Murad III


Murad III
Osmanli-nisani.svg    Murad III
His Imperial Majesty Grand Sultan, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe
Tughra of Murad III.JPG
Reign 1574–95
Period Growth of the Ottoman Empire
Full Name Murad III
Born 4 July 1546
Birthplace Bozdağan or Manisa
Died 15/16 January 1595
Place of death Topkapı Palace of Constantinople
Predecessor Selim II
Successor Mehmed III
Royal House House of Osman
Dynasty Ottoman Dynasty

Murad III (Ottoman Turkish, Persian: مراد ثالث Murād-i sālis, Turkish:III.Murat) (4 July 1546 – 15/16 January 1595) was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1574 until his death.

Contents

Biography

Born in Bozdağan or Manisa, Murad III was the eldest son of sultan Selim II (1566–74), and succeeded his father in 1574. Murad began his reign by having his five younger brothers strangled.[1] His authority was undermined by the harem influences, more specifically, those of his mother and later of his favorite wife Safiye Sultan. The power had only been maintained under Selim II by the genius of the all-powerful Grand Vizier Mehmed Sokollu who remained in office until his assassination in October 1579. During his reign the northern borders with the Austro-hungarian empire were defended by the Bosniak kapetan Hasan Predojević. The reign of Murad III was marked by wars with Safavids and Habsburgs and Ottoman economic decline and institutional decay. The Ottomans also faced defeats during battles such as the Battle of Sisak.

Murad took great interest in the arts, particularly miniatures and books. He actively supported the court Society of Miniaturists, commissioning several volumes including the Siyer-i Nebi, the most heavily illustrated biographical work on the life of Muhammad, the Book of Skills, the Book of Festivities and the Book of Victories[2]. He had two large alabaster urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave in the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople and a large wax candle dressed in tin which was donated by him to the Rila monastery in Bulgaria is on display in the monastery museum.

From him descend all succeeding Sultans,[3] through his marriage to his maternal relative Valide Sultan Safiye Sultan, originally named Sofia Baffo, a Venetian noblewoman, mother of Mehmed III.

Numerous envoys and letters were exchanged between Elizabeth I and Sultan Murad III.[4] In one correspondence, Murad entertained the notion that Islam and Protestantism had "much more in common than either did with Roman Catholicism, as both rejected the worship of idols", and argued for an alliance between England and the Ottoman Empire.[5] To the dismay of Catholic Europe, England exported tin and lead (for cannon-casting) and ammunitions to the Ottoman Empire, and Elizabeth seriously discussed joint military operations with Murad III during the outbreak of war with Spain in 1585, as Francis Walsingham was lobbying for a direct Ottoman military involvement against the common Spanish enemy.[6] This diplomacy would be continued under Murad's successor Mehmed III, by both the sultan and Safiye Sultan alike.

Murad died in the Topkapı Palace of Constantinople[7][8] in 1596.

In fiction

Orhan Pamuk's historical novel Benim Adım Kırmızı (My Name is Red, 1998) takes place at the court of Murad III, during nine snowy winter days of 1591, which the writer uses in order to convey the tension between East and West.

References

  1. ^ Marriott, John Arthur. The Eastern Question (Clarendon Press, 1917), 96.
  2. ^ Pamuk, Orhan. My Name is Red, Alfred A. Knopf, 2010. ISBN 9780307593924
  3. ^ See A. D. Alderson, The structure of the Ottoman dynasty [Oxford: Clarendon, 1956], Table XXXI et seq., for details.
  4. ^ The Jamestown project by Karen Ordahl Kupperman
  5. ^ Kupperman, p.40
  6. ^ Kupperman, p.41
  7. ^ The Encyclopædia Britannica, Vol.7, Edited by Hugh Chisholm, (1911), 3; Constantinople, the capital of the Turkish Empire...
  8. ^ Britannica, Istanbul:When the Republic of Turkey was founded in 1923, the capital was moved to Ankara, and Constantinople was officially renamed Istanbul in 1930.

External links

Media related to Murad III at Wikimedia Commons

Murad III
Born: 4 July 1546 Died: 15 January 1595[aged 48]
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Selim II
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
12 December 1574 – 15 January 1595
Succeeded by
Mehmed III
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Selim II
Caliph of Islam
12 December 1574 – 15 January 1595
Succeeded by
Mehmed III

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Murad III. — Murad III. Murad III. (* 1546; † 1595) war 1574 bis 1595 Sultan des Osmanischen Reiches. Murad war der älteste Sohn von Selim II. und folgte seinem Vater am 12. Dezember 1574 auf dem Thron. Die Reichsgeschäfte wurden weiterhin von dem mächtigen… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad III — (4 de julio de 1546 – 15 de enero de 1595) rigió como sultán del Imperio otomano desde 1574 hasta su muerte. Era el hijo mayor del sultán Selim II y su concubina Nurbanu (Genevieve Rachel) y sucedió a su padre en 1574. Su ascensión marca el …   Wikipedia Español

  • Murad III — (1546 1595) 12e sultan ottoman (1574 1595), fils de Selim II. Son armée enleva l Azerbaïdjan et le Daghestan à la Perse (1578 1590) …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Murad III — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Murad. Murad III peint par un artiste espagnol du XVIIe siècle Murad …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Murad III — ▪ Ottoman sultan born July 4, 1546, Manisa, Ottoman Empire [now in Turkey] died Jan. 15/16, 1595, Constantinople [now Istanbul]       Ottoman (Ottoman Empire) sultan in 1574–95 whose reign saw lengthy wars against Iran and Austria and social and… …   Universalium

  • Murad III — Murat III (4 de julio de 1546 – 15 de enero de 1595) rigió como sultán del Imperio Otomano desde 1574 hasta su muerte. Era el hijo mayor del sultán Selim II y su concubina Nurbanu (Cecilia Venier Baffo,Sofía Baffa o Safiyya Baffo) y sucedió a su… …   Enciclopedia Universal

  • Murad — ist ein männlicher Vorname, der in mehreren Sprachen vorkommt. Er kann auch Familienname sein. Inhaltsverzeichnis 1 Bedeutung 2 Varianten 3 Bekannte Namensträger 3.1 Fiktion …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Murad I —    Murad I Ottoman Sultan …   Wikipedia

  • Murad IV —    Murad IV Ottoman Sultan Caliph …   Wikipedia

  • Murad II — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Murad. Murad II Murad II (turc : Murat ou Murad) est né en juin 1404, il est le fils de Mehmed Ier, lui succéda comme sultan ottoman en 1421. Il est mort le 3 février  …   Wikipédia en Français


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