Type Digital audio/video connector Production history Designer VESA Designed May 2006 Produced 2008–present General specifications Hot pluggable Yes External Yes Audio signal Optional; 1–8 channels, 16 or 24-bit linear PCM; 32 to 192 kHz sampling rate; maximum bitrate 49,152 kbit/s (6MB/s) Video signal Optional, maximum resolution limited by available bandwidth Cable 3 meters for full bandwidth transmission over passive cable.
33 meters over active cable.
Pins 20 pins for external connectors on desktops, notebooks, graphics cards, monitors, etc. and 30/20 pins for internal connections between graphics engines and built-in flat panels. Electrical Signal +3.3 V Max. voltage 16.0 V Max. current 500 mA Data Data signal Yes Bitrate 1.62, 2.7, or 5.4 Gbit/s data rate per lane; 1, 2, or 4 lanes; (effective total 5.184, 8.64, or 17.28 Gbit/s for 4-lane link); 1 Mbit/s or 720 Mbit/s for the auxiliary channel. Protocol Mini-packet Pin out External connector (source-side) on PCB Pin 1 ML_Lane 0 (p) Lane 0 (positive) Pin 2 GND Ground Pin 3 ML_Lane 0 (n) Lane 0 (negative) Pin 4 ML_Lane 1 (p) Lane 1 (positive) Pin 5 GND Ground Pin 6 ML_Lane 1 (n) Lane 1 (negative) Pin 7 ML_Lane 2 (p) Lane 2 (positive) Pin 8 GND Ground Pin 9 ML_Lane 2 (n) Lane 2 (negative) Pin 10 ML_Lane 3 (p) Lane 3 (positive) Pin 11 GND Ground Pin 12 ML_Lane 3 (n) Lane 3 (negative) Pin 13 CONFIG1 connected to Ground1) Pin 14 CONFIG2 connected to Ground1) Pin 15 AUX CH (p) Auxiliary Channel (positive) Pin 16 GND Ground Pin 17 AUX CH (n) Auxiliary Channel (negative) Pin 18 Hot Plug Hot Plug Detect Pin 19 Return Return for Power Pin 20 DP_PWR Power for connector (3.3 V 500 mA)
- Pins 13 and 14 may either be directly connected to ground or connected to ground through a pulldown device.
- This is the pinout for source-side connector, the sink-side connector pinout will have lanes 0–3 reversed in order; i.e., lane 3 will be on pin 1(n) and 3(p) while lane 0 will be on pin 10(n) and 12(p).
DisplayPort is a digital display interface standard produced by the Video Electronics Standards Association (VESA). The specification defines a royalty-free digital interconnect for audio and video. The interface is primarily used to connect a video source to a display device such as a computer monitor or television set.
The first version 1.0 was approved by VESA on May 3, 2006. Two updated revisions have since been approved starting with 1.1a on April 2, 2007 followed by the current standard 1.2 on December 22, 2009.
DisplayPort is designed to replace Digital Visual Interface (DVI) and Video Graphics Array (VGA), as well as replace internal digital LVDS links in computer monitor panels and TV panels. DisplayPort can also provide the same functionality as HDMI but is not expected to displace HDMI in high-definition consumer electronics devices.
- 1 Overview
- 2 Versions
- 3 Companion standards
- 4 Specifications
- 5 Comparisons
- 6 Products
- 7 Adopters and supporters
- 8 Market share
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 External links
DisplayPort is the first display interface to rely on packetized data transmission similar to other data communication protocols such as Ethernet, USB, and PCI Express. It supports both external (box-to-box) and internal (laptop LCD panel) display connections, and unlike DVI/HDMI and LVDS standards where differential pairs are fixed to transmitting RGB pixels and a clock signal, the DisplayPort protocol is based on small data packets with clock embedded. The use of data packets also allows for DisplayPort to be extensible, meaning additional features can be added over time without significant changes to the interface itself.
The DisplayPort connector supports 1, 2, or 4 differential data pairs (lanes) in a Main Link, each with a raw bit rate of 1.62, 2.7, or 5.4 Gbit/s per lane with self-clock running at 162, 270, or 540 MHz. Data is 8b/10b encoded where each 8 bits of information are encoded with a 10 bit symbol. So the effective data rates after decoding are 1.296, 2.16, and 4.32 Gbit/s per lane (or 80% of the total).
