- Treaty of Campo Formio
The Treaty of Campo Formio was signed on
October 17, 1797(26 Vendémiaire, Year VI of the French Republic) by Napoleon Bonaparteand Count Ludwig von Coblenzas representatives of Franceand Austria. It marked the collapse of the First Coalition, the victorious conclusion to Napoleon's campaigns in Italyand the end of the first phase of the Napoleonic Wars.
Beyond the usual clauses of "firm and inviolable peace" the treaty passed a number of Austrian territories into French hands. Lands ceded included the Austrian Netherlands (now
Belgium) and certain islands in the Mediterranean, including Corfuand other Venetian islands in the Adriatic. Veniceand its territories (Venetia) were divided between the two states: Venice, Istriaand Dalmatiawere turned over to the Austrian emperor. Austria recognized the Cisalpine Republicand the newly-created Ligurian Republic, formed of Genovese territories, as independent powers.
The treaty also contained non-public clauses, which divided up certain other territories, made
Liguriaindependent, and also agreed to the extension of the borders of France up to the Rhine, the Nette, and the Roer. Free French navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine, the Meuseand the Moselle. The French Republic had been expanded into Germany and Italy's natural boundaries.
The treaty was composed and signed after five months of negotiations. It was basically what had been agreed earlier at the
Peace of Leobenin April 1797, but the negotiations had been spun out by both parties for a number of reasons. During the negotiating period the French had to crush a royalist coup in September. This was used as a cause for the arrest and deportation of royalist and moderate deputies in the Directory.
Napoleon's biographer, Felix Markham, wrote "the partition of Venice was not only a moral blot on the peace settlement but left Austria a foothold in Italy, which could only lead to further war." In fact the Peace of Campo Formio, though it reshaped the map of Europe and marked a major step in Napoleon's fame, was only a respite.
As a result of the treaty,
Gilbert du Motier, marquis de La Fayette, a prisoner from the French revolution, was released from Austrian captivity.
Campo Formio, now called
Campoformido, was a village west of Udinein north-eastern Italy; the treaty was signed at an inn there.
List of treaties
Italian campaigns of the French Revolutionary Wars
* [http://www.bartleby.com/65/ca/CampoFor.html The Columbia Encyclopedia (2001) - Treaty of Campo Formio]
* [http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/diplomatic/c_campoformio1.html Treaty of Campo Formio] (extracts in English)
* [http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/government/diplomatic/c_campoformio2.html Background to the Treaty]
* [http://www.napoleon-series.org/research/miscellaneous/c_Istria.html Istria Military - The Town of Rijeka and the Contingencies of Napoleonic Warfare in the Years 1796-1797]
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