Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday
Michael Faraday

Michael Faraday
Born 22 September 1791(1791-09-22)
Newington Butts, England
Died 25 August 1867(1867-08-25) (aged 75)
Hampton Court, Middlesex, England
Residence England
Nationality British
Fields Physics and chemistry
Institutions Royal Institution
Known for Faraday's law of induction
Faraday effect
Faraday cage
Faraday constant
Faraday cup
Faraday's laws of electrolysis
Faraday paradox
Faraday rotator
Faraday-efficiency effect
Faraday wave
Faraday wheel
Lines of force
Influences Humphry Davy
William Thomas Brande
Notable awards Royal Medal (1835 & 1846)
Copley Medal (1832 & 1838)
Rumford Medal (1846)

Michael Faraday, FRS (22 September 1791 – 25 August 1867) was an English chemist and physicist (or natural philosopher, in the terminology of the time) who contributed to the fields of electromagnetism and electrochemistry.

Faraday studied the magnetic field around a conductor carrying a DC electric current. While conducting these studies, Faraday established the basis for the electromagnetic field concept in physics, subsequently enlarged upon by James Maxwell. He similarly discovered electromagnetic induction, diamagnetism, and laws of electrolysis. He established that magnetism could affect rays of light and that there was an underlying relationship between the two phenomena.[1][2] His inventions of electromagnetic rotary devices formed the foundation of electric motor technology, and it was largely due to his efforts that electricity became viable for use in technology.

As a chemist, Faraday discovered benzene, investigated the clathrate hydrate of chlorine, invented an early form of the Bunsen burner and the system of oxidation numbers, and popularised terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion.

Although Faraday received little formal education and knew little of higher mathematics, such as calculus, he was one of the most influential scientists in history.[3] Historians[4] of science refer to him as the best experimentalist in the history of science.[5] The SI unit of capacitance, the farad, is named after him, as is the Faraday constant, the charge on a mole of electrons (about 96,485 coulombs). Faraday's law of induction states that magnetic flux changing in time creates a proportional electromotive force.

Faraday was the first and foremost Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a life-time position.

Albert Einstein kept a photograph of Faraday on his study wall alongside pictures of Isaac Newton and James Clerk Maxwell.[6]

Faraday was highly religious; he was a member of the Sandemanian Church, a Christian sect founded in 1730 that demanded total faith and commitment. Biographers have noted that "a strong sense of the unity of God and nature pervaded Faraday's life and work."[7]


Early years

Faraday was born in Newington Butts,[8] now part of the London Borough of Southwark; but then a suburban part of Surrey, one mile south of London Bridge.[9] His family was not well off. His father, James, was a member of the Glassite sect of Christianity. James Faraday moved his wife and two children to London during the winter of 1790–1 from Outhgill in Westmorland, where he had been an apprentice to the village blacksmith.[10] Michael was born the autumn of that year. The young Michael Faraday, the third of four children, having only the most basic of school educations, had to largely educate himself.[11] At fourteen he became apprenticed to a local bookbinder and bookseller George Riebau in Blandford St[12] and, during his seven-year apprenticeship, he read many books, including Isaac Watts' The Improvement of the Mind, and he enthusiastically implemented the principles and suggestions that it contained. He developed an interest in science, especially in electricity. In particular, he was inspired by the book Conversations on Chemistry by Jane Marcet.[13]

Portrait of Faraday in his late thirties

At the age of twenty, in 1812, at the end of his apprenticeship, Faraday attended lectures by the eminent English chemist Humphry Davy of the Royal Institution and Royal Society, and John Tatum, founder of the City Philosophical Society. Many tickets for these lectures were given to Faraday by William Dance (one of the founders of the Royal Philharmonic Society). Afterwards, Faraday sent Davy a three hundred page book based on notes taken during the lectures. Davy's reply was immediate, kind, and favourable. When Davy damaged his eyesight in an accident with nitrogen trichloride, he decided to employ Faraday as a secretary. When John Payne, one of the Royal Institution's assistants, was sacked, Sir Humphry Davy was asked to find a replacement. He appointed Faraday as Chemical Assistant at the Royal Institution on 1 March 1813.[1]

