- Medial collateral ligament
Ligament: Medial collateral ligament Diagram of the right knee. (Medial collateral ligament labeled at center right.) Latin ligamentum collaterale tibiale Gray's subject #93 341 From medial epicondyle of the femur To medial condyle of tibia MeSH A02.513.514.162.600 Dorlands/Elsevier l_09/12491979
The medial collateral ligament of the knee is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. It is on the medial (inner) side of the knee joint in humans and other primates. It is also known as the tibial collateral ligament, or abbreviated as the MCL.
It is a broad, flat, membranous band, situated slightly posterior on the medial side of the knee joint. It is attached proximally to the medial condyle of femur immediately below the adductor tubercle; below to the medial condyle of the tibia and medial surface of its body. It resists forces that would push the knee medially, which would otherwise produce valgus deformity.
The fibers of the posterior part of the ligament are short and incline backward as they descend; they are inserted into the tibia above the groove for the semimembranosus muscle.
The anterior part of the ligament is a flattened band, about 10 centimeters long, which inclines forward as it descends.
It is inserted into the medial surface of the body of the tibia about 2.5 centimeters below the level of the condyle.
The MCL's deep surface covers the inferior medial genicular vessels and nerve and the anterior portion of the tendon of the semimembranosus muscle, with which it is connected by a few fibers; it is intimately adherent to the medial meniscus.
Embryologically and phylogenically, the ligament represents the distal portion of the tendon of adductor magnus muscle. In lower animals, adductor magnus inserts into the tibia. Because of this, the ligament occasionally contains muscle fibres. This is an atavistic variation.
Causes of injury
An MCL injury can be very painful and is caused by a valgus stress to a slightly bent knee, often when landing, bending or on high impact. Depending on the grade of the injury, the lowest grade (grade 1) can take between 2 and 10 weeks for the injury to fully heal. Recovery times for grades 2 and 3 are difficult to predict because of the amount of damage done can take weeks to several months. It is difficult to apply pressure on the injured leg for at least a few days.
MCL strains and tears are fairly common in American football. Mostly the center and the guards are ones who get this injury, due to the grip trend on their cleats(sometimes a helmet hits their knee). The number of football players who get this injury has increased in recent years. Companies are currently trying to develop better cleats that will prevent the injury.
Treatment of a partial tear or stretch injury is usually conservative. This includes measures to control inflammation as well as bracing. Kannus has shown good clinical results with conservative care of grade II sprains, but poor results in grade III sprains. As a result, more severe grade III and IV injuries to the MCL that lead to ongoing instability may require arthroscopic surgery. However, the medical literature considers surgery for most MCL injuries to be controversial. Since isolated MCL injuries are uncommon, surgery is often focused on ACL replacement or repair with combined surgical approaches being common.
For higher grade tears of the MCL with ongoing instability, the MCL can be sutured or replaced. Other non-surgical approaches for more severe MCL injuries may include prolotherapy, which has been shown by Reeves in a small RCT to reduce translation on KT-1000 arthrometer versus placebo. The future of non-surgical care for a non-healing MCL injury with laxity (partial ligament tear) is likely bioengineering. Fan et al. (2008) have demonstrated that knee ligament reconstruction is possible using mesenchymal stem cells and a silk scaffold.
- The KNEEguru - educational site packed with knee content with sections on medial collateral ligament injuries
- SUNY Figs 17:06-04
- Medial+collateral+ligament at eMedicine Dictionary
- lljoints at The Anatomy Lesson by Wesley Norman (Georgetown University) (antkneejointopenflexed)
- ^ Knee injuries
- ^ Kannus P (January 1988). "Long-term results of conservatively treated medial collateral ligament injuries of the knee joint". Clinical Orthopaedics and Related Research (226): 103–12. PMID 3335084.
- ^ Indelicato PA (January 1995). "Isolated Medial Collateral Ligament Injuries in the Knee". The Journal of the American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons 3 (1): 9–14. PMID 10790648. http://www.jaaos.org/cgi/pmidlookup?view=long&pmid=10790648.
- ^ Reeves KD, Hassanein K (March 2000). "Randomized prospective double-blind placebo-controlled study of dextrose prolotherapy for knee osteoarthritis with or without ACL laxity". Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine 6 (2): 68–74, 77–80. PMID 10710805.
- ^ Fan H, Liu H, Wong EJ, Toh SL, Goh JC (August 2008). "In vivo study of anterior cruciate ligament regeneration using mesenchymal stem cells and silk scaffold". Biomaterials 29 (23): 3324–37. doi:10.1016/j.biomaterials.2008.04.012. PMID 18462787.
Joints and ligaments of lower limbs (TA A03.6, GA 3.333) Coxal/hip Knee-jointTibiofemoralPatellofemoral TibiofibularSuperior tibiofibularInferior tibiofibularAnterior tibiofibular · Posterior tibiofibular · Interosseous membrane of leg Joints of footDistal intertarsalOther
anat(h/c, u, t, l)/phys
noco(arth/defr/back/soft)/cong, sysi/epon, injr
proc, drug(M01C, M4)
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
medial collateral ligament — n 1) a ligament that connects the medial epicondyle of the femur with the medial condyle and medial surface of the tibia and that helps to stabilize the knee by preventing lateral dislocation called also MCL, tibial collateral ligament compare… … Medical dictionary
medial collateral ligament — noun One of the four main ligaments of the knee … Wiktionary
Medial collateral ligament (MCL) of the knee — The knee joint is surrounded by a joint capsule with ligaments strapping the inside and outside of the joint (collateral ligaments) as well as crossing within the joint (cruciate ligaments). These ligaments provide stability and strength to the… … Medical dictionary
MCL (medial collateral ligament) of the knee — The knee joint is surrounded by a joint capsule with ligaments strapping the inside and outside of the joint (collateral ligaments) as well as crossing within the joint (cruciate ligaments). These ligaments provide stability and strength to the… … Medical dictionary
Medial talocalcaneal ligament — Ligament: Medial talocalcaneal ligament Ligaments of the medial aspect of the foot. Latin ligamentum talocalcaneum mediale Gray s … Wikipedia
Collateral ligament — can refer to: Fibular collateral ligament Lateral collateral ligament Medial collateral ligament Collateral ligaments of interphalangeal articulations of foot Collateral ligaments of metatarsophalangeal articulations This disambiguation page… … Wikipedia
Collateral ligament of knee — can refer to: Medial collateral ligament Fibular collateral ligament This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the same title. If an internal link led you here … Wikipedia
collateral ligament — n any of various ligaments on one or the other side of a hinge joint (as the knee, elbow, or the joints between the phalanges of the toes and fingers): as a) LATERAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT b) MEDIAL COLLATERAL LIGAMENT … Medical dictionary
Ligament, medial collateral knee — The knee joint is surrounded by a joint capsule with ligaments strapping the inside and outside of the joint (collateral ligaments) as well as crossing within the joint (cruciate ligaments). These ligaments provide stability and strength to the… … Medical dictionary
collateral ligament of ankle joint medial — ligamentum collaterale mediale articulationis talocruralis … Medical dictionary