Charles Chauvel (politician)

Charles Chauvel (politician)
Charles Chauvel MP
Member of the New Zealand Parliament
for Labour Party List
Assumed office
Personal details
Born 16 April 1969 (1969-04-16) (age 42)
Nationality New Zealand
Political party Labour Party
Profession Member of Parliament, Lawyer
Charles Chauvel MP (centre)

Charles Pierre Chauvel[1] (born 16 April 1969) is a New Zealand lawyer and politician. Since 2006 he has been a Member of Parliament in the New Zealand House of Representatives. He is the first New Zealand MP of Tahitian ancestry. Chauvel is the current Chair of the Privileges and Regulations Review Committees and is also the Labour Party Spokesperson for the Environment and Justice.


Early years

Chauvel was born in Gisborne in 1969 to Charles Chauvel Snr - who immigrated to New Zealand, where he became a graduate (and dux) of Wesley College, along with being one of the first Pacific Islanders to graduate with a law degree in New Zealand - and Regency Fiona Blair, whose parents moved from Scotland after the Second World War and who eventually started a dance company in Gisborne. Chauvel's maternal grandfather was a POW during WWII. Chauvel is the second cousin to Former President of French Polynesia and anti-nuclear activist Oscar Temaru.[2]

In 1985, Chauvel was awarded dux of Gisborne Boys' High School after leaving Kings College in Auckland. While studying at the University of Auckland, Chauvel captained the University's winning University Challenge team in 1987.[3] Chauvel was involved in student politics having been appointed as National Affairs Officer for the Auckland University Students' Association in 1987. Chauvel graduated with a Bachelor of Laws (with Honours) from Victoria University of Wellington in 1989, and a Master of Jurisprudence (with Distinction) in 1994 from the University of Auckland.[4]

In addition, the International Training Centre of the ILO in Turin (Italy) awarded Chauvel the Diploma in International Labour Standards in 2001,[5] and also holds a Certificate in Health Economics (with Merit) from Victoria University of Wellington (awarded 1993) along with a Certificate in Public International Law from the Hague Academy of International Law (1997).

Legal career

The New Zealand legal profession admitted Chauvel as a member in 1990, and the New South Wales (Australia) profession in 2003. Chauvel has appeared in a number of significant cases throughout the New Zealand court system, including in the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council in London (prior to the abolition in 2002 of appeals from New Zealand to that body) and in the Supreme Court of New Zealand. Previously, he worked as Crown Counsel in the New Zealand Crown Law Office in Wellington,[6] and prior to graduating had clerked for the country's Chief Justice.

As a legal writer and editor, Chauvel wrote the re-issued Public Safety Title and served as consulting editor for a re-issue of the Gaming Law Title in the Laws of New Zealand Legal Encyclopedia. He has served as a member of the editorial board of Mazengarb's Employment Law,[7] Butterworth's Employment Law Bulletin[8] and other employment-related publications. Chauvel has also co-authored two books, the New Zealand Employment Law Guide (LexisNexis, 2002) and Employment Mediation (Thomson Brookers, 2005).[9] Prior to entering Parliament, Chavuel was on the board of Minter Ellison Rudd Watts (2003–2005), having become a partner in the Minter Ellison Legal Group at age 30 in 2000, and being based in the Wellington, and later their Sydney, offices. The 2005/6 edition of the Asia Pacific Legal 500 listed him as a "Leading Individual" in employment law.[10]

Other Accomplishments

Chauvel was appointed in 1995 by the then National Government to the Board of the New Zealand Public Health Commission, the Crown agency responsible for advising the Minster of Health on public health policy, health monitoring, consultation and the purchase of public health services.[11] Chauvel has also been the Chair of the New Zealand Aids Foundation (1996, after serving as a member of its board from 1990 to 1994); as Deputy Chair of the New Zealand Lotteries Commission, the entity that operates the New Zealand state lottery (2000–2004);[12] and as Deputy Chair of Meridian Energy, New Zealand's largest energy-generation company (2005, having served as a director of that company from 2002).[13][14]

Involvement with the Labour Party

With former New Zealand Prime Minister Helen Clark


Chauvel describes his political interest starting while still young at home in Gisborne:

"[Chauvel's parent's were] political with a small p. My parents, both of whom were immigrants to New Zealand, weren't particularly partisan, but they were very aware of what it was like to be in a new country. And so, probably more than in other families we talked a lot about the issues that excited them and came to their attention from that perspective...I remember that our dinner table was...a place were a lot of ideas were discussed...I imagine like a lot of people in Gisborne in the early seventies wanting to fit in they [his parents] voted National. That changed later on...and I think that's where my interest in politics came from"[15]