In the class-based English society of the time, Faraday was not considered a gentleman. When Davy went on a long tour to the continent in 1813–15, his valet did not wish to go. Faraday was going as Davy's scientific assistant, and was asked to act as Davy's valet until a replacement could be found in Paris. Faraday was forced to fill the role of valet as well as assistant throughout the trip. Davy's wife, Jane Apreece, refused to treat Faraday as an equal (making him travel outside the coach, eat with the servants, etc.) and generally made Faraday so miserable that he contemplated returning to England alone and giving up science altogether. The trip did, however, give him access to the European scientific elite and a host of stimulating ideas.[1]

Faraday was a devout Christian. His Sandemanian denomination was an offshoot of the Church of Scotland. Well after his marriage, he served as Deacon and two terms as an Elder in the meeting house of his youth. His church was located at Paul's Alley in the Barbican. This meeting house relocated in 1862 to Barnsbury Grove, Islington. This North London location is where Faraday served the final two years of his second term as Elder prior to his resignation from that post.[14][15]

Faraday married Sarah Barnard (1800–1879) on 12 June 1821.[16] They had no children.[8] They met through their families at the Sandemanian church. He confessed his faith to the Sandemanian congregation the month after he married.

Scientific achievements


Michael Faraday in his laboratory. c1850s by artist Harriet Jane Moore who documented Faraday's life in watercolours.
The tetrachloroethylene molecule, first synthesised by Michael Faraday in 1821[17]

Faraday's earliest chemical work was as an assistant to Humphry Davy. Faraday specifically studied chlorine, discovering two new compounds of chlorine and carbon. He also made the first rough experiments on the diffusion of gases, a phenomenon first pointed out by John Dalton, the physical importance of which was more fully brought to light by Thomas Graham and Joseph Loschmidt. He succeeded in liquefying several gases; he investigated the alloys of steel, and produced several new kinds of glass intended for optical purposes. A specimen of one of these heavy glasses afterwards became historically important as the substance in which Faraday detected the rotation of the plane of polarisation of light when the glass was placed in a magnetic field, and also as the first substance found to be repelled by the poles of a magnet. He also endeavoured, with some success, to make the general methods of chemistry, as distinguished from its results, the subject of special study and of popular exposition.

He invented an early form of what was to become the Bunsen burner, which is used almost universally in science laboratories as a convenient source of heat.[18][19] Faraday worked extensively in the field of chemistry, discovering chemical substances such as benzene (which he called bicarburet of hydrogen), and liquefying gases such as chlorine. Liquification of gases helped establish that gases are simply the vapours of liquids possessing a very low boiling-point, and gave a more solid basis to conceptions of molecular aggregation. In 1820 Faraday reported on the first syntheses of compounds made from carbon and chlorine, C2Cl6 and C2Cl4, and published his results the following year.[20][21][22] Faraday also determined the composition of the chlorine clathrate hydrate, which had been discovered by Humphry Davy in 1810.[23][24]

Faraday also discovered the laws of electrolysis and popularised terminology such as anode, cathode, electrode, and ion, terms largely created by William Whewell.

Faraday was the first to report what later came to be called metallic nanoparticles. In 1847 he discovered that the optical properties of gold colloids differed from those of the corresponding bulk metal. This was probably the first reported observation of the effects of quantum size, and might be considered to be the birth of nanoscience.[25]

Electricity and magnetism

Faraday is best known for his work with electricity and magnetism. His first recorded experiment was the construction of a voltaic pile with seven halfpence pieces, stacked together with seven disks of sheet zinc, and six pieces of paper moistened with salt water. With this pile he decomposed sulphate of magnesia (first letter to Abbott, 12 July 1812).

