- Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
subject_name = Julius and Ethel Rosenberg
image_size = 200px
image_caption = Ethel and Julius Rosenberg after their conviction
date_of_birth = birth date|mf=yes|1918|5|12|mf=y (Julius)
birth date|mf=yes|1915|9|28|mf=y (Ethel)
New York City, United States (both)
date_of_death = death date and age|mf=yes|1953|6|19|1918|5|12|mf=y Julius
death date and age|mf=yes|1953|6|19|1915|9|28|mf=y Ethel
charge = Conspiracy to commit
status = Executed
occupation = Electrical engineer (Julius), Actress, Singer,
Michael Meeropoland Robert Meeropol
Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American
communistswho were executed after having been found guilty of conspiracy to commit espionage. The charges were in relation to the passing of information about the atomic bombto the Soviet Union. Theirs was the first execution of civilians for espionage in United States history.
The guilt of the Rosenbergs, the conduct of their trial and the appropriateness of their sentence have been the subject of continued debate since their arrest and trial. While reliable independent corroboration has been revealed that Julius Rosenberg did pass information to the Soviets, there is little evidence that his wife Ethel, executed with him, participated in espionage. [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/26761635/ "Rosenberg sons acknowledge dad was spy."] "MSNBC". September 17, 2008. Retrieved on 2008-09-21.] Information released after the
Cold Warconfirmed that Julius acted as a courier and recruiter for the Soviets. However, the other spies that were caught were not executed. Ethel's brother, David Greenglass, who supplied documents to Julius from Los Alamos, served 10 years of his 15 year sentence. [cite news |first=Edward |last=Ranzal |title=Greenglass, in Prison, Vows to Kin He Told Truth About Rosenbergs |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00714FE3D59107A93CBA81788D85F478585F9 |quote=David Greenglass, serving 15 years as a confessed atom spy, denied to members of his family recently that he had been coached by the Federal Bureau of Investigation in the drawing of segments of the atom bomb. |publisher= New York Times|date=March 19, 1953 |accessdate=2008-07-07] Harry Goldserved 15 years in Federal prison as the courier for Klaus Fuchs, who supplied more detailed information to the Soviets on the atomic bomb. [cite news |title=1972 Death of Harry Gold Revealed |first=Alden |last=Whitman |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F50B1EFA3D541A7493C6A81789D85F408785F9 |quote=Harry Gold, who served 15 years in Federal prison as a confessed atomic spy courier, for Klaus Fuchs, a Soviet agent, and who was a key Government witness in the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg espionage case in 1951, died 18 months ago in Philadelphia. |publisher= New York Times|date=February 14, 1974 |accessdate=2008-07-07] Morton Sobell, who was tried with the Rosenbergs, served 17 years and 9 months. [cite news |first=Edward |last=Ranzal |title=Morton Sobell Free As Spy Term Ends |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F30B14F63C5E147493C7A8178AD85F4D8685F9 |quote=Morton Sobell, sentenced to 30 years for a wartime espionage conspiracy to deliver vital national secrets to the Soviet Union, was released from prison yesterday after serving 17 years and 9 months.|publisher= New York Times|date=January 15, 1969 |accessdate=2008-07-07 ] In 2008, Sobell admitted he was a spy and confirmed Julius Rosenberg was "in a conspiracy that delivered to the Soviets classified military and industrial information and what the American government described as the secret to the atomic bomb."cite news |first=Sam |last=Roberts |title=For First Time, Figure in Rosenberg Case Admits Spying for Soviets |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/12/nyregion/12spy.html?partner=rssnyt&emc=rss |quote=Sobell, who served nearly 19 years in Alcatraz and other federal prisons, admitted for the first time that he had been a Soviet spy.]
Julius Rosenberg was born to a family of Jewish immigrants in
New York Cityon May 12, 1918. His parents worked in the sweat shops of the Lower East Side. Julius became a leader in the Young Communist League where, in 1936, he met Ethel Greenglass, whom he married three years later. He graduated from the City College of New Yorkwith a degree in electrical engineeringin 1939 and joined the Army Signal Corps in 1940, where he worked on radarequipment.
Ethel Greenglass was born on September 28, 1915, in
New York City, also to a Jewish family. She was an aspiring actress and singer, but eventually took a secretarial job at a shipping company. She became involved in labor disputes and joined the Young Communist League, USA, where she met Julius. The Rosenbergs had two sons, Robert and Michael, who were adopted by teacher and songwriter Abel Meeropol(and took the Meeropol surname) after their parents' execution.