A member of the Labour Party since 1985, Chauvel has held a number of party positions including Chair of the Princes Street Branch, President of Young Labour (then known as Labour Socialist Youth), membership of the Party's controlling body (the New Zealand Council) and Policy council and co-Chair of Rainbow Labour. During his first few years in the Labour party, Chauvel had become increasingly concerned at the direction of the 4th Labour Government’s economic policy, and many of its Ministers’ indifference to Party and public opinion. Chauvel describes these early years:

"When the Lange Government was new, I was excited by the change in the air from the Muldoon years. I thought the nuclear free policy was great, I thought homosexual law reform was an exciting initiative, the whole opening of society was something that really interested me, so that was the initial attraction...I wasn't [that economically literate when he first joined the Labour party] and at that stage that part of the agenda [Rogernomics] wasn't so obvious. Later on, particularly during the second term of that Government when I was at University I became very concerned about the pace of the change, coming from a rural electorate where people were being thrown out of work because the reforms were being implemented so quickly, made me realise that there was something wrong. But my choice was to stay inside the Labour party and to try to bring about change from within, to slow down those reforms."[15]

As a result of expressing these concerns, he was locked out of meetings of the Auckland Central LEC (Labour Electorate Committee) by backers of the then Auckland Central MP Richard Prebble. Chauvel also developed a friendship with Labour party stalwart and former MP for Pencarrow Sonja Davies, Chauvel being mentioned in the second volume of Davies' autobiography "Marching On".[16] Chauvel joined several Labour and Union members who spoke at her funeral in 2005,[17] and continues to give lectures about his memories of Davies and her accomplishments.[18] Chauvel admits that it was her that got him thinking about running for office:

"Sonja Davies, who'd been a big influence on me on my first job, was in her last days and one of the things she said to me at the time was look, you're doing very well, that's great. But are you the sort of person who would want to look back on it all after twenty or thirty years and say 'well I made a heap of money'. She said I think you'll want something more than that and it got me thinking...and I do hope that I will be able to look back at whatever I end up doing in Parliament and otherwise and be able to say that I did something other than just pile up cash in the bank...I don't want to be in Parliament forever, but I do want to be there for a period of time such as I can get some things done, and leave feeling that I have achieved something."[15]

Political Candidate

Chauvel stood as Labour's electoral candidate for Maramarua in 1990, finishing second to the National Party's Bill Birch. Chauvel next stood in 2005 as Labour's candidate for Ohariu-Belmont, finishing second to United Future leader Peter Dunne. In the 2005 New Zealand general election, the Labour Party ranked Chauvel 44th on its party list.[19] On election-night returns, he failed by one seat to enter Parliament. Despite this, Chauvel was lauded by the National Business Review as 'the most exciting newcomer in red colours' who received 'great support within the [Labour] party'.[20] However due to the Mixed Member Proportional (MMP) electoral system operative in New Zealand, should any Labour List MP retire, resign or die during the 48th Parliament, Chauvel would be the next MP on the party list to enter as a Member of Parliament.

Member of Parliament

Parliament of New Zealand
Years Term Electorate List Party
2006–2008 48th List 44 Labour
2008–present 49th List 27 Labour

When Cabinet Minister Jim Sutton announced his retirement on 10 July, (effective 1 August 2006), Chauvel entered the House of Representatives as a Member.[21][22]

In his maiden statement Chauvel described his parents' first years in New Zealand:

"Dad’s story is a classic, and timely, reminder of the way in which immigrants, and the children of immigrants, have come to New Zealand and made their contributions to our society. His arrival in New Zealand took place some 20 years before the first modern migration here from the Pacific. So it has taken longer for the pattern of achievement that he and his family followed to be replicated more widely. But the achievements of the present generation of New Zealand born Pacific people, and their parents, are a catalogue of successes in the arts, in sport, in business and in the professions."
"And my pride in my Pacific origins takes nothing away from the appreciation I feel for my European heritage. I remember one of my last conversations with Sonja Davies. I asked her about the significance of the title of her first book, Bread and Roses. In reply, she sang the line from the song: “hearts starve, as well as bodies”. If my father was the principal provider of bread during my childhood, then it was my mother and her family who provided many of the roses."[23]