Both video and audio signals are optional; a Displayport signal can be used to transport audio-only content, video-only content, or both audio and video simultaneously. The video signal path supports 6 to 16 bits per color channel, and the audio path supports up to 8 channels of 24 bit 192 kHz uncompressed PCM audio which can encapsulate compressed audio formats in the audio stream. A bi-directional, half-duplex auxiliary channel carries device management and device control data for the Main Link, such as VESA EDID, MCCS, and DPMS standards. In addition, the interface is capable of carrying bi-directional USB signals.
The DisplayPort signal is not compatible with HDMI or DVI. However, dual-mode ports marked with a DP++ logo can transmit single-link HDMI and DVI signals through DisplayPort cabling; this requires passive external adapters which convert to the higher signal levels used by DVI/HDMI. Dual-link DVI and analog VGA are supported through powered adapters which perform active conversion (see Compatibility with HDMI/DVI below).
1.0 to 1.1
DisplayPort 1.0 supports a maximum of 8.64 Gbit/s data rate over a 2 meter cable. DisplayPort 1.1 also supports devices which implement alternative link layers such as fiber optic, allowing a much longer reach between source and display without signal degradation, although alternative implementations are not standardized. It also supports HDCP in addition to DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP).
DisplayPort version 1.2 was approved on December 22, 2009. The most significant improvement of the new version is the doubling of the effective bandwidth to 17.28 Gbit/s, which allows increased resolutions, higher refresh rates, and greater color depth. Other improvements include multiple independent video streams (daisy-chain connection with multiple monitors), support for stereoscopic 3D, increased AUX channel bandwidth (from 1 Mbit/s to 720 Mbit/s), support for more color spaces including xvYCC, scRGB and Adobe RGB 1998, and Global Time Code (GTC) for sub 1 µs audio/video synchronisation. Also Apple Inc.'s Mini DisplayPort connector, which is much smaller and more appropriate for laptop computers and other small devices, is compatible with the new standard.
Mini DisplayPort (mDP) is a standard announced by Apple in the fourth quarter of 2008. Shortly after announcing the Mini DisplayPort, Apple announced that it would license the connector technology with no fee. The following year, in early 2009, VESA announced that Mini DisplayPort would be included in the upcoming DisplayPort 1.2 specification.
Embedded DisplayPort (eDP) 1.0 standard was adopted in December 2008. It aims to define a standardized display panel interface for internal connections; e.g., graphics cards to notebook display panels. It supports advanced power-saving features including seamless refresh rate switching. Version 1.1 was approved in October 2009 followed by version 1.1a in November 2009. Version 1.2 was approved in May 2010 and supports DisplayPort 1.2 data rates, 120 Hz sequential color monitors, and a new display panel control protocol that works through the AUX channel. Version 1.3 was published in February 2011; it includes a new Panel Self-Refresh (PSR) feature developed to save system power and further extend battery life in portable PC systems. PSR mode allows GPU to enter power saving state in between frame updates by including framebuffer memory in the display panel controller.
Direct Drive Monitor 1.0 standard was approved in December 2008. It allows for controller-less monitors where the display panel is directly driven by the DisplayPort signal, although the supported resolutions and color depth are limited to 2-lane operation.
Internal DisplayPort (iDP) 1.0 was approved in April 2010. The iDP standard defines an internal link between a digital TV system on a chip controller and the display panel's timing controller. It aims to replace currently used internal LVDS lanes with DisplayPort connection. iDP features unique physical interface and protocols, which are not directly compatible with DisplayPort and are not applicable to external connection, however they enable very high resolution and refresh rates while providing simplicity and extensibility. iDP features non-variable 2.7 GHz clock and is nominally rated at 3.24 Gbit/s data rate per lane, with up to 16 lanes in a bank, resulting in 6-fold decrease in wiring requirements over LVDS for a 1080p24 signal; other data rates are also possible. iDP was built with simplicity in mind and it doesn't support AUX channel, content protection, or multiple streams; however it does support frame sequential and line interleaved stereo 3D.
Portable Digital Media Interface (PDMI) is an interconnection between docking stations/display devices and portable media players, which includes 2-lane DisplayPort v1.1a connection. It has been ratified in February 2010 as ANSI/CEA-2017-A.