One of Faraday's 1831 experiments demonstrating induction. The liquid battery (right) sends an electric current through the small coil (A). When it is moved in or out of the large coil (B), its magnetic field induces a momentary voltage in the coil, which is detected by the galvanometer (G).
Electromagnetic rotation experiment of Faraday, ca. 1821[26]

In 1821, soon after the Danish physicist and chemist, Hans Christian Ørsted discovered the phenomenon of electromagnetism, Davy and British scientist William Hyde Wollaston tried but failed to design an electric motor.[2] Faraday, having discussed the problem with the two men, went on to build two devices to produce what he called electromagnetic rotation: a continuous circular motion from the circular magnetic force around a wire and a wire extending into a pool of mercury with a magnet placed inside that would rotate around the magnet if supplied with current from a chemical battery. The latter device is known as a homopolar motor. These experiments and inventions form the foundation of modern electromagnetic technology. In his excitement, Faraday published results without acknowledging his work with either Wollaston or Davy. The resulting controversy within the Royal Society strained his mentor relationship with Davy and may well have contributed to Faraday’s assignment to other activities, thereby removing him from electromagnetic research for several years.[27][28]

From his initial electromagnetic discovery in 1821, Faraday continued his laboratory work exploring properties of materials and developing the requisite experience. In 1824, Faraday briefly set up a circuit to study whether a magnetic field could regulate the flow of a current in an adjacent wire, but could find no such relationship.[29] This lab followed similar work with light and magnets three years earlier with identical results.[30][31] During the next seven years, Faraday spent much of his time perfecting his recipe for optical quality (heavy) glass, boro-silicate of lead,[32] which he used in his future studies connecting light with magnetism.[33] In his spare time from this optics work, Faraday continued publishing his experimental work (some of which related to EM) and conducted foreign correspondence with scientists (also working on EM) he previously met on his journeys about Europe with Davy.[34] Two years after the death of Davy, in 1831, he began his great series of experiments in which he discovered electromagnetic induction. Joseph Henry likely discovered self-induction a few months earlier and both may have been anticipated by the work of Francesco Zantedeschi in Italy in 1829 and 1830.[35]

English chemists John Daniell (left) and Michael Faraday (right), credited as founders of electrochemistry today.
A diagram of Faraday's iron ring-coil apparatus

Faraday's breakthrough came when he wrapped two insulated coils of wire around an iron[verification needed] ring, and found that, upon passing a current through one coil, a momentary current was induced in the other coil.[2] This phenomenon is known as mutual induction. The iron ring-coil apparatus is still on display at the Royal Institution. In subsequent experiments, he found that, if he moved a magnet through a loop of wire, an electric current flowed in the wire. The current also flowed if the loop was moved over a stationary magnet. His demonstrations established that a changing magnetic field produces an electric field. This relation was modelled mathematically by James Clerk Maxwell as Faraday's law, which subsequently became one of the four Maxwell equations. These in turn have evolved into the generalisation known today as field theory.

Faraday later used the principle to construct the electric dynamo, the ancestor of modern power generators.

In 1839, he completed a series of experiments aimed at investigating the fundamental nature of electricity. Faraday used "static", batteries, and "animal electricity" to produce the phenomena of electrostatic attraction, electrolysis, magnetism, etc. He concluded that, contrary to scientific opinion of the time, the divisions between the various "kinds" of electricity were illusory. Faraday instead proposed that only a single "electricity" exists, and the changing values of quantity and intensity (current and voltage) would produce different groups of phenomena.[2]

Near the end of his career, Faraday proposed that electromagnetic forces extended into the empty space around the conductor. This idea was rejected by his fellow scientists, and Faraday did not live to see this idea eventually accepted. Faraday's concept of lines of flux emanating from charged bodies and magnets provided a way to visualise electric and magnetic fields. That mental model was crucial to the successful development of electromechanical devices that dominated engineering and industry for the remainder of the 19th century.


Michael Faraday holding a glass bar of the type he used in 1845 to show that magnetism can affect light in a dielectric material.[36]

In 1845, Faraday discovered that many materials exhibit a weak repulsion from a magnetic field, a phenomenon he named diamagnetism.