Chauvel also indicated that New Zealand's future is dependent on immigration:

"To achieve future prosperity, we need more and talented people. Our country was built on immigration. We should not fear it. Diversity makes our culture much less homogenous, and our lives less dull. Immigration enriches us all, literally and figratively"

On 1 September 2008, the Labour Party published its list for the 2008 general election and ranked Chauvel at number 27, up 17 places on his 2005 ranking.[24] In the 2008 general election he placed (a much more narrow) second place to Peter Dunne in the Ohariu electorate, a result that meant that Ohariu had gone from being regarded as a safe seat for its incumbent to the eighth most marginal in the country.[25] Chauvel returned to Parliament because of his list placing.

Chauvel has been confirmed as the Labour party candidate for the Ohariu electorate in the 2011 General Election, the third time he has run in that electorate (including the former Ohariu-Belmont electorate in 2005).[26][27] Chauvel's nomination was uncontested. He has also moved up 16 places to number 11 in the 2011 Labour Party List.[28]

Roles Held

At a rally with Labour MPs Darien Fenton, Carol Beaumont and Trevor Mallard

In November 2007, Chauvel became Chairperson of Parliament's Finance and Expenditure Committee, and in early 2008 he was appointed Parliamentary Private Secretary to the Attorney-General. Chauvel served in both roles for the remainder of the 48th Parliament. Chauvel being the only Labour List MP based in the Wellington region, concentrated on representing the geographical areas within the Wairarapa and Ohariu-Belmont (and later Ohariu) electorates (being the only general electorates not held by Labour MPs in the region).

At the first reshuffle after the 2008 General Election, Chauvel became spokesperson for Climate Change and Energy as well as Associate Spokesperson for Commerce and Justice.[29]

On 15 June 2010, Opposition Leader Phil Goff appointed Chauvel to be Portfolio Spokesperson for the Environment, and shifted the portfolio of Energy to Nanaia Mahuta. This was the first shadow cabinet reshuffle since losing the 2008 general election to National, as a result of the Ministerial Credit Card scandal involving three Labour MPs. Along with Mahuta, Chauvel moved to the parliamentary front bench.[30]

In early 2011, Chauvel was promoted up one spot to number 11 on the Parliamentary Caucus rankings, and his Climate Change portfolio was replaced with Justice (as well as losing his associate roles)[31]

Chauvel currently chairs two committees of the 49th Parliament: The Privileges Committee, which deals with contempts of Parliament, and the Regulations Review Committee, having responsibility for scrutiny of delegated legislation. He is also a member of the Parliament's Commerce Committee. Chauvel serves in the Labour Party's Pacific Islands Caucus and its Rainbow Caucus. He also serves as a member of the Party's Union Caucus, having retained membership of the Service and Food Workers' Union since working as the Legal Officer for one of its predecessor unions from 1989 to 1991. He co-convenes the New Zealand Parliament's Amnesty International Chapter, as well as chairing the New Zealand/European Union Parliamentary Friendship Group.[32]

In February 2009, he and the former leader of the New Zealand Labour Party, Helen Clark (now the Administrator of the United Nations' Development Program), were appointed as New Zealand's inaugural representatives on the Board of the Pacific Friends of the Global Fund, the regional partnership with the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation's major initiative against HIV/AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria.[33]

In June 2010, Chauvel was appointed as a member of the United Nations Global Commission on HIV and the Law[34][35] According to the United Nations' Development Program (who along with UNAIDS launched the Commission), the "commissioners will gather and share evidence about the extent of the impact of law and law enforcement on the lives of people living with HIV and those most vulnerable to HIV. They will make recommendations on how the law can better support universal access to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support."[36] Chauvel is the sole New Zealand representative on the 14 person Commission.

Chavuel is a regular contributor to the Labour Party MPs' blog, Red Alert and has written guest posts for other NZ blogs including No Right Turn and the Yes Vote campaign.

Climate Change

Since becoming an MP, Chauvel has been a participant in the deliberation of emissions trading legislation. Chauvel was chair of the Finance and Expenditure Committee when the Climate Change (Emissions Trading and Renewable Preference) Bill was debated in the final months of the 48th Parliament. At the start of the 49th Parliament, Chauvel was a member of the ad hoc Committee on the Review of Climate Change Legislation (chaired by Peter Dunne), established as part of the confidence and supply agreement between the National and ACT parties.

