Xibe


Xibe

Infobox Ethnic group


caption = "Sibo military colonists", picture drawn by Henry Lansdell during his visit to today's Qapqal Xibe County in 1882
group = Xibe resize|75%|(Sibe, Sibo, Xibo)
population = 188,000
regions = flag|Chinanbsp|2(Xinjiang· Liaoning· Jilin)
languages = Xibe
religions = Tibetan Buddhism, Shamanism
related = Manchu

The Xibe (.

History

The Xibe originally lived on the Nonni and Songhua river valleys in central Manchuria. They are known as one of the nine states that were defeated by Nurhaci in the Battle of Gure in 1593. They were under loose domination of the Khorchin Mongols even after the Khorchin came under the control of the Manchu Qing Dynasty.

The Xibe started to make direct contact with the Qing Dynasty when it conducted military campaigns against Russia. They provided logistical support to the Qing. In 1692, the Khorchin dedicated the Xibe, the Gūwalca and the Daur to the Kangxi Emperor in exchange for silver. The Xibe was incorporated into the Eight Banners and were stationed in Qiqihar and other cities in Manchuria.

After conquering Eastern Turkestan, the Qianlong Emperor garrisoned part of the Xibe there in 1764 to defend the new frontier. They formed a community in the Qapqal region south of the Ili River.

Culture

The traditional dress of the Xibe was similar to the traditional dress of the Manchus. Nowadays almost all the Xibe wear Western clothing and the traditional clothing is worn by elders during festivals.

Traditionally, the Xibe were divided into "hala", clans consisting of people who shared the same surname. Until modern times, the dwellings of the Xibe housed up to three different generations from a same family, since it was believed that while the father was alive no son could break the family clan and to leave the house.

Language

The Xibe in northeast China speak Chinese as their first language. In Xinjiang, descendants of the Qing dynasty military garrison preserve their language, which is an innovative dialect of the Manchu. Unlike the Manchu language, the Xibe language is reported to have eight vowel distinctions as opposed to the six found in Manchu, differences in morphology, and a complex kind of vowel harmony. The general vocabulary and structure of Xibe has not been affected as much by the influence of Chinese as Manchu has been. However, there are a number of Chinese loanwords, and a large body of sociological terminology, such as "gəming" (revolution) and "gungshə" (commune), have been borrowed from Chinese and incorporated into the everyday vocabulary of the language. They use the Xibe script, a slightly revised Manchu script.

* The Xibe believe that they are descendants of the Xianbei.
* Dr. Pamela Kyle Crossley, Professor of History at Dartmouth College, asserts that the Russians named Siberia after the Sibe/Xibe.Fact|date=February 2007

References

* Wu Yuanfen, Zhao Zhiqiang. 1981. "Xibozu xiqian gaishu" [A general account of the westward migration of the Xibo] . "Minzu yanjiu" 2:22-29.
* Ramsey, S. Robert. 1987. "The Languages of China". Princeton University Press, Princeton New Jersey ISBN 0-691-06694-9
* "C. G. Mannerheimin Valokuvia Aasian-Matkalta 1906-1908 (Photographs By C. G. Mannerheim From His Journey Across Asia 1906-1908)", (Otava, Keuruu: 1990) ISBN: 9511113577. Contains photographs of Xibe/Xibo and other ethnic groups.

Ethnic groups in China

External links

* [http://www.sibeculture.com/ Sibe Culture (in Chinese)]
* [http://www.atarn.org/xibe_manchu/xibe.htm Website on Xibe archery]


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Look at other dictionaries:

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