Wireless DisplayPort is a standard which will enable DisplayPort 1.2 bandwidth and feature set for cable-free applications operating in 60 GHz radio band; this was announced on November 2010 by WiGig Alliance and VESA as a cooperative effort.
DisplayPort 1.0 includes optional DPCP (DisplayPort Content Protection) from Philips, which uses 128-bit AES encryption. It also features full authentication and session key establishment (each encryption session is independent). There is an independent revocation system. This portion of the standard is licensed separately. It also adds support for verifying the proximity of the receiver and transmitter, a technique intended to ensure users are not bypassing the content protection system to send data out to distant, unauthorized users.
DisplayPort 1.1 added support for industry-standard 56-bit HDCP (High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection) revision 1.3, which has been compromised in September 2010 with the release of HDCP master key.
- Forward link channel with 1 to 4 lanes; effective data rate 1.296, 2.16, or 4.32 Gbit/s per lane (total 5.184, 8.64, or 17.28 Gbit/s for a 4-lane link)†.
- 8b/10b encoding provides DC-balancing and Embedded Clock within serial channel (10 bit symbols, 25% coding overhead)
- Supports RGB (unspecified) and YCbCr (ITU-R BT.601-5 and BT.709-4) color spaces, 4:4:4 and 4:2:2 chroma subsampling
- sRGB, Adobe RGB 1998, DCI-P3, RGB XR, scRGB, xvYCC, Y-only, Simple Color Profile (version 1.2) 
- Supports color depth of 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 bits per color component
- Optional 8-channel audio with sampling rates up to 24 bit 192 kHz, supports encapsulation of audio compression formats
- Bidirectional half-duplex AUX channel, 1 Mbit/s (v1.0) or optional 720 Mbit/s (v1.2)
- Supports stereoscopic 3D formats: frame sequential (v1.1a), field sequential, side-by-side, top-bottom, line interleaved, pixel interleaved and dual interface (v1.2) 
- Optional dual-mode support generates TMDS and clock for single-link DVI/HDMI signaling with a simple line-level conversion dongle.
- Supports up to 63 video and audio streams with time-division transport multiplexing and hot-plug bandwidth allocation (from version 1.2)
- 128-bit AES DisplayPort Content Protection (DPCP) support, and support for 40-bit High-bandwidth Digital Content Protection (HDCP) from version 1.1 onwards.
- Supports internal and external connections so that one standard can be used by computer makers reducing costs.
†Sample data rates required by various display resolutions using common vertical blanking methods, Gbit/s Resolution × color depth @ frame rate CVT CVT-R CEA-861-E 1280 × 720 × 24 bpp @ 60 Hz 1.79 1.54 1.78 1920 × 1080 × 24 bpp @ 60 Hz 4.15 3.33 3.56 1920 × 1200 × 30 bpp @ 60 Hz 5.81 4.62 - 2560 × 1600 × 30 bpp @ 60 Hz 10.46 8.06 - 3840 × 2160 × 30 bpp @ 60 Hz 21.39 16.00 - For RGB and YCbCr 4:4:4 encodings, bpp = 3 × bpc (bits per channel); for YCbCr 4:2:2 subsampling, bpp = 2 × bpc.
Compatibility with HDMI/DVI
Dual-mode pin mapping DisplayPort pins DVI 1.0/HDMI mode Main Link Lane 0 TMDS Channel 2 Main Link Lane 1 TMDS Channel 1 Main Link Lane 2 TMDS Channel 0 Main Link Lane 3 TMDS Clock AUX CH+ DDC Clock AUX CH- DDC Data DP_PWR DP_PWR Hot Plug Detect Hot Plug Detect Config 1 Cable Adaptor Detect Config 2 CEC (HDMI only)
DisplayPort is capable of directly emitting single-link HDMI and DVI signals using Dual-mode DisplayPort. VESA has issued interoperability guidelines for supporting single-link DVI and HDMI through a DisplayPort connection using a relatively simple passive adapter that adjusts for the lower voltages required by DisplayPort. Dual-mode DisplayPort chipset detects the DVI or HDMI passive adapter and switches to DVI/HDMI mode which uses the 4-lane main DisplayPort link and AUX channel link to transmit 3 TMDS signals plus a Clock signal and Display Data Channel data/clock from the chipset. Dual-mode compatible ports are marked with the DP++ logo; most current DisplayPort graphics cards and monitors support this mode.