It had been clearly signaled by the new administration that they intended to delay the implementation of the ETS, and while the ETS Review report did not make any specific recommendations to amend either the ETS or the Climate Change Response Act 2002, The Climate Change Minister Nick Smith reaffirmed the Government's intentions. Chauvel with fellow Labour MPs David Parker and Moana Mackey tried to reach an agreement with the National Government on supporting amendments to the new legislation proposed by the Government,[37] but the talks stalled after the Government announced their agreement with the Maori party to gain the necessary support in Parliament to pass the amended legislation through its first reading (although eventually, all but one member of the Maori party caucus supported the legislation through all readings of the bill).

The Climate Change Response (Moderated Emissions Trading) Amendment Bill was tabled on September 24, 2009. Chauvel appeared on the Finance and Expenditure Committee where the bill was reviewed. The Select Committee reported to the House that no changes could be agreed to (something that is rare for a Government backed bill) and that all parties represented in the Committee published minority views. The Government's amendements were passed by Supplementary Order Paper during the Committee stage of the bill's passage. Acknowledging that the bill would be passed, Chauvel tabled a number of amendments by SOP including:

Chauvel at the COP16 Climate Change conference, held in Cancun in 2010.
  • SOP 94 Would prescribe both medium and long-term targets for emissions reductions in law, and establishes an Advisory Committee on Climate Change as an independent Crown Entity with the goal of advising on climate change policy and on target-setting.
  • SOP 95 Would remove the 50% discount during the 2010 - 2012 "transitional period", and raises the price cap from $25 to $100
  • SOP 96 would place a cap on free allocation to industrial and agricultural emitters, based on 2005 emissions. It makes no change to phase-out rates
  • SOP 97 would create full transparency by making every Government allocation to be published and requiring any applicant to declare any donations made to political parties in the past year.

None of Chauvel's SOPs were incorporated into the final legislation.

In December 2009 Chauvel attended the COP15 Climate Change conference to observe the international negotiations, choosing to pay his own way to the event. As he has done for several years, Chauvel also paid the carbon offsets for the air travel as part of the trip.[38] Chauvel blogged about his time at Copenhagen through the Red Alert blog.

The following year, Chauvel attended (again at his own expense) the COP16 Climate Change conference, where he blogged about his observations via the Red Alert blog.[39]

Trans-Tasman Rankings

The political publication Trans-Tasman has reviewed Charles Chauvel each year since he became an MP, as part of their annual review of Parliament (known as Roll Call). MPs are scored between one (lowest) and ten (highest) out of ten for their work during the year. Although scoring quite low initially, as is common for new MPs, he has always improved his ranking each year:

Year Score Comment
2006[40] 1/10 Still breathing through his nose but it’s time for Labour’s rookie to show why he was on the list.
2007[41] 3/10 Overlooked for Cabinet and let his displeasure show. Apparently others don’t share his opinion of himself. New chair of Finex gives him a chance to impress - he’s still being slated as one of the party’s rising stars.
2008[42] 4.5/10 Would have been a hero if he’d beaten Peter Dunne in Ohariu and wasn’t far off. Good campaign after a much better year.
2009[43] 5.5/10 An effective, intelligent MP who hit his straps this year and showed what he’s capable of. Overlooked for cabinet when Labour was in power, he’s showing they were wrong.
2010[44] 6/10 Should be on the front bench, deserves to be there more than some who are. Doesn’t get mixed up in rows and rhetoric, knows his issues and commands attention in the House.

Political Positions and Issues

Conscience Votes

Since entering Parliament, Chauvel has made eight conscience votes[45][46][47]

Bill Chauvel's vote Total Ayes Total Noes Result
Manukau City Council (Control of Street Prostitution) Bill Against 46 73 Motion not agreed to
Sale of Liquor (Youth Alcohol Harm Reduction: Purchase Age) Bill Against 49 72 Motion not agreed to
Crimes (Abolition of Force as a Justification for Child Discipline) Amendment Bill For 70 51 Motion agreed to
Easter Sunday Shop Trading Amendment Bill Against 37 84 Motion not agreed to
Misuse of Drugs (Medicinal Cannabis) Amendment Bill For (vote by proxy) 34 84 Motion not agreed to
Liquor Advertising (Television and Radio) Bill For 36 80 Motion not agreed to
Shop Trading Hours Act 1990 Repeal (Easter Sunday Local Choice) Amendment Bill Against (vote by Proxy) 59 62 Motion not agreed to
Manukau City Council (Regulation of Prostitution in Specified Places) Bill Against (vote by Proxy) 82 36 Motion agreed to

