Infobox Indian Jurisdiction
native_name = Patiala | type = city | latd = 30.33 | longd = 76.4
locator_position = right | state_name = Punjab
district = Patiala
altitude = 250
population_as_of = 2001
population_total = 302,870| population_density =
area_magnitude= sq. km
area_total =
area_telephone = 175
postal_code = 147 00x
vehicle_code_range =
sex_ratio =
unlocode =
website =
footnotes =

Patiala audio|Patiala.ogg|pronunciation (Punjabi: ਪਟਿਆਲਾ) is a city in the Punjab state of India. Patiala district is one of the erstwhile princely cities of Punjab. Located in the south-eastern part of the state, it lies between 29°49’ and 30°47’ north latitude, 75°58’ and 76°54' east longitude.

It is the administrative headquarters of Patiala District, and was the capital of the premier princely state in the former Punjab Province of British India, headed by the Sidhu dynasty. Patiala is famous for its "pagri" (traditional headgear), "paranda" (tasselled tag for braiding hair), "peg" ("Patiala Peg" - a double or large peg of whiskey), and "Jutti" (traditional Punjabi footwear).

Any serving of alcohol which is double than the normal serving, or unusually large, is referred to as the "Patiala Peg". This term is understood in most parts of India. There are multiple stories behind this epithet, most related to the opulent and hedonistic lifestyle of one of the maharajas of Patiala - Maharaja Bhupinder Singh, who was a heavy drinker.

Patiala is home town of many eminent personalities like cricketers Navjot Sidhu, Mohinder Amarnath, Reetinder Sodhi, Bollywood Stars Jimmy Shregill, Om Puri, Punjabi Singers Gurdas Mann & Harbhajan Mann, Jet Airways Chairman Naresh Goyal & Sq Ldr Rakesh Sharma, the first Indian in space.


Patiala is located at coord|30.33|N|76.4|E| [ [ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Patiala] ] . It has an average elevation of 250 metres (820 feet).


The history of Patiala state starts off with the ancestor of the Sikh Patiala Royal House, Mohan Singh being harassed by neighbouring Bhullars and Dhaliwals (tappedars of the terrirtory). They would not allow Mohan to settle there. He was a follower of Guru Hargobind and the Guru appealed on behalf of Mohan, but to no avail. The result was an armed struggle and the Bhullars and Dhaliwals were defeated by the Guru's men, which allowed Mohan to establish the Village of Meharaj in 1627. [A History of Sikh Misals - Dr Bhagat Singh]

Mohan fought against the Mughals at the Battle of Mehraj 1631 on the side of Guru Hargobind. Mohan and his eldest son Rup Chand were later killed in a fight against the Bhatti Rajputs (who constantly harassed him). Kala, Mohan's younger son succeeded the "chaudriyat", and was guardian to Rup Chand's sons Phul and Sandali.

When Kala died, Phul formed his own village (Phul), five miles from Meharaj (under the blessings of Sikh Guru's) in 1663. Nabha and Jind trace their ancestry to the devout Sikh Phul. It was one of the first Sikh Kingdoms to be formed. Apparently the appellation of dynasty "Phulkian" is derived from their common founder. One of his sons, Chota Ram Singh was baptized and blessed by Guru Gobind Singh. His sons Ala Singh assumed the leadership in 1714 when Banda Bahadur was engaged in the fierce battle against the Mughals. A man with vision and courage, Ala Singh carved out an independent principality from a petty Zamindari of 30 villages. Under his successors, it expanded into a large state, touching the Shivaliks in north, Rajasthan in the south and upper courses of the Yamuna and Sutlej rivers while confronting the most trying and challenging circumstances.

In the middle of the eighteenth century, Baba Ala Singh, unlike many of his contemporaries, displayed tremendous shrewdness in dealing with the Mughals, Afghans and Marathas and successfully established a state which he had started building up from its nucleus Barnala.

In 1763 Baba Ala Singh laid the foundation of the Patiala fort known as Qila Mubarak, around which the present city of Patiala developed. After the Third Battle of Panipat in 1761 in which the Marathas were defeated, the writ of the Afghans prevailed through out Punjab. It is at this stage that the rulers of Patiala began to acquire ensigns of royalty. Ahmad Shah Abdali bestowed upon Ala Singh furm and banner, and the title of Maharaja of Patiala. After his death, his grandson Amar Singh succeeded and received the title of Raja-I-Rajaan. He was also allowed to strike coins.