A notable limitation is that dual-mode can only transmit single-link DVI/HDMI, as the number of pins in the DisplayPort connector is insufficient for dual-link connections and an active converter is needed for Dual-Link DVI (and analog component video such as VGA); however, VESA foresees that all HDMI conversion will eventually be handled by active adapters which act as DisplayPort Sink devices, in order to facilitate easier updates to latest HDMI specs and support multiple streams, dual-link HDMI, or DisplayPort connection with fewer than 4 lanes, as in PDMI. DVI 1.0 spec was finalized in 1999 and the DVI industry consortium has since disbanded, which means future updates to DVI specification are unlikely; also, although dual-link HDMI Type B is defined in the HDMI specification, it has not seen any practical use so far.
Relationship with HDMI
Most of the DisplayPort supporters are computer companies including Apple, Dell, HP, Lenovo, Fujitsu, Toshiba and Acer, some of which have released several computer monitors that support DisplayPort and some also with HDMI.
The DisplayPort website states that DisplayPort is expected to complement HDMI. DisplayPort can emit HDMI video and audio using passive adapters connected to Dual-mode ports, and supports HDCP content protection used in the HDMI standard.
DisplayPort lacked native support for the xvYCC color space, but that has been added in DisplayPort version 1.2. HDMI supports Consumer Electronics Control (CEC) signals, and these are lacking from DisplayPort. However, VESA asserts that CEC can be transmitted over the AUX channel if needed; additional color spaces defined in Vendor Specific Block could also be defined using CEA EDID extensions, which were designed for DVI-mode connections which lack VSB communications.
DisplayPort is currently royalty free, while the HDMI royalty is 4 cents per device and has an annual fee of $10,000 for high volume manufacturers. HDMI Licensing LLC claims that, like HDMI, the DisplayPort specification allows for compensation from implementers to unspecified rights holders.
Advantages over legacy standards
In December 2010 it was announced that several computer vendors and display makers including Intel, AMD, Dell, Lenovo, Samsung and LG would stop using LVDS from 2013 and legacy DVI and VGA connectors from 2015, replacing them with DisplayPort and HDMI. Likewise, HP expects that DisplayPort will completely displace VGA and DVI by 2013. However, many are still using those connectors, so it doesn't seem to have much effect right now. Most laptops still have HDMI and legacy VGA ports, but not DisplayPort or DVI.
DisplayPort has several advantages over VGA, DVI and LVDS.
- Open (except HDCP), royalty-free and extensible standard to help broad adoption
- Fewer lanes with embedded self-clock, reduced EMI with data scrambling and spread spectrum mode
- Based on a micro-packet protocol
- Allows easy expansion of the standard with multiple data types
- Flexible allocation of available bandwidth between audio and video
- Multiple video streams over single physical connection (version 1.2)
- Long-distance transmission over alternative physical media such as optical fiber (version 1.1a)
- Supports high resolution displays and multiple displays with a single cable
- 17.28 Gbit/s of effective video bandwidth, enough for supporting 4 simultaneous 1080p60 displays (CEA-861 timings) or 2,560 × 1,600 × 30 bit @120 Hz (CVT-R timings)[note 1]
- Designed to support internal chip-to-chip communication
- Link training with adjustable amplitude and preemphasis adapts to differing cable lengths and signal quality
- Reduced bandwidth transmission for 15 meter cable (at least 1920x1080p60, 24 bpp)
- Full bandwidth transmission for 2 meter cable
- High-speed auxiliary channel for DDC, EDID, MCCS, DPMS, HDCP, adapter identification etc. traffic
- Can be used for transmitting bi-directional USB, touch-panel data, CEC, etc.
- Self-latching connector
Since its introduction in 2006, DisplayPort has slowly gained popularity within the computer industry, and as of 2010, DisplayPort connectors are featured on many graphic cards, displays, and notebook computers.
AMD/ATI Technologies was the first company to release consumer products with an external DisplayPort transmitter with their 790G chipset and Radeon HD 2000 series graphics cards, which were unveiled at AMD's Technology Analyst Day on July 25, 2007. They later implemented the DisplayPort transmitter on the GPU chip in Radeon HD 3600 and HD 3400 graphics products, unveiled at AMD Financial Analyst Day on 13 December 2007. These products received DisplayPort certification from VESA in March 2008.