Republicanism and national identity

Chauvel is a member of the Republican Movement of Aotearoa New Zealand and believes that Queen Elizabeth II should be New Zealand's last overseas-resident head of state. He has said that New Zealanders "need to show we can stand on our own two feet as a country, and having our own home-grown head of state should be part of that."[48]

Chauvel has also challenged traditional symbols of New Zealand identity.[49] Chauvel states that he does not believe New Zealand's "flag... coat of arms and... other symbols of nationality match our national sense of identity any longer", and offers the opinion that New Zealanders "need to begin to re-imagine them" in order to maximize the benefits from a transition to a republic.[49]

On 5 August 2010 Chauvel introduced a members Bill for a consultative commission followed by a referendum on the New Zealand flag.[50]

Repeal of the Provocation Defence

The issue of provocation has received much publicity in New Zealand recently due to the high-profile trials of Clayton Weatherston and Ferdinand Ambach, both of whom attempted to plead provocation in court (the latter successfully).

The repeal of the partial defence of provocation to murder (s169 of the Crimes Act 1961) has been one of Chauvel's personal issues since entering Parliament. The Law Commission, in their 2007 report on the issue, also argued for repeal. Historically the provocation defence has been used by men "defending themselves" from the sexual advances of other men (with some notable exceptions). Chauvel states that:

"If a man is on the receiving end of an unwanted advance from another man, then he needs to learn to say “no”. If the advance is accompanied by physical pressure or contact, then reasonable – but never deadly – force to repel the pressure should be the absolute maximum allowed by the law."[51]

In 2009 Chauvel and fellow Labour MP Lianne Dalziel worked together in an attempt to pass a Member's Bill repealing the provocation defence. The bill was "effectively adopted" by the Government.[51] The Crimes (Provocation Repeal) Amendment Bill passed on Thursday 26 November 2009 with 116 votes to five - the ACT Party voicing the only opposition.[52] Whilst some - including the New Zealand Law Society - viewed the repeal as a knee-jerk reaction to two specific cases, it appears that the New Zealand public in general support the move.[52]

Fringe and payday lender reform

In a blog post written by Chauvel, he illustrates his position on loan sharks:

"Ever since I became an MP, an issue that I have supported is the regulation of so called "loan sharks". Loan sharks prey on the vulnerable with unscrupulous rates of interest and this includes many of our Pacific people. They are the scourge of our community and instead of lending a helping hand keep borrowers in poverty. It is common for payday lenders to charge interest at rates between "only" 8% and 15% per week, compounding well into four figures at a time when mainstream rates have declined."[53]

Chauvel sponsored a Member's bill, the Credit Reforms (Responsible Lending) Bill, which would have covered the following areas:

  • Part 1: Amends the Credit Contracts and Consumer Finance Act 2003 by capping the interest rate lenders can charge under a consumer credit contract at 48%. It also renders a contract oppressive if the lender reasonably believes the borrower will not be able to repay the loan.
  • Part 2: Amends the Credit (Repossession) Act 1997 by limiting the amount a creditor can recover from a debtor by restricting loansharks to recover the value of the goods at the time they are sold instead of when the goods were purchased.
  • Part 3: Would allow pawnbrokers to charge administration fees if they are registered under the Second Hand Dealers and Pawnbrokers Act 2004. By charging penalty fees as well as interest, companies would not need to set high interest rates for those who legitimately pay their loans on time.

The Bill was later transferred to fellow Labour MP (and Labour Party Spokesperson on Consumer Affairs) Carol Beaumont and was defeated at its first reading in July 2010.[54]


