- European Theater of Operations
The European Theater of Operations (ETO), is the term used in the
United Statesto refer to US operations north of Italy and the Mediterraneancoast, in the European Theatre of World War II.
The "European Theater of Operations" was the term used by the
United Statesin World War IIto refer to all US military activity in Europe that fell under the administrative command of "European Theater of Operations, United States Army" (ETOUSA). From February 1944 the operational command was the Supreme Headquarters Allied Expeditionary Force(SHAEF) which as an Allied command also had operational control of British and all other allied land forces and tactical airforces in the European theatre.
The term "European Theater of Operations" should not be confused with the
European Theatre of World War IIwhich is often defined to include the years before the US entered the war, the Italian campaign, the European Strategic Bombing Campaign, the European Eastern Front, all of the European Western Front in 1944 and 1945, as well and other actions which did not involve the use of American forces. Operation Torch, the landings in North Africa, were referred to as occurring in the North African Theater of Operations and then later ( December 10, 1944) [ [http://www.archives.gov/research_room/federal_records_guide/ww2_allied_occupation_headquarters_rg331.html#331.16 GENERAL RECORDS OF ALLIED FORCE HEADQUARTERS (AFHQ) 1941-47 ] ] , when the theater was redefined to include Italy, as the Mediterranean Theater of Operations(MTO). US forces in that theatre were initially under the administrative command of NATOUSA which was redesignated MTOUSA. They were under the operational command of Allied Forces Headquarters(AFHQ).
The 133rd Infantry Regiment of the 34th Infantry Division was the first
United States Armyunit sent to Europe in World War II. The first battalion arrived in Belfast in late January 1942, followed by the rest of the regiment in February. These units were designated as U.S. Army Northern Ireland Forces, later incorporated within the European Theater of Operations. The 133rd and 168th Infantry Regiments trained in the peat bogs, and performed border guard patrols between British Northern Ireland and the neutral Irish Free State.
Five months later, the
United States Department of Warofficially established ETOUSA, on June 8, 1942. Its mission was to conduct planning for the eventual retaking of Europe and to exercise administrative and operational control over U.S. forces. Headquartered in London, ETOUSA was first commanded by Major-General James E. Chaney, an Army Air Corps officer.
Dwight D. Eisenhowerhad multiple command appointments; he was replaced by Chaney in late June 1942, but in November he also commanded the Allied forces in Operation Torch through AFHQ. He then gave up command of ETOUSA in February 1943 to be NATOUSA. In December 1943 it was announced that Eisenhower would be Supreme Allied Commander in Europe. In January 1944 he resumed command of ETOUSA and the following month was officially designated as the Supreme Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces. (Note that Supreme Headquarters of the Allied Expeditionary Forces (SHAEF) was the headquarters of the Commander of the Allied Expeditionary Forces, whereas the AFHQ was the headquarters of only the Allied forces). He served in a dual role until the end of hostilities in Europe in May 1945. From February 1944, SHAEF was the operational command and ETOUSA administrative command.
Some units were transferred between operational commands and administrative commands at different times. For example the
American 6th Army Group, which was set up under the Mediterranean Theater of Operations to oversee Operation Dragoon, the invasion of southern Francebetween Toulonand Cannes, was passed to SHAEF (and into ETO) a month after the invasion which took place on August 15 1944.
By the end of 1944, Eisenhower, through SHAEF, commanded three powerful Allied army groups. In the North
British 21st Army Groupcommanded by Field Marshal Sir Bernard Montgomery, In the middle the American 12th Army Groupcommanded by General Omar Bradleyand in the South the American 6th Army Groupcommanded by Lieutenant General Jacob L. Devers. The British 21st Army Group and French elements of the 6th Army Group were not part of ETOUSA, but by that stage of the war most of the operational forces under the command of SHAEF were American.
* Maj Gen
James E. Chaney 8 June 1942- 20 June 1942
* Maj Gen
Dwight D. Eisenhower 24 June 1942- 3 February 1943
* Lt Gen Frank M. Andrews
4 February 1943- 3 May 1943
* Lt Gen
Jacob L. Devers 10 May 1943- 8 January 1944
Dwight D. Eisenhower 15 January 1944- 1 July 1945
Campaigns and operations
U.S. campaigns in WWII) Albert Coady Wedemeyerwas chief author of the "Victory Program", published three months before the U.S. entered the war in 1941, which advocated the defeat of the German armies on the European continent. When the U.S. entered the war after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941and the U.S. was at war with both Japan and Germany, a modified version of his plan was adopted by U.S. President Franklin D. Rooseveltand British Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Under the German first policy, the plan was expanded to include the blue printfor the Normandylandings.
Until SHAEF was operational ETOUSA liaised closely with the British in the planning and organising of
June 6, 1944- July 24, 1944
*Northern France Campaign
July 25, 1944- September 14, 1944
Southern France Campaign
Lorraine Campaign(unofficial) September 1, 1944- December 18, 1944
December 16, 1944- January 25, 1945("Battle of the Bulge")
Central Europe Campaign March 22, 1945- May 11, 1945
A theater of operations
The term "theater of operations" was defined in the [American] field manuals as "the land and sea areas to be invaded or defended, including areas necessary for administrative activities incident to the military operations" (chart 12). In accordance with the experience of World War I, it was usually conceived of as a large land mass over which continuous operations would take place and was divided into two chief areas-the
combatzone, or the area of active fighting, and the communications zone, or area required for administration of the theater. As the armies advanced, both these zones and the areas into which they were divided would shift forward to new geographic areas of control. [ [http://history.amedd.army.mil/booksdocs/wwii/orgadmin/org_admin_wwii_chpt7.htm Medical department United States Army in World War II: Chapter VII: Prewar Army Doctrine for Theater] by Blanche B. Armfield, M.A., Prepared and published in 1963 under the direction of Lieutenant General Leonard D. HeatonThe Surgeon General, United States Army.]
Mediterranean Theater of Operations
Pacific Theater of Operations
China Burma India Theater of Operations
* [http://www.army.mil/cmh-pg/books/wwii/11-9/ETO.htm THE EUROPEAN THEATER OF OPERATIONS]
* [http://www.hqusareur.army.mil/htmlinks/Press_Releases/2002/Jun2002/07Jun2002-01.htm USAREUR celebrates sixty years of service]
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