In 2008, DisplayPort connectors were featured on many graphics cards based on the ATI/AMD HD 4000 series. In 2009, the HD 5000 series graphics cards incorporated a DisplayPort connector as standard, along with two Dual-link DVI connectors and a HDMI connector; the Eyefinity versions carry 6 Mini DisplayPort connectors. Support for DisplayPort audio was introduced by AMD in the Catalyst 9.12 hotfix.
As of February 2011, the latest HD 6000 series graphics cards feature support for DisplayPort 1.2, allowing daisy-chaining multiple monitors from the same connector; a DisplayPort hub containing three Dual-link DVI connectors is also available.
On 14 October 2008, Apple introduced several products featuring a Mini DisplayPort as the sole video connector. This connector was proprietary at that time. Later, with versions 1.1a and 1.2 of the specification, it became part of the standard. Between October 2009 and February 2011, all Mac models feature Mini DisplayPort connector; during that time iMac, MacBook, MacBook Air, MacBook Pro, and Xserve models used Mini DisplayPort as their sole video output while the Mac Mini and Mac Pro models had both a Mini DisplayPort and either a DVI port (Mac Pro) or an HDMI port (Mac Mini). On February 24, 2011 MacBook Pros began shipping with Thunderbolt (known previously by Intel codename Light Peak) which provides both DisplayPort and PCI Express functionality in a single port. On May 3, 2011 Apple introduced their first iMac lineup with Thunderbolt built in. The iMac 21 in (53 cm) received one and the iMac 27 in (69 cm) received two Thunderbolt ports.
Apple's latest 24 in (61 cm) and 27 in (69 cm) LED Cinema Displays feature Mini DisplayPort connector. The recent 27-inch iMac model allows the Mini DisplayPort to act as an input, turning the iMac into a standalone display.
The Dell 3008WFP 30-inch (76 cm), released in January 2008 was the first monitor to support DisplayPort. The Dell 2408WFP 24-inch (61 cm) followed in April 2008. Many other Dell monitors also offer the DisplayPort interface, including four of their 'Professional' series and five of their 'UltraSharp' series monitors.
The HP Elite L2201 21.5-inch (55 cm) released in June 2011 is the first monitor from Hewlett Packard to ship with a DisplayPort as the primary (and only) means of connectivity. HP EliteBook laptops provide both a VGA and a DisplayPort connector.
Lenovo offers Display Ports on some models.
Adopters and supporters
The following companies have participated in preparing the drafts of DisplayPort, eDP, iDP, or DDM standards:
- Broadcom Corporation
- Chi Mei Optoelectronics
- Chrontel 
- Display Labs
- Foxconn Electronics
- Genesis Microchip 
- Hirose Electric Group
- Integrated Device Technology
- JAE Electronics
- Kawasaki Microelectronics (K-Micro)
- LG Display
- NXP Semiconductors
- Parade Technologies
- Realtek Semiconductor
- Samsung 
- SyntheSys Research Inc.
- Texas Instruments
- Tyco Electronics
The following companies have additionally announced their intention to implement or support DisplayPort, eDP or iDP:
- Circuit Assembly
- Gigabyte Technology
- Hall Research Technologies
- ITE Tech.
- Matrox Graphics
- Micro-Star International
- MStar Semiconductor
- Palit Microsystems Ltd.
- Pioneer Corporation
- S3 Graphics
- Quantum Data
- Sparkle Computer
Figures from IDC show that DisplayPort was on 5.1 percent of commercial desktops and 2.1 percent on commercial notebooks in 2009. However, they predict that the figure for commercial desktops will grow to 89.5 percent, and for commercial notebooks to 95 percent by 2014. The main factor behind this is the phase out of VGA, and that both Intel and AMD will also stop supporting low-voltage differential signaling (LVDS), by 2013.
- ^ Dual-link DVI is limited in resolution and speed by the quality and therefore the bandwidth of the DVI cable, the quality of the transmitter, and the quality of the receiver; can only drive one monitor at a time; and cannot send audio data. HDMI 1.3 and 1.4 are limited by the standard to effectively 8.16 Gbit/s or 340 MHz, and can only drive one monitor at a time. VGA connectors have no defined maximum resolution or speed, but their analog nature limits their bandwidth.