Faraday also found that the plane of polarisation of linearly polarised light can be rotated by the application of an external magnetic field aligned in the direction the light is moving. This is now termed the Faraday effect. He wrote in his notebook, "I have at last succeeded in illuminating a magnetic curve or line of force and in magnetising a ray of light".

Late in life (1862), Faraday used a spectroscope to search for a different alteration of light, the change of spectral lines by an applied magnetic field. However, the equipment available to him was insufficient for a definite determination of a spectral change. Pieter Zeeman later used an improved apparatus to study the same phenomenon, publishing his results in 1897 and receiving the 1902 Nobel Prize in Physics for his success. In both his 1897 paper[37] and his Nobel acceptance speech,[38] Zeeman referred to Faraday's work.

Faraday cage

An external electrical field causes the charges to rearrange, which cancels the field inside.

In his work on static electricity, Faraday's ice pail experiment demonstrated that the charge resided only on the exterior of a charged conductor, and exterior charge had no influence on anything enclosed within a conductor. This is because the exterior charges redistribute such that the interior fields due to them cancel. This shielding effect is used in what is now known as a Faraday cage.

Faraday was an excellent experimentalist who conveyed his ideas in clear and simple language. However, his mathematical abilities did not extend as far as trigonometry or any but the simplest algebra. It was James Clerk Maxwell who took the work of Faraday, and others, and consolidated it with a set of equations that lie at the base of all modern theories of electromagnetic phenomena. On Faraday's uses of the lines of force, Maxwell wrote that they show Faraday "to have been in reality a mathematician of a very high order – one from whom the mathematicians of the future may derive valuable and fertile methods."[39]

Royal Institution and public service

Michael Faraday meets Father Thames, from Punch (21 July 1855)
Lighthouse lantern room from mid 1800s

Faraday was the first Fullerian Professor of Chemistry at the Royal Institution of Great Britain, a position to which he was appointed for life. His sponsor and mentor was John 'Mad Jack' Fuller, who created the position at the Royal Institution. Faraday was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1824,[8] appointed director of the laboratory in 1825; and in 1833 he was appointed Fullerian Professor of Chemistry in the institution for life, without the obligation to deliver lectures.

Beyond his scientific research into areas such as chemistry, electricity, and magnetism at the Royal Institution, Faraday undertook numerous, and often time-consuming, service projects for private enterprise and the British government. This work included investigations of explosions in coal mines, being an expert witness in court, and the preparation of high-quality optical glass. In 1846, together with Charles Lyell, he produced a lengthy and detailed report on a serious explosion in the colliery at Haswell County Durham, which killed 95 miners. Their report was a meticulous forensic investigation and indicated that coal dust contributed to the severity of the explosion. The report should have warned coal owners of the hazard of coal dust explosions, but the risk was ignored for over 60 years until the Senghenydd Colliery Disaster of 1913.

As a respected scientist in a nation with strong maritime interests, Faraday spent extensive amounts of time on projects such as the construction and operation of light houses and protecting the bottoms of ships from corrosion. His workshop still stands at Trinity Buoy Wharf above the Chain and Buoy Store, next to London's only lighthouse and a school named after him.

Faraday also was active in what would now be called environmental science, or engineering. He investigated industrial pollution at Swansea and was consulted on air pollution at the Royal Mint. In July 1855, Faraday wrote a letter to The Times on the subject of the foul condition of the River Thames, which resulted in an oft-reprinted cartoon in Punch. (See also The Great Stink.)

Faraday assisted with planning and judging of exhibits for the Great Exhibition of 1851 in London. He also advised the National Gallery on the cleaning and protection of its art collection, and served on the National Gallery Site Commission in 1857.

