Puebla, Puebla


Puebla, Puebla

Infobox City
official_name = Puebla
native_name =
nickname = Angelópolis
motto =



imagesize =
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mapsize = 180px
map_caption = Location of Puebla within the state



mapsize1 =
map_caption1 = Location of the state within Mexico
subdivision_type = Country
subdivision_name = flag|Mexico
subdivision_type1 = State
subdivision_name1 = flag|Puebla
subdivision_type2 = Municipality
subdivision_name2 = Puebla
government_type =
leader_title = Mayor
leader_name = Blanca Alcala Ruiz (PRI)
leader_title1 =
leader_name1 =
leader_title2 =
leader_name2 =
leader_title3 =
leader_name3 =
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1531
established_title2 =
established_date2 =
established_title3 =
established_date3 =
area_magnitude =
area_total_km2 = 546
area_total_sq_mi = 211
area_land_km2 =
area_land_sq_mi =
area_water_km2 =
area_water_sq_mi =
area_water_percent =
area_urban_km2 =
area_urban_sq_mi =
area_metro_km2 =
area_metro_sq_mi =
population_as_of = 2005
population_note =
population_total = 1485941
population_density_km2 = 5741
population_density_sq_mi =
population_metro = 2109000
population_density_metro_km2 =
population_density_metro_sq_mi =
population_urban =
population_blank1_title = Demonym
population_blank1 = Poblano
timezone = Central Standard Time
utc_offset = -6
timezone_DST = Central Daylight Time
utc_offset_DST = -5
latd = | latm= | lats= | latNS=
longd = | longm= | longs= | longEW=
elevation_m = 2175
elevation_ft = 7136
postal_code_type =
postal_code = 72000 (Center)
website = http://www.puebladezaragoza.gob.mx
footnotes =

The city of Puebla, officially Heroic Puebla de Zaragoza (nicknamed Angelópolis) is the capital and largest city of the Mexican state of Puebla. The city has a population of 1,399,519 (the municipality, 1,485,941). The metropolitan area of the city, however, extends over 10 municipalities of the state of Puebla, such as the city of Cholula and 13 of the state of Tlaxcala, and with a population of 2,109,049 it is fourth most populous metropolitan area in Mexico and one of the largest in North America. Puebla is an important industrial, cultural and educational center of Mexico for the central and south-east regions. It is also one of the oldest colonial cities in the continent.

Puebla is located in the Valley of Puebla, surrounded by volcanoes and snow-capped mountains, slightly over 110 kilometres southeast of Mexico City.

History

The city of Puebla was founded on April 16, 1531 as "La Puebla de los Ángeles". It was the first city in central Mexico founded by the Spanish conquerors that was not built upon the ruins of a conquered Amerindian settlement. Its strategic location, half-way between the port of Veracruz and Mexico City, made it the second most important city during the colonial period. During the 17th century, Sor Juana Inés de la Cruz lived in the city until her confrontation with the Bishop of Puebla.

Four decades after Mexico's independence, General Ignacio Zaragoza's army defeated French expeditionary forces near Puebla on May 5, 1862 in the Battle of Puebla. During the French intervention, the people of Puebla sided with the French and did not lend the needed support to the Mexican troops. This lead Ignacio Zaragoza to write a letter back to Mexico City after the defeat of the French with the help of the Tlaxcaltecans petitioning to burn the city down. Instead, the name was changes to "Heroica Puebla de Zaragoza" as punishment against the very religious city.

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries a number of European immigrants came to the city, mainly from Germany, Italy and Spain. Today, the "Colonia Humboldt" neighborhood shows the influence of the local German population in its architecture, traditions and festivals like the local "Oktoberfest", as well as in the town of Chipilo, now absorbed by the metropolitan area of the city, where people speak a dialect of Venetian known as the Chipilo Venetian dialect. The folkloric Mexican women's dress known as China Poblana was created in Puebla. Also, the "Talavera Poblana" is a fine earthenware of colonial origin still made in the city. It's a motif unique to Puebla; dineware, plant pots, churches and even streets may be lined with tiles of Talavera.