- ^ O'Brian, Terrence (22 June 2011). "DisplayPort 1.2 adds active cable support: brings longer cords, more logos". Engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2011/06/22/displayport-1-2-adds-active-cable-support-brings-longer-cords/. Retrieved 10 July 2011.
- ^ "New DisplayPort(TM) Interface Standard for PCs, Monitors, TV Displays and Projectors Released by the Video Electronics Standards Association". vesa.org. 3 May 2006. Archived from the original on 14 February 2009. http://web.archive.org/web/20090214160316/http://www.vesa.org/press/VESA_dportlaunchpr_Final.htm. Retrieved 21 July 2011.
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- ^ Direct2Dell Blog: The Truth About DisplayPort vs. HDMI
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- ^ Tony Smith, "DisplayPort revision to get mini connector, stereo 3D", The Register, 13 January 2009
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- ^ a b c d e f g DisplayPort® Developer Conference Presentations Posted | vesa
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- ^ VESA ® Issues Updated Embedded DisplayPort® Standard | Business Wire
- ^ "VESA Issues Internal DisplayPort Standard for Flat Panel TVs". VESA. 2010-05-10. http://www.displayport.org/cms/sites/default/files/downloads/press-releases/iDP_VESA_PR.pdf.
- ^ Wireless Gigabit Alliance » » WiGig™ Alliance and VESA® to Collaborate on Next Generation Wireless DisplayPort
- ^ DisplayPort/DVI/HDMI Comparison table, VESA DisplayPort Standard v1.0—Audioholics Home Theater Reviews and News.
- ^ a b "DisplayPort FAQ". DisplayPort website. http://www.displayport.org/consumer/?q=content/faq. Retrieved 2008-06-19.
- ^ "DisplayPort Interoperability Guideline Version 1.1a". VESA.org. 2009-02-05. http://www.displayport.org. Retrieved 2010-07-02.
- ^ Paul Miller (2007-12-18). "Dell's 3008WFP 30-inch (760 mm)-inch LCD with DisplayPort sneaks available -- in US too". engadget. http://www.engadget.com/2007/12/18/dells-3008wfp-30-inch-lcd-with-displayport-sneaks-available/. Retrieved 2008-06-18.
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- ^ a b 
- ^ HP: An Overview of Current Display Interfaces
- ^ a b technewsworld.com - VGA Given 5 Years to Live (9. December 2010)
- ^ Top PC, Chip, Display Makers to Ditch VGA, DVI - News & Opinion. PCMag.com
- ^ AMD Press Release: AMD Receives First Ever DisplayPort Certification for PC Graphics. Retrieved 2008-03-20.
- ^ "ATI Radeon HD 5870 1GB Graphics Card and AMD Eyefinity Review". PC Perspective. 2009-09-23. http://www.pcper.com/article.php?aid=783&type=expert&pid=4. Retrieved 2009-09-23.
- ^ . AMD. http://support.amd.com/us/kbarticles/Pages/ATICatalyst912Hotfix.aspx. Retrieved 2009-12-18.
- ^ "Software Licensing and Trademark Agreement: Mini DisplayPort". http://developer.apple.com/softwarelicensing/agreements/minidisplayport.html.
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- ^ "Dell Shows Off Super-Slim Display Port LCD Monitor". Gearlog.com. 2007-05-17. http://www.gearlog.com/2007/05/dell_shows_off_superslim_displ.php. Retrieved 2007-07-16.
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- ^ "List of Devices from the DisplayPort Website". DisplayPort Official Website. http://www.displayport.org/consumer/?q=content/devices.
- ^ 
- ^ Analogix announces DisplayPort transmitter[dead link], published 2006-08-26, seen 2009-08-10
- ^ 
- ^ "Genesis Microchip (GNSS) Q4 2006 Earnings Conference Call". Seeking Alpha. 2006-05-02. http://seekingalpha.com/article/9956. Retrieved 2007-07-16.
- ^ "Samsung touts development of first DisplayPort desktop LCD". TG Daily. 2006-07-25. http://www.tgdaily.com/content/view/33064/135/. Retrieved 2007-07-25.
- ^ ASRock announces motherboard with embedded DisplayPort[dead link], published 2008-03-25, seen 2009-08-10
- ^ MSI announces video adaptor with DisplayPort[dead link], published 2008-01-17, seen 2009-08-10
- DisplayPort homepage
- Bridging the new DisplayPort standard
- Introducing the Panel Self Refresh Technology
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