Education was another area of service for Faraday. He lectured on the topic in 1854 at the Royal Institution, and in 1862 he appeared before a Public Schools Commission to give his views on education in Great Britain. Faraday also weighed in, negatively, on the public's fascination with table-turning, mesmerism, and seances, chastising both the public and the nation's educational system.[40]

Faraday gave a successful series of lectures on the chemistry and physics of flames at the Royal Institution, entitled The Chemical History of a Candle. This was one of the earliest Christmas lectures for young people, which are still given each year. Between 1827 and 1860, Faraday gave the Christmas lectures a record nineteen times.

Later life

Faraday in old age.
Michael Faraday delivering a Christmas Lecture in 1856.

In June 1832, the University of Oxford granted Faraday a Doctor of Civil Law degree (honorary). During his lifetime, Faraday rejected a knighthood and twice refused to become President of the Royal Society. Faraday was elected a foreign member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences in 1838, and was one of eight foreign members elected to the French Academy of Sciences in 1844.[41]

In 1848, as a result of representations by the Prince Consort, Michael Faraday was awarded a grace and favour house in Hampton Court in Middlesex, free of all expenses or upkeep. This was the Master Mason's House, later called Faraday House, and now No.37 Hampton Court Road. In 1858 Faraday retired to live there.[42]

When asked by the British government to advise on the production of chemical weapons for use in the Crimean War (1853–1856), Faraday refused to participate citing ethical reasons.[43]

Faraday died at his house at Hampton Court on 25 August 1867 aged 75 years and 11 months.[44] He had previously turned down burial in Westminster Abbey, but he has a memorial plaque there, near Isaac Newton's tomb. Faraday was interred in the dissenters' (non-Anglican) section of Highgate Cemetery. Hirshfeld maintains in his biography that Faraday suffered from mental breakdown due to his intellectual exertions so that he became debilitated by the end of his life and unable to conduct any meaningful research.


Michael Faraday, statue in Savoy Place, London.
Sculptor John Henry Foley RA

Faraday School is located on Trinity Buoy Wharf where his workshop still stands above the Chain and Buoy Store, next to London's only lighthouse.

A statue of Faraday stands in Savoy Place, London, outside the Institution of Engineering and Technology. Also in London, the Michael Faraday Memorial, designed by brutalist architect Rodney Gordon and completed in 1961, is at the Elephant & Castle gyratory system, near Faraday's birthplace at Newington Butts.

Faraday Gardens is a small park in Walworth, London, not far from his birthplace at Newington Butts. This park lies within the local council ward of Faraday in the London Borough of Southwark.

A building at London South Bank University, which houses the institute's electrical engineering departments is named the Faraday Wing, due to its proximity to Faraday's birthplace in Newington Butts. A hall at Loughborough University was named after Faraday in 1960. Near the entrance to its dining hall is a bronze casting, which depicts the symbol of an electrical transformer, and inside there hangs a portrait, both in Faraday's honour. An eight-story building at the University of Edinburgh's science & engineering campus is named for Faraday, as is a recently built hall of accommodation at Brunel University, the main engineering building at Swansea University, and the instructional and experimental physics building at Northern Illinois University. The former UK Faraday Station in Antarctica was named after him.

Streets named for Faraday can be found in many British cities (e.g., London, Fife, Swindon, Basingstoke, Nottingham, Whitby, Kirkby, Crawley, Newbury, Aylesbury and Stevenage) as well as in France (Paris), Germany (Hermsdorf), Canada (Quebec; Deep River, Ontario), and the United States (Reston, VA).

From 1991 until 2001, Faraday's picture featured on the reverse of Series E £20 banknotes issued by the Bank of England. He was shown conducting a lecture at the Royal Institution with the magneto-electric spark apparatus.[45]


Faraday's books, with the exception of Chemical Manipulation, were collections of scientific papers or transcriptions of lectures.[46] Since his death, Faraday's diary has been published, as have several large volumes of his letters and Faraday's journal from his travels with Davy in 1813–1815.