According to his former
NKVDhandler, Alexandre Feklisov, Julius Rosenberg was originally recruited by the KGBon Labor Day 1942, by former NKVD spymaster Semyon Semenov.cite book |last=Feklisov |first=Aleksandr |coauthors=Sergei Kostin |title=The Man Behind the Rosenbergs |publisher=Enigma Books |year=2001 |id=ISBN 1-929631-08-1] Julius had been introduced to Semenov by Bernard Schuster, a high-ranking member of the Communist Party USAas well as Earl Browder's personal NKVD liaison, and after Semenov was recalled to Moscowin 1944, his duties were taken over by his apprentice, Feklisov.
According to Feklisov, Julius provided thousands of classified reports from Emerson Radio, including a complete
proximity fuze, the same design that was used to shoot down Gary Powers's U-2 in 1960. Under Feklisov's administration, Julius Rosenberg is said to have recruited sympathetic individuals to the KGB’s service, including Joel Barr, Alfred Sarant, William Perland Morton Sobell. [cite book |last=Feklisov |first=Aleksandr |coauthors=Sergei Kostin |title=The Man Behind the Rosenbergs |publisher=Enigma Books |year=2001 |id=ISBN 1-929631-08-1|pages=140-147]
According to Feklisov's account, he was supplied by Perl, under Julius Rosenberg’s direction, with thousands of documents from the
National Advisory Committee for Aeronauticsincluding a complete set of design and production drawings for the Lockheed's P-80 Shooting Star. Feklisov says he learned through Julius that his brother-in-law David Greenglasswas working on the top-secret Manhattan Projectat the Los Alamos National Laboratoryand used Julius to recruit him.
USSRand the U.S. became allies during World War IIafter Nazi Germany's surprise attack on the USSR in 1941, but the U.S. government was highly suspicious of Joseph Stalin's long-term intentions. Therefore the Americans did not share information or seek assistance from the Soviet Union for the Manhattan Project. However, the Soviets were aware of the project as a result of espionage penetration of the U.S. government and made a number of attempts to infiltrate its operations at the University of California, Berkeley. A number of project members—some high-profile, others lower in rank—did voluntarily give secret information to Soviet agents, many because they were sympathetic to Communism(or the Soviet Union's role in the war) and did not feel the U.S. should have a monopolyon atomic weapons. [See Joseph Albright and Marcia Kunstell, "Bombshell", Times Books, 1997 (ISBN 0-8129-2861-X) with reference to Theodore Alvin Halland Saville Saxand their motives.]
After the war, the U.S. continued to protect its nuclear secrets, but the Soviet Union was able to produce its own atomic weapons by 1949. The West was shocked by the speed with which the Soviets were able to stage their first nuclear test, "
Joe 1." It was then discovered in January 1950 that a German refugee theoretical physicistworking for the British mission in the Manhattan Project, Klaus Fuchs, had given key documents to the Russians throughout the war. Through Fuchs' confession, U.S. and United Kingdom intelligence agents were able to make a case against his alleged courier, Harry Gold, who was arrested on May 23, 1950. A former machinistat Los Alamos, Sergeant David Greenglassconfessed to having passed secret information on to the USSR through Gold as well. Though he initially denied any involvement by his sister, Ethel Rosenberg, he claimed that her husband, Julius, had convinced his wife to recruit him while on a visit to him in Albuquerque, New Mexicoin 1944 and that Julius had also passed secrets. Another accused conspirator, Morton Sobell, was on vacation in Mexico Citywhen both Rosenbergs were arrested. According to his story published in "On Doing Time", he tried to figure out a way to reach Europe without a passportbut ultimately abandoned that effort and was back in Mexico City when he was kidnapped by members of the Mexican secret policeand driven to the U.S. border where he was arrested. The government claimed he had been deported, but in 1956 the Mexican government officially declared that he had never been deported. Regardless of how he was returned to the U.S., he was arrested and stood trial with the Rosenbergs on one count of conspiracy to commit espionage.
