brief History of Secret Police and Their Victims, Encounter Books, San Francisco, © 2003 ISBN 1-893554-66-X] .
Secret police have been used by many types of governments. Secret police forces in
dictatorships and totalitarian states usually use violence and acts of terror to suppress political opposition and dissent, and may use death squads to carry out assassinations and "disappearances". Although secret police normally do not exist in democratic states, Fact|date=April 2008 there are different varieties of democracy and, in times of emergency or war, a democracy may lawfully grant its policing and security services additional or sweeping powers, which may be seen or construed as a secret police.
ecret police in fiction
The concept of "secret police" is also popular in fiction, usually portraying such an institution at its most extreme. A well-known example is the Thought Police from
George Orwell's novel " Nineteen Eighty-four", who used psychologyand omnipresent surveillance to eliminate dissent. In the graphic novel " V for Vendetta" and the movie based on the novel, the secret police were used to capture and silence dissenters. The Public Security Section 9from the Ghost in the Shellseries uses information gathering, cybernetic communication, and hacking.The Civil Protectionin Half Life 2were notable for their use of intimidation and murder to keep citizens in line. In Return of the Pink Pantherthe Lugash secret police hunt down Sir Charles Lytton.In Star Trek, there is the Tal Shiar, Section 31and the Obsidian Order
List of intelligence agencies
List of secret police organizations
Law enforcement agency
Reichstag Fire Decree
Agentes in rebus
Secret Court of 1920
* [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-260931/police High Policing: The Protection of National Security]
* [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3071395/ MSNBC - Domestic spying vs. secret police]
* [http://www.nachrichtendienste.ch/THESIS_BY_MARCEL_STUESSI_SECRET_PERSONAL_DATA_GATHERING_.pdf Proposal for a Privacy Protection Guideline on Secret Personal Data Gathering and Transborder Flows of Such Data in the Fight against Terrorism and Serious Crime by Marcel Stuessi]
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См. также в других словарях:
secret police — secret po lice n the secret police a police force controlled by a government, that secretly tries to defeat the political enemies of that government … Dictionary of contemporary English
secret police — ► NOUN (treated as pl. ) ▪ a police force working in secret against a government s political opponents … English terms dictionary
secret police — n. a police force that operates secretly, esp. for suppressing opposition to the government … English World dictionary
secret police — noun a police force that operates in secrecy (usually against persons suspected of treason or sedition) • Hypernyms: ↑police, ↑police force, ↑constabulary, ↑law • Hyponyms: ↑Gestapo * * * noun the secret police : a p … Useful english dictionary
secret police — a police force that functions as the enforcement arm of a government s political policies and whose activities, which often include surveillance, intimidation, and physical violence as a means of suppressing dissent, are usually concealed from… … Universalium
secret police — N UNCOUNT: also the N The secret police is a police force in some countries that works secretly and deals with political crimes committed against the government … English dictionary
secret police — noun the secret police a police force controlled by a government, that secretly tries to defeat the political enemies of that government … Longman dictionary of contemporary English
secret police — Synonyms and related words: Cheka, FBI, Gestapo, Interpol, MP, MVD, Mounties, NKVD, OGPU, RCMP, SP, Scotland Yard, bugging, cloak and dagger work, constabulary, counterespionage, counterintelligence, county police, electronic surveillance, espial … Moby Thesaurus
secret police — noun [treated as plural] a police force working in secret against a government s political opponents … English new terms dictionary
secret police — se′cret police′ n. gov a police force that operates secretly, esp. to suppress dissent against the government • Etymology: 1920–25 … From formal English to slang