See also

Michael Faraday's grave at Highgate Cemetery


  1. ^ a b c Michael Faraday entry at the 1911 Encyclopaedia Britannica hosted by LovetoKnow Retrieved January 2007.
  2. ^ a b c d "Archives Biographies: Michael Faraday", The Institution of Engineering and Technology.
  3. ^ Hart, Michael H. (2000). The 100: A Ranking of the Most Influential Persons in History. New York: Citadel. ISBN 0-89104-175-3. 
  4. ^ Russell, Colin (2000). Michael Faraday: Physics and Faith. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0195117638. 
  5. ^ "best experimentalist in the history of science." Quoting Dr Peter Ford, from the University of Bath’s Department of Physics. Accessed January 2007.
  6. ^ "Einstein's Heroes: Imagining the World through the Language of Mathematics", by Robyn Arianrhod UQP, reviewed by Jane Gleeson-White, 10 November 2003, The Sydney Morning Herald.
  7. ^ Baggott, Jim (2 September 1991). "The myth of Michael Faraday: Michael Faraday was not just one of Britain's greatest experimenters. A closer look at the man and his work reveals that he was also a clever theoretician". New Scientist. http://www.newscientist.com/article/mg13117874.600-the-myth-of-michael-faraday-michael-faraday-was-not-justone-of-britains-greatest-experimenters-a-closer-look-at-the-man-and-hiswork-reveals-that-he-was-also-a-clever-theoretician-.html. Retrieved 6 September 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c Frank A. J. L. James, ‘Faraday, Michael (1791–1867)’, Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, Sept 2004; online edn, Jan 2008 accessed 3 March 2009
  9. ^ For a concise account of Faraday’s life including his childhood, see pages 175–83 of EVERY SATURDAY: A JOURNAL OF CHOICE READING, Vol III published at Cambridge in 1873 by Osgood & Co.
  10. ^ The implication was that James discovered job opportunities elsewhere through membership of this sect. James joined the London meeting house on 20 February 1791, and moved his family shortly thereafter. See pages 57–8 of Cantor's (1991) Michael Faraday, Sandemanian and Scientist.
  11. ^ "Michael Faraday." History of Science and Technology. Houghton Mifflin Company, 2004. Answers.com 4 June 2007
  12. ^ Plaque #19 on Open Plaques.
  13. ^ "Jane Marcet's Books". John H. Lienhard. The Engines of Our Ingenuity. NPR. KUHF-FM Houston. 1992. No. 744. Transcript. Retrieved on 2 October 2007.
  14. ^ See pages 41–43, 60–4, and 277-80 of Geoffrey Cantor's (1991) Michael Faraday, Sandemanian and Scientist.
  15. ^ Paul's Alley was located 10 houses south of the Barbican. See page 330 Elmes's (1831) Topographical Dictionary of the British Metropolis.
  16. ^ The register at St. Faith-in-the-Virgin near St. Paul's Cathedral, records 12 June as the date their licence was issued. The witness was Sarah's father, Edward. Their marriage was 16 years prior to the Marriage and Registration Act of 1837. See page 59 of Cantor's (1991) Michael Faraday, Sandemanian and Scientist.
  17. ^ Britannica.com Facts about Michael Farady, Accessed may 2011
  18. ^ Jensen, William B. (2005). "The Origin of the Bunsen Burner" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Education 82 (4). http://jchemed.chem.wisc.edu/HS/Journal/Issues/2005/Apr/clicSubscriber/V82N04/p518.pdf. 
  19. ^ See page 127 of Faraday's Chemical Manipulation, Being Instructions to Students in Chemistry (1827)
  20. ^ Faraday, Michael (1821). "On two new Compounds of Chlorine and Carbon, and on a new Compound of Iodine, Carbon, and Hydrogen". Philosophical Transactions 111: 47. doi:10.1098/rstl.1821.0007. 
