- Essex County, Ontario
official_name = Essex County, Ontario
settlement_type = County
map_caption = Location of Essex County in Ontario
dot_x = |dot_y =
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = CAN
subdivision_type1 = Province
subdivision_name1 = ONT
p2 = Essex
p8=Township of Pelee
leader_title = Warden
leader_name = Nelson Santos (also Mayor of Kingsville)
leader_title1 = Deputy Warden
John Adams(also Mayor of Leamington, acting as warden)
established_title = Settled
established_date = 1747
area_total_sq_mi = 714.8
population_as_of = 2006
population_total = 393402
population_density_km2 = auto
population_density_sq_mi = auto
latd= |latm= |lats= |latNS=
longd= |longm= |longs= |longEW=
area_code = 519/226
website = [http://www.countyofessex.on.ca/ County of Essex]
footnotes = Essex County is a
countyand census divisionlocated in Southwestern Ontarioand covers an area at the southernmost tip of Canada. The county seat is Windsor and the administrative seat is Essex. The population of Essex County was approximately 393,402 in 2006cite web|url=http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/profiles/community/Details/Page.cfm?Lang=E&Geo1=CD&Code1=3537&Geo2=PR&Code2=35&Data=Count&SearchText=Essex&SearchType=Begins&SearchPR=01&B1=All&Custom=|title=Essex County, Ontario|work=2006 Community Profiles|publisher= Statistics Canada|accessdate=2007-03-13] .
The current municipalities in Essex County are:
*LeamingtonThese seven municipalities were established by a restructuring process in the 1990s. In addition, Pelee Island is included as part of Essex County as a Township.
The City of Windsor is governed as a separated municipality but is part of the Essex
Essex County is largely composed of clay-based soils, with sandy soils along the beaches and shores. For the most part, Essex County is flat farmland, with some
woodlots. There is a small 30–50 foot (10–15 m) high ridge near Kingsville and Leamington in the southern part of the county, and large marshland near Hillman Marsh Conservation Area, and Point Pelee National park. The most built-up part of the county is naturally, the city of Windsor, Ontario. Excluding Windsor (which is a Separated Municipality), Leamington is the most-urbanized part of the county.
Adjacent counties and municipalities
Lake St. Clairlies Macomb County, Michigan, US (north)
Wayne County, Michigan, US (west and northwest)
Monroe County, Michigan, US (southwest)
Lake Erielies Lucas (southwest), Ottawa (south), and Erie (southeast) Counties, Ohio, US
Essex was one of the first counties to be settled in Ontario, mostly by French people in the mid-1700s. Around 1747, the first permanent settlements began to appear on what is now the Canadian side of the
Detroit River. Lower down the river, lands were occupied by native people known as Wyandots or "Hurons", around the Mission of Bois Blanc (French for White Wood) as a centre opposite the island of the same name. The Mission was eventually abandoned and re-established closer to what became Sandwich Township, and was closer to the safety of Fort Detroit. When farmers first arrived, they encountered difficulty in trying to clear the extremely thick forests that covered Essex County. The farmers grew to "hate" the trees, and chopped them down, starved them from nourishment by cutting deep gashes in the bark, and burned them to clear the way to get to the fertile soils underneath. The fires were so intense, that the reddish glow could be seen from Chicago, 300 miles (500 km) away, as millions of cords of wood burned.
Settlement continued southward along the river and was known as Petit Cote (Small Coast), which was a reference to the shorter length of river frontage compared to the Detroit side. Names such as LaSalle and Ojibway appeared which continue to be in use. The first road in Ontario was laid out to connect the settlements, which is now over 200 years old and is known as Former King's Highway 18 (now County Road 20).
When river frontage along Petit Cote was occupied, settlement began to extend toward Lake St. Clair, which became known as the Assumption Settlement. In the late 1700s and early 1800s the French ventured east along the south shore of Lake St. Clair and settled in the present day areas of Belle River, Rochester and Stoney Point (Point-aux-Roches). These communities still have a large francophone population.
Amherstburg and Sandwich were the first towns established in Essex County, both in 1796 after the British ceded Fort Detroit by the terms of the
Jay Treatysigned in 1794. Fort Maldenwas built near Amherstburg, opposite Bois Blanc Island. Sandwich was located upstream, encompassing what is now Windsor. The populations of both towns were augmented by people from Detroit who chose to remain British subjects.
