- Sixteen Kingdoms
The Sixteen Kingdoms (zh-tsp|t=十六國|s=十六国|p=Shíliù Guó), or less commonly the Sixteen States, were a collection of numerous short-lived sovereign states in
China properand its neighboring areas from 304to 439CE after the retreat of the Jin Dynasty (265-420)to South Chinaand before the establishment of the Northern Dynasties. Originally, the term was first introduced by Cui Hongin the lost historical record, " Shiliuguo Chunqiu" (the Spring and Autumn Annalsof the Sixteen Kingdoms) and restricted to sixteen kingdoms of this era, namely the states of Han Zhao, Later Zhao, Cheng Han, Former Liang, Later Liang, Northern Liang, Western Liáng, Southern Liang, Former Yan, Later Yan, Northern Yan, Southern Yan, Former Qin, Later Qinand Western Qinand Xia. The term has been broadened to included all sovereignities from 304 to 439. These do not all exist through the entire period.
A less used term, the Period of Sixteen Kingdoms represents this turbulent era from
Almost all rulers of the kingdoms were part of the
Wu Huethnicity and claimed to be the emperors and wangs (kings). The Han Chinesefounded the four states: Northern Yan, Western Liang, Former Liangand the state of Wei. Six Chinese rulers of the Former Liangremained titularly under the government of the Jin Dynasty. The Northern Wei Dynastyis not counted as one of the Sixteen Kingdoms even though it was founded during the Period.
Rulers of each of the Kingdoms are listed in relevant articles.
Ethnic groups in Chinese history
Battle of Fei
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