Trial and conviction
The trial of the Rosenbergs and Sobell began on March 6, 1951. The judge was
Irving Kaufman. The attorney for the Rosenbergs was Emanuel Hirsch Bloch. [cite news |title=Died |url=http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/0,9171,860424,00.html |work= Time (magazine)|year=1954 |accessdate=2008-06-21] The prosecution's primary witness, David Greenglass, stated that his sister Ethel typed notes containing U.S. nuclear secrets in the Rosenberg apartment in September 1945. He also asserted that a sketch he made of a cross-section of the implosion-type atom bomb (the one dropped on Nagasaki, Japan, as opposed to the "gun method" triggering device that was in the one dropped on Hiroshima) was also turned over to Julius Rosenberg at that meeting.
From the beginning, the trial attracted a high amount of media attention, like the trial of
Alger Hiss. Aside from the Rosenbergs' own defense during the trial, there was not one single public expression of doubt as to their guilt in any of the media (including the left-wing and Communist press) before or during the trial. The first break in the media unanimity would not occur until August 1951, when a series of articles ran in the left-wing newspaper"The National Guardian". Only after the publication of those articles was a defense committee formed.
However, between the trial and the executions there were widespread protests and claims of
anti-Semitism. For example, Nobel Prizewinner Jean-Paul Sartrecalled the case "a legal lynchingwhich smears with blood a whole nation. By killing the Rosenbergs, you have quite simply tried to halt the progress of science by human sacrifice. Magic, witch-hunts, auto-da-fés, sacrifices — we are here getting to the point: your country is sick with fear... you are afraid of the shadow of your own bomb." [cite book |last=Schneir |first=Walter |title=Invitation to an Inquest |year=1983 |publisher=Pantheon Books |isbn=0394714962 |page=254] Others, including non-Communists such as Albert Einstein(at that time, a socialist[cite web |url=http://www.monthlyreview.org/598einst.htm |first=Albert |last=Einstein |title=Why Socialism? |accessdate=2008-10-05 |publisher=Monthly Review |date=May, 1949] ) and Nobel-Prize-winning atomic scientist and chemist Harold Urey,Fact|date=April 2008 as well as Communists or left-leaning artists such as Nelson Algren, Dashiell Hammett, Jean Cocteau, Diego Riveraand Frida Kahlo, protested the position of the American government in what some termed America's Dreyfus Affair. In May 1951, Pablo Picassowrote for French magazine "L’Humanité", "The hours count. The minutes count. Do not let this crime against humanity take place." [cite web |first=Elizabeth |last=Schulte |url=http://www.isreview.org/issues/29/rosenbergs.shtml |title=The trial of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg |accessdate=2008-10-05 |publisher=International Socialist Review |date=Issue 29, May–June 2003] Pope Pius XIIalso condemned the execution. [cite book |first=Ellen |last=Schrecker |title=Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America |year=1998 |publisher=Little, Brown and Company |page=137 |isbn=0316774707] The all-black International Longshoremen’s Association Local 968 stopped working for a day in protest. [cite news |title=Unions throughout U.S. joining in plea to save the Rosenbergs |publisher=Daily Worker |date=January 15, 1953] Cinema artists such as Fritz Langand Bertolt Brechtregistered their protest. [cite book |last=Sharp |first=Malcolm P. |year=1956 |title=Was Justice Done? The Rosenberg-Sobell Case |publisher=Monthly Review Press |page=132 |id=56-10953]
Although the notes allegedly typed by Ethel apparently contained little that was relevant to the Soviet atomic bomb project, this was sufficient evidence for the jury to convict on the conspiracy to commit espionage charge. It was suggested that part of the reason Ethel was indicted along with Julius was so that the prosecution could use her as a 'lever' to pressure Julius into giving up the names of others who were involved. [cite book |last=Roberts |first=Sam |title=The Brother: The Untold Story of the Rosenberg Case |publisher=Random House |year=2001 |id=ISBN 0-375-76124-1 |pages=425-426, 432] If that was the case, it did not work. On the witness stand, Julius asserted his right under the U.S. Constitution's Fifth Amendment to not incriminate himself whenever asked about his involvement in the Communist Party or with its members. Ethel did similarly. Neither defendant was viewed sympathetically by the jury.