American Revolution, people continued to migrate to the area, seeking land. Settlers began to move eastward along the north shore of Lake Erie. Land was purchased from the Indians in the southern half of the current county, located in the four townships formerly known as Gosfield North and South and Colchester North and South. The British Court made land available for settlement, provided that the land bear certain improvements within a year and that it not be used for speculation. This area became known as the New Settlement (as compared to the Old Settlement of the towns of Amherstburg and Sandwich. Settlers in this area included Hessianswho fought for the British against the American rebels, and Pennsylvania Dutchpacifists ( Mennonites).
Formation of Essex County
1791, the province of Upper Canadawas formed. In 1792, Upper Canada was divided into nineteen counties, of which Essex was the eighteenth and part of the Western District. At that time, the eastern boundary of Essex County extended further east into what is now Kent County. Settlement continued, on January 1 1800an Act for the Better Division of the Province established the Townships of Rochester, Mersea, Gosfield, Maidstone, Sandwich and Malden.
ettlement 1820 to 1850
Longer roads began to appear in the County after the
War of 1812, the first of which followed Indian trails. Colonel Thomas Talbot contributed to road development, and Talbot Road was named for him. Talbot Road followed a natural ridge of glacial moraine which stretched from Windsor to Point Pelee.
The establishment of good roads led to further settlement along the 'Middle Road' and in the area of what is now Leamington. Settlers of this era were often emigrants from Britain and Ireland; in the 1840's the
potato famines led to significant immigration. The village of Maidstone was the centre of the Irish community, and an area known as the "Scotch Colony" appeared along the shore of Lake St.Clair.
Essex County was also a destination of the
Underground Railroadby which African slaves in the 19th century United States escaped to freedom. The John Freeman Walls Historic Sitein Maidstone (Lakeshore) is testament to this period. Many of the descendants of the fugitives moved back to the United States to support the Union Army in the US Civil War, or to reconnect with family after emancipation.
Economic development 1850 to 1900
1854the Great Western Railway connected the Detroit frontier with the east, crossing Essex County. The Canadian terminal was in Windsor, which consequently forged ahead of the other towns of the county. Other railway lines were built which connected settlements in Kingsville, Harrow, Essex and Leamington.
By the late 1800s Essex County had seen fur trading and logging, land clearing and farming, road building and railway development, saw mills and gristmills, railway stations and water ports. By this time the forests were disappearing, replaced by fertile farmland.
Also noticeable in some farmers' fields, are oil pumps, particularly near Belle River and
Leamington, Ontario, in the northern and eastern parts of the county, respectively.
Essex County restructuring, 1990s
In 1992, discussions began to take place to reduce the number of individual municipalities, which at the time numbered 21 in the County. This culminated on
January 1, 1999when a Minister's Order by the Ontario Minister of Municipal Affairs and Housingwas implemented, putting in place the new municipal structure for the County of Essex.
*Anderdon - Now part of Amherstburg
*Colchester North - Now part of Essex
*Colchester South - Now part of Essex
*Gosfield North - Now part of Kingsville
*Gosfield South - Now part of Kingsville
*Maidstone - Now part of Lakeshore
*Malden - Now part of Amherstburg
*Mersea - Now part of Leamington
*Pelee - Still exists
*Rochester - Now part of Lakeshore
*Sandwich East - Parts in Windsor and in Tecumseh
*Sandwich South - Now in Tecumseh
*Sandwich West - Parts in LaSalle and in Windsor
*Tilbury North - Now in Lakeshore
*Tilbury West - Now in Lakeshore
Amherstburg, Ontario(former town of, now merged with Anderdon Twp. and Malden Twp.)
Belle River, Ontario
Essex, Ontario(former town of, merged with Colchester N. Twp. and Colchester S. Twp.)
Kingsville, Ontario(former town of, merged with Gosfield N. Twp. and Gosfield S. Twp.)
Leamington, Ontario(former town of, merged with Mersea Twp.)
St. Clair Beach, Ontario
Tecumseh, Ontario(former town of, merged with Sandwich S. Twp)
This gallery displays all of the Municipal shields in Essex County.