Geography

Puebla is located at the Valley of Puebla also known as the Valley of Cuetlaxcoapan, a large valley surrounded on four sides by the mountains and volcanoes of the Trans-Mexican volcanic belt. It is located 40 km. east of the Popocatépetl and Iztaccíhuatl volcanoes, giving the residents a magnificent view of their snow-topped peaks. La Malinche dormant volcano is located to the north of the city, and the Pico de Orizaba to the east. Hydrologically, the city is part of the Atoyac river basin; the river runs through northern, eastern and southern portions of the municipality, and connects to the Lake of Valsequillo, where the Manuel Ávila Camacho dam has been built. Other rivers that cross the area are the Alseseca and San Francisco. The climate is moderated by its high altitude of 2,200m (7,000 ft) above sea-level; night temperatures are cool at all times of the year, often requiring additional clothing. The area experiences a dry season in winter and a rainy season from May-October.

Economy

During the first hundred years after the War of Independence, Puebla, the second city of the New Spain, was the first to industrialize. Today, Puebla is still an important industrial city, mainly in the textile sector. Puebla is also home to the Mexican headquarters and the only North American manufacturing site of Volkswagen, which assembles the Jetta and New Beetle models. Other German and French manufacturing companies operate in the city, most of them outsourcers for Volkswagen.

In 2003 Puebla served as the interim headquarters of Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). It has submitted its candidacy to serve as the permanent headquarters if the FTAA is ever ratified.

Transportation

Puebla is served by Hermanos Serdán International Airport, which is part of the metropolitan airport group for the Mexican capital and an alternate airport for Mexico City. It provides domestic services and flights to the United States. The airport is going under a construction phase to build a new terminal which would be capable of handling many international flights. The airport is also used as a place to manufacture goods and export and import due to prime location.

Landmarks

Infobox World Heritage Site
WHS = Historic Centre of Puebla


State Party = MEX
Type = Cultural
Criteria = ii, iv
ID = 416
Region = Latin America and the Caribbean
Year = 1987
Session = 11th
Link = http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/416
The historic center of the city still contains much Spanish Colonial architecture and is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Many of the old buildings were severely damaged in the 1999 earthquake. In recent years some of the historical buildings have been restored while others are in a state of disrepair.

Of all the colonial buildings, the most impressive are the Puebla Cathedral, built in a mixed neoclassical style; the gold-covered Capilla del Rosario (Rosary Chapel), in the nearby Iglesia de Santo Domingo, is a dramatic example of Mexican baroque, being a chapel inlaid with gold. Other important landmarks are "El Barrio del Artista" ("The Artist's Neighborhood") where local arts are produced and the "Centro y Zócalo" (downtown) where the Cathedral of Puebla and the "Palacio Municipal" are located.

Puebla is also the home of an Automobile Museum, containing a collection of rare and classic vintage cars. This collection also includes the "Popemobile" used by John Paul II on one of his visits to Mexico. The Museo Nacional de los Ferrocarriles Mexicanos (National Museum of Mexican Railroads), located in the old Mexicano station, houses a collection of many unique train specimens, including steam engines, passenger coaches, cabooses and diesel engines. Most notably it has a pair of PA1 diesel engines, the last specimens of their kind, with one of them still in working condition (the DH-19).

Located in the "Casa de la Cultura", the Biblioteca Palafoxiana is a baroque-style library containing 42,000 volumes in a carved wood setting, collected by the Spanish bishop Juan de Palafox y Mendoza. The collection was donated to the Colegio de San Juan y San Pedro on September 5, 1646, by Palafox y Mendoza; this donation was formalized by a Royal Decree 1647 and by a Bull in 1648.

Red double-decker buses, known as "turibuses", give tourists an opportunity to enjoy the city's architecture, museums and monuments located at the historical downtown. One of the most famous museums in the city is the Amparo Museum. Another tourist attraction is the Africam Safari zoo, intended to recreate a safari experience.

Also worth visiting is the pyramid of Cholula, a city within the metropolitan area of Puebla. Cholula was one of the most important cities under the Aztec empire, and its pyramid is the largest in the New World, both by in terms of base-size and total volume. The town, with a population of only 200,000 inhabitants, is said to boast a chapel for every day of the year, albeit some of the churches are quite small and even makeshift.