  1. ^ Parliamentary Profile of Chauvel accessed 7 February 2010
  2. ^ [1] Cook, Helena. Pacific people in Parliament: a case study of minority representation in New Zealand (Thesis), Victoria, 2008
  3. ^ "Close Up: Charles Chauvel; Product Placement". Television New Zealand. 1 August 2006. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  4. ^ [2] Chauvel, Charles. Frustrated Fairness: Aspects of the Law relating to Compensation for Redundancy in New Zealand (Thesis), Auckland, 1994
  5. ^ 'The Achievers' Column', National Business Review, 17 August 2001, p. 38
  6. ^ Cathie Bell, 'Bulk funding threat over teachers' staff dispute', The Dominion, 25 Jan 1996, p.3
  7. ^ Mazengarb's Employment Law
  8. ^ Butterworth's Employment Law Bulletin
  9. ^ Minter Ellison Rudd Watts News; [3]
  10. ^
  11. ^ Blank, R. F. New Zealand health policy: a comparative study, Oxford University Press, Auckland, 1994; 'New post for Poutasi', The Evening Post, 9 Feb 1995, p. 2
  12. ^ "It's everyone out at Lotteries Commission". The Evening Post. 31 October 2000. pp. 2. 
  13. ^ "Movers & Shakers". The New Zealand Herald. 27 April 2002. 
  14. ^ "Upfront". New Zealand Management Magazine. June 2002. pp. 6. 
  15. ^ a b c [4] Talk Talk,Series 4, Episode 15, TVNZ, 30 October 2010
  16. ^ Davies, Sonja. Marching On. Random House New Zealand, Auckland, 1997. ISBN 1869412966
  17. ^ 'Hundreds Farewell Sonja Davies; Press Release', New Zealand Council of Trade Unions, 20 June 2005
  18. ^ "EDU153 Lecture at Victoria University". c2009. Retrieved 2010-02-10. 
  19. ^ "Talented Kiwis dominate Labour list". Scoop NZ. March 21, 2005. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  20. ^ 'Newbies put on more weight than substence: It's time for some of Parliament's newcomers to make a break for stardom', National Business Review, 28 April 2006, p. 13; 'Weldon would deliver serious star appeal', National Business Review, 9 June 2006
  21. ^ "Hon Jim Sutton retires". Scoop NZ. July 10, 2006. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  22. ^ "New List MP For Labour Party". Scoop NZ. August 31, 2006. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  23. ^ Maiden Speech accessed 7 February 2010
  24. ^ "Labour Party list for 2008 election announced". Scoop NZ. November 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  25. ^ "Official Count Results -- Öhariu". Elections NZ. August 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  26. ^ Kay, Martin (1 February 2010). "Dunne's seat 'ripe for the picking'". The Dominion Post. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  27. ^ NZPA and NBR Staff (5 July 2010). "Labour names 2011 electorate candidates". National Business Review. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  28. ^ "Labour Party List 2011". Scoop NZ. April 10, 2011. Retrieved 2011-04-12. 
  29. ^ "Five newcomers in Labour's shadow Cabinet". The New Zealand Herald. 20 November 2008. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  30. ^ "Fresh look for Labour's shadow Cabinet". 10 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-15. 
  31. ^ "Labour Caucus - 2011". 3 February 2011. Retrieved 2011-02-15. 
  32. ^ NZ/EU Parliamentary Friendship Group
  33. ^ "Chauvel to promote Global Fund in Pacific". 27 April 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-20. 
  34. ^ "Chauvel on global HIV commission". 25 June 2010.,nrhl. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  35. ^ "Labour MP Chauvel appointed to new UN commission". 25 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  36. ^ "Launch of the Global Commission on HIV and the Law: "Addressing punitive laws and human rights violations blocking effective AIDS responses"". 24 June 2010. Retrieved 2010-06-29. 
  37. ^ NZPA (9 September 2009). "Secret talks held between Labour and National on ETS". National Business Review. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  38. ^ 'Next stop Copenhagen'
  39. ^ 'Post #1 from Cancun'
  40. ^
  41. ^
  42. ^
  43. ^
  44. ^
  45. ^ Chauvel's Conscience votes
  46. ^ Votes on the Shop Trading Hours Act 1990 Repeal (Easter Sunday Local Choice) Amendment Bill New Zealand Parliament
  47. ^ Votes on the Manukau City Council (Regulation of Prostitution in Specified Places) Bill New Zealand Parliament
  48. ^ TVNZ, Back Benches, Episode 35, 30 September 2009 accessed 7 February 2010
  49. ^ a b Symbols of Nationality, accessed 7 February 2010
  50. ^ "Bill advocates consultative debate on new flag". 5 August 2010. 
  51. ^ a b Getting rid of the 'Gay panic defence' accessed 7 February 2010
  52. ^ a b "Provocation defence repeal 'knee-jerk reaction'". The New Zealand Herald. 27 November 2009. Retrieved 23 September 2011. 
  53. ^ Time to stamp out Loan Sharks No Right Turn, 17 June 2009, accessed 7 February 2010
  54. ^ "Loan sharks "not going away"". TVNZ. 2010-07-21. Retrieved 2010-07-22. 

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