The role played by Assistant U.S. Attorney
Roy Cohn, the prosecutor in the case, is controversial. Cohn stated in his autobiography that he influenced the selection of the judge, and pushed him to impose the death penaltyon both Ethel and Julius Rosenberg.Fact|date=October 2008
Then-U.S. Deputy Attorney General
William P. Rogers, when later asked about the failure of the indictment of Ethel to leverage a full confession by Julius, reportedly said, "She called our bluff." [cite news |first=Sam |last=Roberts |title=Spies and Secrecy |url=http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/06/26/podcast-spies-and-secrecy/#more-3235 |quote=No, he replied, the goal wasn’t to kill the couple. The strategy was to leverage the death sentence imposed on Ethel to wring a full confession from Julius — in hopes that Ethel’s motherly instincts would trump unconditional loyalty to a noble but discredited cause. What went wrong? Rogers’s explanation still haunts me. 'She called our bluff,' he said. |work= New York Times|date=June 26, 2008 |accessdate=2008-06-27]
The Rosenbergs were convicted on March 29, 1951, and on April 5 were sentenced to death by Judge
Irving Kaufmanunder Section 2 of the Espionage Act of 1917, 50 "U.S. Code" 32 (now 18 "U.S. Code" 794), which prohibits transmitting or attempting to transmit to a foreign government information "relating to the national defense." The conviction helped to fuel Senator Joseph McCarthy's investigations into anti-American activities by U.S. citizens. While their devotion to the Communist cause was well-documented, the Rosenbergs denied the espionage charges even as they faced the electric chair.
The Rosenbergs were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the
Cold War.cite news |url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1695240.stm |date=December 6, 2001 | work= BBC|title=False testimony clinched Rosenberg spy trial |accessdate=2008-07-30] In imposing the death penalty, Kaufman noted that he held them responsible not only for espionage but also for the deaths of the Korean War:
Their case has been at the center of the controversy over Communism in the United States ever since, with supporters steadfastly maintaining that their conviction was an egregious example of persecution typical of the "hysteria" of those times (see
McCarthyism) and likening it to the witch hunts that marred Salem and medieval Europe(a comparison that provided the inspiration for Arthur Miller's critically acclaimed play, " The Crucible"). There is also a quotation by Ethel and Julius Rosenberg saying "We are the first victims of American fascism".
After the publication of the series in "
The National Guardian" and the formation of the National Committee to Secure Justice in the Rosenberg Case, some Americans came to believe both Rosenbergs were innocent or received too harsh a punishment, and a grassrootscampaign was started to try to stop the couple's execution. PopePius XII appealed to President Dwight D. Eisenhowerto spare the couple, but Eisenhower refused on February 11, 1953, and all other appeals were also unsuccessful. [cite news |first=Arnaldo |last=Cortes |title=Pope Made Appeal to Aid Rosenbergs. |url=http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=FB0C14FF345E177B93C6A81789D85F478585F9 |quote=Pope Pius XII appealed to the United States Government for clemency in the Rosenberg atomic spy case, the Vatican newspaper L'Osservatore Romano revealed today. |work= New York Times|date=February 14, 1953 |accessdate=2008-09-17 ] On September 12, 2008, co-defendant Morton Sobelladmitted that he and Julius Rosenbergwere guilty of spying for the Soviet Union. He believed Ethel was aware of the espionage, but did not actively participate.
The couple was executed at sundown in the
electric chairat Sing Sing Correctional Facility in Ossining, New York, on June 19, 1953.cite news |title=50 years later, Rosenberg execution is still fresh |work= Associated Pressin USA Today|date=2003-06-17 |url=http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2003-06-17-rosenbergs_x.htm |accessdate=2008-01-08] [cite news |title=Execution of the Rosenbergs |url=http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/1953/jun/20/usa.fromthearchive |quote=Julius and Ethel Rosenberg were executed early this morning at Sing Sing Prison for conspiring to pass atomic secrets to Russia in World War II |work= The Guardian|date=June 20, 1953 |accessdate=2008-06-24] This was delayed from the originally scheduled date of June 18 because, on June 17, Supreme Court Associate Justice William O. Douglashad granted a stay of execution. That stay resulted from the intervention in the case of Fyke Farmer, a Tennesseelawyer whose efforts had previously met with scorn from the Rosenbergs' attorney. [cite news |first=E. Thomas |last=Wood |url=http://www.nashvillepost.com/news/2007/6/17/nashville_now_and_then_a_lawyers_last_gamble_and_a_universitys_divorce |work= NashvillePost.com|quote=Farmer, working at no charge against the opposition of not only the government but also the Rosenbergs' legal team, had showed up at Douglas's chambers without an appointment, on the day after the high court adjourned for the term. Farmer convinced the jurist that the Rosenbergs had been tried under an invalid law. If they could be charged with any crime, he asserted, it would have to be a violation of the Atomic Energy Act, which did not carry a death penalty, rather than the Espionage Act of 1917. |title=Nashville now and then: A lawyer's last gamble |accessdate=2007-08-08 |date=2007-06-17]
On June 18, the Court was called back into special session to dispose of Douglas' stay rather than let the execution be delayed for months while the appeal that was the basis of the stay wended its way through the lower courts. The Court did not vacate Douglas' stay until noon on June 19. Thus, the execution then was scheduled for later in the evening after the start of the Jewish Sabbath. Desperately playing for more time, their lawyer,
Emanuel Hirsch Bloch, filed a complaint that this offended their Jewish heritage - so the execution was scheduled before sunset. Reports of the execution state that Julius died after the first application of electricity, but Ethel did not succumb immediately and was subjected to two more electrical charges before being pronounced dead.Fact|date=October 2008 The chair was designed for a man of average size, and Ethel Rosenberg was a petite woman; this discrepancy resulted, it is claimed, in the electrodes fitting poorly and making poor electrical contact. Eyewitnesstestimony (as given by a newsreelreport featured in the 1982 documentary film" The Atomic Cafe") describes smoke rising from her head.