After forty years of ceaseless struggle with the Mughals, Afghans and Marathas the borders of the Patiala state witnessed the blazing trails of Ranjit Singh in the north and of the British in the east. Bestowed with the grit and instinct of survival, making the right choice at the right time the Raja of Patiala entered into a treaty with the British against Ranjit Singh in 1808, thus becoming collaborators in the empire building process of the British in the sub-continent of India. The British treated the rulers of Patiala, such as Karam Singh, Narinder Singh, Mahendra Singh, Rajinder Singh, Bhupinder Singh and Yadvindra Singh with respect and dignity.

Maharaja Bhupinder Singh (Reign - 1900 to 1938) gave Patiala a prominent place on the political map of India and in the field of international sports. This included his dog kennels and he and the Maharaja of Jind were equally interested in a range of dog breeds. His son Yadvendra Singh was the first Indian prince to sign the Instrument of Accession, thus facilitating the process of national integration after independence in 1947. In recognition of his services, he was appointed the Rajpramukh of the newly established state of Patiala and East Punjab States Union (PEPSU), from its founding in 1948 until its merger with Punjab in 1956. The downtown area of Patiala is "Adalat Bazaar", which means 'the court corridor', because this was used as the administrative building by one of the caretakers, before the King had reached the age of majority. The Royal Family are Jatts of the Sidhu family.

Gates of Patiala Walled City

* Darshani gate - Main entrance of Qila Mubarak
* Lahouri gate
* Nabha gate
* Samana gate
* Sirhindi gate
* Sheranwala gate
* Safabadi gate
* Sunami gate
* Top Khana Gate


The first printing press of Patiala called "Munshi Nawal Kishore Printing Press" was established in 1870s. Since then Patiala has emerged as a center for Punjabi language. Punjab State Government 'languages department' is headquartered in Patiala city near 'Sheranwala Gate'.

Since Indian independence in 1947, Patiala has emerged as a major educational center in state of Punjab. The city houses the Punjabi University [] , Thapar University [] , Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law [] ,
Mohindra College, Government Medical College, Patiala, Multani Mal Modi College, Government College for Girls, Bikram College of Commerce, Government College of Education, Government College of Physical Education, Khalsa College, Government Ayurvedic College and Yadavindra Public School. Netaji Subhash National Institute of Sports, Patiala is a sports hub of North India.Rajiv Gandhi National University Of Law,Patiala ( [] ) It is the first national law school of north region established under Punjab Government Act of 2006

Patiala city has many playgrounds, including "Polo Ground" on Lower Mall Road; which houses an indoor stadium. Other sports facilities include Yadavindra Sports Stadium for athletics, Rink Hall for roller skating, and National Institute of Sports, Patiala. Punjabi University has its own sprawling sports grounds, including a velodrome.

Patiala is seat of many important administrative offices of Punjab state, including Punjab State Electricity Board, Punjab Public Service Commission, Punjab Pollution Control Board, Excise and Taxation Commissioner Office, Chief Engineer PWD (B & R), Punjab Languages Department, and State Bank of Patiala.

Higher education

* Mohindra College Est. 1875.
* National Defence University of India (Proposed)
* Punjabi University Est. 1962.
* Thapar Institute of Engineering and Technology Established 1956.
* Rajiv Gandhi National University of Law []
* Multani Mal Modi College, Lower Mall est. 1967.
* Bikram College of Commerce, Patiala.
* Government Medical College, Patiala.
* Khalsa College, Patiala.

Reputed Schools
* Sun Flower Model High School, Tripuri, Patiala.
* Ryan International School , Urban Estate, Patiala.
* Modern Senior Secondary School Patiala.
* Sri Aurobindo International School Patiala.
* St.Peter's Academy Patiala.
* Our Lady of Fatima Convent High School Patiala.
* Yadavindra Public School Patiala Est. 1948.
* Pheel Khana, Patiala Est. 1955.
* Play Ways High School Patiala.
* Senior Model School, Civil Lines Patiala Est. 1956.
* D.A.V Public School, 22 No. Phatak Patiala.
* New Daffodils Public School Patiala.
* Budha Dal Public School, Lower Mall, Patiala
* Modern Senior Secondary School, Patiala.
* Kendriya Vidyalaya, Patiala.
* Spring Dale Public School, Patiala.