Culture

Education

With more than 20 universities, Puebla is second only to Mexico City in the number of universities within its borders. Many of the top universities in the country are located in its metropolitan area, including the state university, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla (BUAP) and the Universidad de las Américas, Puebla (UDLA). UDLA is usually ranked among the highest in the countryfact|date=February 2008 and it belong to the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools (SACS) in the United States. Other important academic institutions in Puebla include the Universidad Iberoamericana (UIA), Puebla Campus, Tecnológico de Monterrey (ITESM) Puebla Campus, Universidad Anáhuac Puebla Campus,Universidad Madero(UMAD), Universidad del Valle de México (UVM) Puebla Campus and the Universidad Popular Autónoma del Estado de Puebla (UPAEP), a private university founded three decades ago by a group of seceding students and professors from the BUAP. Another important school is the Instituto Tecnologico de Puebla [http://www.itpuebla.edu.mx] that was founded in 1972.

Sports

Puebla has two professional soccer teams, "Puebla FC" and "Lobos BUAP". The biggest soccer stadium in the city, "Cuauhtémoc", with a capacity of 49,914, was built in 1968 as a second soccer field for the 1968 Olympic Games. Matches for the 1970 and 1986 FIFA World Cups were also played in Cuauhtémoc Stadium. Puebla FC is currently the champion of the "Primera A" division (Mexico's second division).

Puebla has a professional baseball team, the "Pericos de Puebla". Puebla, through the conurbated area of Cholula, has one college American football team, the "Aztecas" of the Universidad de las Américas. The Aztecas have won the championship three times since the creation of the Mexican College Football Organization (ONEFA) in 1978 (1995, 1996, and 1997). The team has been runner's up in the league 5 times, most recently in 2006 and 2007, losing the championship game all five times to the ITESM Campus Monterrey Borregos Salvajes. The Azteca's home stadium is the "Templo del Dolor" (Temple of Pain).

Cuisine

Puebla's food culture, known as "Cocina Poblana", is popular all over Mexico. Puebla is considered the home of Mole Poblano, a rich, spicy sauce containing chocolate, cinnamon and nuts, as well as different types of hot peppers. Served with chicken, mole has become the most renowned dish of Puebla's cuisine. "Camote", sweet potatoes cooked in a stove and topped with creme are a traditional sweet. "Rompope" is a liquor based on egg yolk and vanilla, created many years ago by Puebla's nuns. "Chiles en nogada" is a dish of stuffed chilies with meat, fruit, and topped with walnut sauce and pomegranate seeds; it is prepared mainly on August (during walnut harvest season). The Chalupa, a small tortilla topped with salsa, chopped onion and meat; and widely known in Mexico as a fast food is also from the city. Other traditional sweets include the sweets from Santa Clara ("dulces de Santa Clara"), crystallized fruits, and milk candies.

Coat of arms

The coat of arms has a round-heart form with five golden towers in its center, and a river below. Two angels are located over the towers, one to the left and one to the right. The letters "KV" make reference to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor. Inscribed around the coat of arms is Psalms 90:2 in Latin: "Angelis suis Deus mandavit de te ut custodiant te in omnibus viis tuis" ("God sent his angels to you, that they may protect you in all your paths."). The coat of arms makes reference to the legend of the foundation of the city. According to legend, angels descended, sketched the city and placed the heavy bells in the towers of the cathedral.

Sister cities

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External links

;Government
*es icon [http://www.puebladezaragoza.gob.mx Puebla municipal government web page]
*es icon [http://www.puebla.gob.mx Puebla state government web page]
*es icon [http://www.bpm.gob.mx/ Biblioteca Palafoxiana]

;Sports
*es icon [http://www.pericosdepuebla.com.mx/ Pericos baseball team]

;Images
*es icon [http://www.fotosdepuebla.org/galeria/main.php Images of Puebla City]

;Events
*es icon [http://www.todopuebla.com Events, movies, people and more in Puebla]


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