Ethel and Julius Rosenberg were buried at
Wellwood Cemeteryin Pinelawn, New York.cite news |first=Clyde |last=Haberman |title=Executed At Sundown, 50 Years Ago. |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9F01E6D81E38F933A15755C0A9659C8B63&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all |quote=Rosenberg. One more name out of thousands, representing all those souls on their journey through forever at Wellwood Cemetery, along the border between Nassau and Suffolk Counties. ... Usually at Sing Sing, the death penalty was carried out at 11 p.m. But that June 19 was a Friday, and 11 p.m. would have pushed the executions well into the Jewish Sabbath, which begins at sundown. The federal judge in Manhattan who sentenced them to death, Irving R. Kaufman, said that the very idea of a Sabbath execution gave him 'considerable concern.' The Justice Department agreed. So the time was pushed forward. |work= New York Times|date=June 20, 2003 |accessdate=2008-06-23 ]
Alexandre Feklisov, the former Soviet agent who was Julius' contact, he had not provided Russia with any useful material about the atomic bomb, "He didn't understand anything about the atomic bomb and he couldn't help us."cite news |first=Alessandra |last=Stanley |title=K.G.B. Agent Plays Down Atomic Role Of Rosenbergs |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9B06E2DF1438F935A25750C0A961958260&scp=3&sq=feklisov&st=nyt |quote=A retired K.G.B. colonel has for the first time disclosed his role as the human conduit between Moscow and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg ... Aleksandr Feklisov, 83, said ... while Julius Rosenberg did give away military secrets, he had not provided Russia with any useful material about the atomic bomb. |work= New York Times|date=March 16, 1997 |accessdate=2008-06-24 ]
David Greenglass, Ethel Rosenberg's brother and key prosecution witness, recanted his testimony about his sister's typed notes. He stated in an interview in 2001: "I don't know who typed it, frankly, and to this day I can't remember that the typing took place. I had no memory of that at all—none whatsoever." He said he gave false testimony to protect himself and his wife, Ruth, and that he was encouraged by the prosecution to do so; "I would not sacrifice my wife and my children for my sister." He refused to express any remorse for his decision to sacrifice his sister, saying only that he did not realize that the death penalty would be invoked.