* National Institute of Sports, Patiala. (Actual name "Netaji Institute of Sports")
* [ Punjab State Archives]
* North Zone Cultural Centre, Patiala.
* Government I T I Patiala

Thapar Centre for Industrial Research & Development

Thapar Centre for Industrial Research & Development (TCIRD) [] , is a Non- Profit Research & Development Organization situated in Patiala (Punjab). Established in 1984, TCIRD has been recognized as a Scientific and Industrial Research Organization by Government of India and has emerged as a premier technology development centre in Northern India.


As of 2001 India census [GR|India] , Patiala had a population of 302,870. Males constitute 54% of the population and females 46%. Patiala has an average literacy rate of 77%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 79%, and female literacy is 73%. In Patiala, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. 90% of the population practises Sikhism.

Culture and traditions

Patiala's sway over the Malwa area extended beyond merely political influence. Patiala was equally the set of religious and cultural life. Educationally, Patiala was in the forefront. Patiala was the first town in this part of the country to have Degree Collage - the Mohindra College - in 1870. The famous printing press of Munshi Nawal Kishore was also established here in the seventies of the 19th century. Patiala has had a culture of its own, evolving into a distinct "patialavi" culture. Patiala has also seen evolution of a distinct style of architecture. Borrowing from the Rajput style, its beauty and elegance are, however, moulded according to the local traditions.

With the active patronage of the erstwhile rules of Patiala, a well established style of Hindustani music called the "Patiala Gharana" came into existence and has held its own up to the present times. This school of music has had a number of famous musicians, many of whom came to Patiala after the disintegration of the Mughal Court at Delhi in the 18th century. At the turn of the century, Ustad Ali Bux was the most renowned exponent of this Gharana. Later his sons, Ustad Akhtar Hussain Khan and Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan achieved world wide fame and brought glory to the Patiala Gharana. This school of music continues to get the patronage of the State though the North Zone Culture Centre - NZCC - established at Patiala.

After partition of India, a lot of Bahawalpuri people migrated from Bahawalpur (Pakistan) and settled in Patiala. This Community has developed a vibrant, lively and happening colony known as Tripuri Town within Patiala. Most of the residents here in this colony speak their ancestral language "Bahawalpuri", which is similar to Pakistani language Multani.

District Administration

* The Deputy Commissioner, an officer belonging to the Indian Administrative Service, is the overall in-charge of the General Administration in the district. He is assisted by a number of officers belonging to Punjab Civil Service and other Punjab state services.

* The brand new Mini Secretariat on Nabha Road, which houses all the major offices including that of the DC and the SSP, was completed in record time, owing to the initiative of the member of parliament of patiala and local administration.

* The Senior Superintendent of Police, an officer belonging to the Indian Police Service, is responsible for maintaining Law & Order and related issues in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Police Service and other Punjab Police officials.

* The Divisional Forest Officer, an officer belonging to the Indian Forest Service, is responsible for the management of the Forests, Environment and Wild-Life in the district. He is assisted by the officers of the Punjab Forest Service and other Punjab Forest officials and Punjab Wild-Life officials.

* Sectoral development is looked after by the district head/officer of each development department such as PWD, Health, Education, Agriculture, Animal husbandry, etc. These officers are from various Punjab state services.

Notable People from Patiala

* Shaheed-i-Azam Sardar Udham Singh the great socialist revolutionary belonged to state of Patiala
* Jimmy Shergill
* Gul Panag
* Navjot Singh Sidhu


* [ Patialas' First website with all self generated non-commercial content with full copyrights.] including the [ discussion board] for the first time

* A History of Sikh Misals (Punjab University, Patiala)- Dr Bhagat Singh
* [ Official Website of Patiala]
* [ Official Website of Patiala Heritage Festival]
* [ Genealogy of the ruling chiefs of Patiala]
* [ Erstwhile rulers of Patiala]
* [ Early History of Patiala City Founding]
* [ Punjab State Archives]
* [ National Institute of Sports, Patiala]
* [ Yadavindra Public School, Patiala]
* [ Patiala City Web Search Engine]
* [ Patiala City Directory, Photo & Video Gallery]

External links

* [ Impressions of Patiala Photo-slide]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

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