Guaraní Aquifer


Guaraní Aquifer

The Guaraní Aquifer, located beneath the surface of the original four Mercosur countries (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay), is one of the world's largest aquifer systems and an important source of fresh water for its people. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/4549216.stm News] from the BBC ] Named after the Guaraní tribe, it covers 1,200,000 km², with a volume of about 40,000 km³, a thickness of between 50 m and 800 m and a maximum depth of about 1,800 m. It is estimated to contain about 37,000 km³ of water (arguably the largest single body of groundwater in the world, although the overall volume of the constituent parts of the Great Artesian Basin is much larger), with a total recharge rate of about 166 km³/year from precipitation. It is said that this vast underground reservoir could supply fresh drinking water to the world for 200 years. Due to an expected shortage of fresh water on a global scale, which environmentalists suggest will become critical in under 20 years, this important natural resource is rapidly becoming politicized, and the control of the resource becomes ever more controversial.

Geology of the aquifer

The Guaraní Aquifer consists primarily of sedimented sandstones deposited by fluvial and eolian processes during the Triassic and Jurassic periods (between 200 and 130 million years ago), with over 90% of the total area overlaid with igneous basalt of a low-permeability, deposited during the Cretacous period, acting as an aquitard and providing a high degree of containment. This greatly reduces the rate of infiltration and subsequent recharge, but also isolates the aquifer from the Vadose zone and subsequent surface-associated losses due to evaporation and evapotranspiration.

Research and monitoring of the aquifer in order to better manage it as a resource is considered important, as the population growth rate within its area is relatively high — resulting in higher consumption and pollution risks.

Concerns of U.S. strategic presence

The Argentine film called "Sed, Invasión Gota a Gota" ("Thirst, Invasion Drop by Drop"), directed by Mausi Martínez, portrays the military of the United States as slowly but steadily increasing its presence in the "Triple Frontera" (Triple Frontier, the area around the common borders of Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil). The supposed reason for the increasing presence of U.S. troops and joint exercises, mainly with Paraguay, is to monitor the large Arab population which resides in the area, according the American government. Martínez alleges that it is the water which brings the Americans to the area, and she fears a subtle takeover before the local governments even realize what is going on.

Similar concerns were lifted following both the signature of a military training agreement with Paraguay, which accorded immunity to U.S. soldiers and was indefinitely renewable (something which had never been done before, while Donald Rumsfeld himself visited Paraguay and, for the first time ever, Paraguayan president Nicanor Duarte Frutos went to the White House), and the construction of a U.S. military base near the airport of Mariscal Estigarribia, within 200 km of Argentina and Bolivia and 300 km of Brazil. The airport can receive large planes (B-52, C-130 Hercules, etc.) which the Paraguayan Air Force does not possess. [ Cite news | title=U.S. Military Moves in Paraguay Rattle Regional Relations | publisher=International Relations Center | date=December 14, 2005 | accessdate=April 2006 | url=http://americas.irc-online.org/am/2991 ] [http://www.clarin.com/suplementos/zona/2005/09/11/z-03615.htm US Marines put a foot in Paraguay] , El Clarín, September 9, 2005 es icon ] The governments of Paraguay and the United States subsequently ostensibly declared that the use of an airport (Dr Luis María Argaña International) [http://worldaerodata.com/wad.cgi?id=PA60316&sch=SGME] was one point of transfer for few soldiers in Paraguay at the same time. According to the Argentine newspaper "Clarín", the U.S. military base is strategic because of its location near the Triple Frontier, its proximity to the Guaraní Aquifer, and its closeness to Bolivia (less than 200 km) at the same "moment that Washington's magnifying glass goes on the "Altiplano" [Bolivia] and points toward Venezuelan [president] Hugo Chávez — the regional devil according to the Bush administration — as the instigator of the instability in the region" ("El Clarín"). The U.S. State Department firmly [denies] [http://usinfo.state.gov/media/Archive/2006/Jan/12-623470.html] these allegations.

High-Profile Investments in the Region

* US President George W. Bush allegedly has recently purchased a convert|98842|acre|km2|sing=on farm in Chaco, Paraguay atop the aquifer. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,1928928,00.html The Guardian] and [http://www.counterpunch.org/cp10202006.html Counterpunch] ]
* The Reverend Moon has purchased convert|1482600|acre|km2 in Chaco, Paraguay.

References

External links

* [http://www.oaquiferoguarani.com.br/ Official Site] for the book about the Aquifer, by Nadia Rita Boscardin Borghetti, José Roberto Borghetti and Ernani Francisco da Rosa Filho (in Brazilian Portuguese)


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Guaraní (disambiguation) — Guaraní may refer to:;Ethnography:* Guaraní, an indigenous people from South America s interior (Brazil, Argentina, Paraguay and Bolivia):* Guaraní language, spoken in Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia and in Paraguay (where it is a co official… …   Wikipedia

  • Aquifer — Typical aquifer cross section An aquifer is a wet underground layer of water bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be usefully extracted using a water well. The study of water flow… …   Wikipedia

  • Acuífero Guaraní — Lage des Acuífero Guaraní in Südamerika Der Acuífero Guaraní (so spanisch; portugiesisch Aquífero Guarani, früher Aqüífero Guarani) in Südamerika ist ein über 1.200.000 Quadratkilometer großer Grundwasserleiter unter dem Siedlungsgebiet der… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • List of aquifers — The following is a partial list of aquifers around the world. A of aquifers is also available.North AmericaCanada * Oak Ridges Moraine North of Toronto Ontario * Laurentian River SystemUnited States* Biscayne Aquifer * Bruceian Aquifer * Edwards… …   Wikipedia

  • Water politics — Water politics, sometimes called hydropolitics, is politics affected by water and water resources.The first use of the term, hydropolitics, came in the book by John Waterbury, entitled Hydropolitics of the Nile Valley, Syracuse University Press,… …   Wikipedia

  • History of Paraguay — This is the history of Paraguay. See also the history of South America and the history of present day nations and states. Discovery by Europeans The history of Paraguay began indirectly in 1516 with the failed expedition of Juan Diaz de Solís to… …   Wikipedia

  • United States-Latin American relations — The United States has always had a special conception of its relationship with the nations of Latin America. 19th century to World War I The 1823 Monroe Doctrine, founder of United States isolationism, theorized the imperative for the US to break …   Wikipedia

  • Bolivian gas conflict — The Bolivian gas conflict was a social confrontation in Bolivia centering on the exploitation of the country s vast natural gas reserves. The expression can be extended to refer to the general conflict in Bolivia over the exploitation of gas… …   Wikipedia

  • Paraná-Becken — Umrandet das Paraná Becken (oben) sowie das Chaco Paraná Becken Das Paraná Becken ist ein riesiges Sedimentbecken im zentralöstlichen Südamerika. Es erstreckt sich über das nordöstliche Argentinien, den zentralsüdlichen Teil Brasiliens, das… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Laguna Blanca (Paraguay) — Infobox lake lake name = Laguna Blanca image lake = Amanecer en laguna blanca largo.jpg caption lake = image bathymetry = caption bathymetry= location = coords = coord|23|48|48|S|56|17|42|W|type:waterbody region:PY|display=inline,title type =… …   Wikipedia