The Rosenbergs' children
The Rosenbergs' two sons, Robert and Michael, spent years trying to prove the innocence of their parents, until 2008 when they admitted that their father had likely been involved after Sobell, at age 91, confessed. [cite news |title=Rosenbergs' sons admit father was spy |url=http://www.cnn.com/2008/CRIME/09/18/rosenberg.sons.ap/index.html |publisher=
CNN|date=2008-09-18] The Rosenberg children were orphaned by the executions and no relatives adopted them. They were finally adopted by the songwriter Abel Meeropoland his wife Anne, and they assumed the Meeropol surname. Abel Meeropol (under the pen name of Lewis Allan) wrote the classic anti-lynching anthem " Strange Fruit", made famous by singer Billie Holiday. Robert and Michael co-wrote a book about the experience, "We Are Your Sons: The Legacy of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg" (1975), and Robert wrote another book in 2003, "An Execution in the Family: One Son's Journey." In 1990, Robert founded the Rosenberg Fund for Children, a non-profit foundation that provides support for children of targeted progressive activists, and youth who are targeted activists themselves. Michael is listed as the Chair and Professor of Economics, School of Arts and Sciences, Economics at Western New England College in Springfield, Massachusetts. Michael's daughter, Ivy Meeropol, directed a 2003 documentary about her grandparents, "Heir to an Execution," which was featured at the Sundance Film Festival. Michael Meeropoland Robert Meeropolbelieve that "whatever atomic bomb information their father passed to the Russians was, at best, superfluous; the case was riddled with prosecutorial and judicial misconduct; their mother was convicted on flimsy evidence to place leverage on her husband; and neither deserved the death penalty."cite news |first= |last= |authorlink= |coauthors= |title=Father Was a Spy, Sons Conclude With Regret |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2008/09/17/nyregion/17rosenbergs.html?_r=1&hp&oref=slogin |quote= |work= New York Times|date=September 16, 2008 |accessdate=2008-09-17 ]
2008 document release
In a hearing U.S. District Judge Alvin K. Hellerstein decided to make public the grand jury testimony of 36 of the 46 witnesses but not that of Greenglass. Citing the objections of Greenglass and two other living witnesses, the judge claimed that their privacy rights "overrides the public’s need to know." Georgetown University law professor
David Vladeckargued on behalf of historical groups that because of recent interviews, Greenglass forfeited the privacy he now claims and that the testimony should be released. Judge Hellerstein was not moved. The testimony of the other seven witnesses will be released upon their consent, or confirmation that they are dead or not findable.cite news |title=Judge hears case for historic Rosenberg spy trial |url=http://www.nydailynews.com/news/us_world/2008/07/22/2008-07-22_judge_hears_case_for_historic_rosenberg_.html |work= Associated Press|publisher= New York Daily News|date=July 22, 2008 |accessdate=2008-07-30 ]
In September, 2008, hundreds of pages of grand jury transcripts were released. With this release, it was revealed that Ruth Greenglass had irreconcilable differences in her grand jury testimony in August 1950 and the testimony she gave at trial. At the grand jury, Ruth Greenglass was asked, "Didn't you write [the information] down on a piece of paper?" She replied, "Yes, I wrote [the information] down a piece of paper and [Julius Rosenberg] took it with him." But, at the trial she testified that Ethel Rosenberg typed up notes about the atomic bomb.cite news |first=Holly |last=Watt |title=Witness Changed Her Story During Rosenberg Spy Case |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2008/09/11/AR2008091103887.html |publisher=
Washington Post|date=2008-09-12 ]
Memoir of Nikita Khrushchev
Nikita Khrushchev, leader of the Soviet Unionfrom 1958 to 1964, wrote of the Rosenbergs in his memoir, published posthumously in 1990. According to the memoir, Kruschchev learned from Stalinand Vyacheslav M. Molotovthat Julius and Ethel Rosenberg "had provided very significant help in accelerating the production of our atomic bomb." [cite news |first=Robert |last=McFadden |title= Khrushchev on Rosenbergs: Stoking Old Embers |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE0DC103FF936A1575AC0A966958260 |work= New York Times|date=2008-09-25|accessdate=2008-08-13 ] However, the director of the organization where the Soviet Union developed its first atomic bomb denied any involvement by the Rosenbergs. In 1989, Boris V. Brokhovich told The New York Times in an interview that development of the bomb had been a matter of trial and error. "You sat the Rosenbergs in the electric chair for nothing," he said. "We got nothing from the Rosenbergs." [cite news |first=Robert |last=McFadden |title= Khrushchev on Rosenbergs: Stoking Old Embers |url=http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C0CE0DC103FF936A1575AC0A966958260 |work= New York Times|date=2008-09-25|accessdate=2008-08-13 ]
In 2008, after many years of denial,
Morton Sobellfinally admitted he was a soviet spy and confirmed Julius Rosenberg was "in a conspiracy that delivered to the Soviets classified military and industrial information ... [on] the atomic bomb." However, he stated that the hand drawn diagrams and other atomic bomb details that were acquired by David Greenglassand passed to Julius were of "little value" to Soviet Union, and were used to corroborate what they had learned from the other atomic spies. He also stated that Ethel Rosenberg was completely innocent; she was aware of her husband's misdeeds, but took no part in it. Essentially, Ethel Rosenberg was guilty by associationwith her husband.