  21. ^ Faraday, Michael (1859). Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics. London: Richard Taylor and William Francis. pp. 33–53. ISBN 0850668417. 
  22. ^ Williams, L. Pearce (1965). Michael Faraday: A Biography. New York: Basic Books. pp. 122–123. ISBN 0306802996. 
  23. ^ Faraday, Michael (1823). "On Hydrate of Chlorine". Quartly Journal of Science 15: 71. 
  24. ^ Faraday, Michael (1859). Experimental Researches in Chemistry and Physics. London: Richard Taylor and William Francis. pp. 81–84. ISBN 0850668417. 
  25. ^ "The Birth of Nanotechnology". Nanogallery.info. 2006. http://www.nanogallery.info/nanogallery/?ipg=126. Retrieved 25 July 2007. ""Faraday made some attempt to explain what was causing the vivid coloration in his gold mixtures, saying that known phenomena seemed to indicate that a mere variation in the size of gold particles gave rise to a variety of resultant colors."" 
  26. ^ Faraday, Michael (1844). Experimental Researches in Electricity. 2. ISBN 0486435059.  See plate 4.
  27. ^ Hamilton's A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution (2004) pp. 165–71, 183, 187–90.
  28. ^ Cantor's Michael Faraday, Sandemanian and Scientist (1991) pp. 231–3.
  29. ^ Thompson’s Michael Faraday, his life and work (1901) p.95.
  30. ^ Thompson (1901) p. 91. This lab entry illustrates Faraday’s quest for the connection between light and electromagnetic phenomenon 10 September 1821.
  31. ^ Cantor's Michael Faraday, Sandemanian and Scientist (1991) p. 233.
  32. ^ pp. 95–98 of Thompson (1901).
  33. ^ Thompson (1901) p 100.
  34. ^ Faraday's initial induction lab work occurred in late November 1825. His work was heavily influenced by the ongoing research of fellow European scientists Ampere, Arago, and Oersted as indicated by his diary entries. Cantor’s Michael Faraday: Sandemanian and Scientist (1991) pp. 235–44.
  35. ^ Brother Potamian (1913). "Francesco Zantedeschi article at the Catholic Encyclopedia". Wikisource. http://en.wikisource.org/wiki/Catholic_Encyclopedia_%281913%29/Francesco_Zantedeschi. Retrieved 16 June 2007. 
  36. ^ Detail of an engraving by Henry Adlard, based on an earlier photograph by Maull & Polyblank ca. 1857. See National Portrait Gallery, UK
  37. ^ Zeeman, Pieter (1897). "The Effect of Magnetisation on the Nature of Light Emitted by a Substance". Nature 55 (1424): 347. Bibcode 1897Natur..55..347Z. doi:10.1038/055347a0. 
  38. ^ "Pieter Zeeman, Nobel Lecture". http://nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/physics/laureates/1902/zeeman-lecture.html. Retrieved 29 May 2008. 
  39. ^ The Scientific Papers of James Clerk Maxwell Volume 1 page 360; Courier Dover 2003, ISBN 0486495604
  40. ^ See The Illustrated London News, July 1853, for Faraday's comments.
  41. ^ Gladstone, John Hall (1872). Michael Faraday. London: Macmillan and Company. p. 53. http://books.google.com/?id=pbs4AAAAMAAJ&pg=PA53&lpg=PA53&dq=Faraday+French+Academy. 
  42. ^ Twickenham Museum on Faraday and Faraday House, Accessed June 2006
  43. ^ Croddy, Eric; Wirtz, James J. (2005). Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Encyclopedia of Worldwide Policy, Technology, and History. ABC-CLIO. pp. Page 86. ISBN 1851094903. http://books.google.com/?id=ZzlNgS70OHAC&pg=PA86&lpg=PA86&dq=Faraday++chemical+weapons+Crimean+War. 
  44. ^ Plaque #2429 on Open Plaques.
  45. ^ "Withdrawn banknotes reference guide". Bank of England. http://www.bankofengland.co.uk/banknotes/denom_guide/index.htm. Retrieved 17 October 2008. 
  46. ^ See page 220 of Hamilton's A Life of Discovery: Michael Faraday, Giant of the Scientific Revolution (2002)

Further reading


External links



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