Windsor, Ontariois absent, as it is a Separated Municipality.
Township of Pelee
Essex County also has an official
The tartan's colours correspond to different meanings.
Yellowis meant to stand for sunshine, also for the rich agriculture and golden harvests of the many farmed plants ( grains, corn, soy beans, barley, oatsand wheat).
Greenstands for the spring fields around Essex County.
Redrepresents tomatoes, as Leamington is the "Tomato Capital Of the World", and for other fruits, such as apples.
Bluestands for the blue skies and the waterways of the county.
Blackis meant to represent the automotive industrythat fuels Windsor and Essex County.
Whiterepresents the salt mines in Windsor and western Essex County, and fishin the surrounding rivers and lakes.
The County of Essex is governed by a County Council, whose members are the
Mayorsand Deputy Mayors from the seven lower-tier municipalities of the County. The Head of Council is known as the Warden. The term of office for County Councillors and the Warden coincides with the frequency of municipal elections in Ontario, in other words a person elected to be Mayor of Leamington, for example, will be a member of County Council for the term that she or he is Mayor. Nelson Santos, Mayor of Kingsville, was chosen to be Warden in December, 2006. A complete list (from 1853 to present) of the past Wardens of Essex County is [http://www.countyofessex.on.ca/countycouncil/pastwardens.asp here] .
County government is responsible for issues which include transportation, community and social services (eg. homes for the aged, child care, social housing), libraries, planning, emergency management coordination and corporate-wide business such as finance and taxation policies, general corporate policy and labour relations. The County does not have a police force or fire services, for which the seven municipalities are responsible.
English-language public education for kindergarten through secondary school grades in Essex County is administered by the
Greater Essex County District School Board, along with the Windsor-Essex Catholic District School Boardwhich oversees English-language catholic education.
French-language public and catholic education are overseen by
Conseil scolaire de district du Centre-Sud-Ouestand Conseil scolaire de district des écoles catholiques du Sud-Ouestrespectively. The scope of all of these organizations includes both the County and the City of Windsor.
Public post-secondary education is available at the
University of Windsorand at St. Clair College.
[http://www.countyofessex.on.ca/ County of Essex]
[http://www.wineriesontario.com/erie Map of wineries in Essex County]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Essex County (Ontario) — Essex County Lage des Essex County in Ontario Provinz Ontario County Seat Windsor … Deutsch Wikipedia
Essex County, Ontario — Comté d Essex (Ontario) Pour les articles homonymes, voir Essex. Le comté d Essex couvre le domaine au bout du sud ouest de l Ontario. Les municipalités dans le comté d Essex incluent: Amherstburg Belle River Essex Kingsville Lakeshore LaSalle… … Wikipédia en Français
County Road 34 (Essex County, Ontario) — Infobox road highway name = Essex County Road 34 alternate name = Talbot Road marker length km = 44 maint = Maintained by the Essex County transportation department direction a = East direction b = West starting terminus = Chatham Kent/Essex… … Wikipedia
County Road 46 (Essex County, Ontario) — Infobox road highway name = Essex County Road 46 alternate name = Provincial Road, Middle Road, Essex County Road 46, Chatham Kent Road 8 marker length km = 96.2 length notes = Continues eastward as Chatham Kent Municipal Road 8 maint =… … Wikipedia
List of county roads in Essex County, Ontario — This page lists all of the numbered county roads in Essex County, Ontario.: Note 1: In Essex County, odd numbered roads are North South, increasing in number to the east. Even numbered roads are GENERALLY east west roads, increasing in number to… … Wikipedia
Oakland, Essex County, Ontario — … Wikipedia
Oliver, Essex County, Ontario — … Wikipedia
List of high schools in Windsor and Essex County, Ontario — This is a list of high schools in the Essex County area, including Windsor, Ontario.High schools belonging to the Windsor Essex Catholic District School Board*Assumption Catholic High School *Cardinal Carter Catholic High School (Leamington)… … Wikipedia
Essex County Road 34 — Talbot Road Route information Maintained by Maintained by the Essex County transportation department … Wikipedia
Essex County Road 46 — Route information Maintained by the Essex County transportation department Length: 96.2 km … Wikipedia