The Rosenbergs have figured in several film, television and literary works. Ethel Rosenberg is a major supporting character in
Tony Kushner's critically acclaimed play " Angels in America", in which her ghost haunts a dying Roy Cohn. In the HBO2003 miniseries adaptation of the play, she was portrayed by Meryl Streep. In the 1992 film " Citizen Cohn", she is portrayed by Karen Ludwig.
E. L. Doctorownovel, "The Book of Daniel", is based on the Rosenberg case as seen through the eyes of the (fictionalized) son. It inspired the Sidney Lumetfilm, "Daniel", starring Timothy Hutton.
The other major novel dealing extensively with the case is
Robert Coover's "The Public Burning". Unlike Doctorow, Coover uses real names for most protagonists of the case, and uses a fictionalized Richard Nixonas his narrator for half of the chapters. This sparked a long delay in the publication of the novel, since publishing houses feared law suits from people appearing as characters in the book. Further fictional treatments of the case are Teema Nason's fictional autobiography "Ethel" and Millicent Dillon's fictional biography "Harry Gold".
Soviet atomic bomb project
* Feklisov, Aleksandr, and Kostin, Sergei. "The Man Behind the Rosenbergs". Enigma Books (2001). 978-929631-24-7.
* Roberts, Sam. "The Brother: The Untold Story of the Rosenberg Case". Random House, 2001. ISBN 0-375-76124-1.
* Schneir, Walter. "Invitation to an Inquest". Pantheon Books, 1983. ISBN 0394714962.
* Schrecker, Ellen. "Many Are the Crimes: McCarthyism in America". Little, Brown and Company, 1998. ISBN 0316774707.
* Nason, Tema. "Ethel: The Fictional Autobiography of Ethel Rosenberg". Delacourt, 1990. ISBN 0-440-21110-7 and by Syracuse, 2002, ISBN 0-8156-0745-8.
* Meeropol, Robert and Michael. "We Are Your Sons, The Legacy of Ethel and Julius Rosenberg". University of Illinois Press, 1986. [chapter 15 is a detailed refutation of Radosh and Milton's scholarship.] ISBN 0-252-01263-1.
* Meeropol, Robert Meeropol. "An Execution in the Family: One Son's Journey". St. Martin's Press, 2003. ISBN 0312306377.
* Radosh, Ronald Radosh and Joyce Milton. "The Rosenberg File: A Search for the Truth". Henry Holt (1983). ISBN 0-03-049036-7.
* Wexley, John. "The Judgment of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg." Ballantine Books, 1977. ISBN 0345248694.
* Yalkowsky, Stanley. "The murder of the Rosenbergs". Crucible Publications (July 1990). ISBN 978-0962098420.
* [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/ROS_TIME.HTM Timeline of Events Relating to the Rosenberg Trial.]
* [http://www.law.umkc.edu/faculty/projects/ftrials/rosenb/ROS_TRIA.HTM Rosenberg trial transcript] (excerpts as HTML, and the entire 2,563 page transcript as a PDF file)
* [http://english.pravda.ru/world/2001/12/06/23023.html Ethel's brother says he trumped up evidence.]
* [http://www.eisenhower.archives.gov/dl/Rosenbergs/Rosenbergsfiles.html Documents relating to the Julius and Ethel Rosenberg Case, Dwight D. Eisenhower Presidential Library]
* [http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/nova/venona/intercepts.html Project Venona messages.]
* [http://foia.fbi.gov/foiaindex/roberg.htm Rosenberg FBI files] (summary only)
* [http://www.hbo.com/docs/programs/heir/ Heir to an Execution] — An HBO documentary by Ivy Meeropol, the granddaughter of Ethel and Julius.
* [http://www.writing.upenn.edu/~afilreis/50s/meeropol-on-rosenbergs.html A statement by the Rosenberg's sons in support of their exoneration]
* [http://www.angelfire.com/zine2/robertmeeropol/ An Interview with Robert Meeropol about the adoption]
* [http://www.rosenbergtrial.org/ National Committee to Reopen the Rosenberg Case]
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Rosenberg,+Ethel Annotated bibliography for Ethel Rosenberg from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues]
* [http://alsos.wlu.edu/qsearch.aspx?browse=people/Rosenberg,+Julius Annotated bibliography for Julius Rosenberg from the Alsos Digital Library for Nuclear Issues]
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