- British Union of Fascists
Infobox Historic Political Party
party name= British Union of Fascists
party articletitle= British Union of Fascists
active= 1932 - 1940
preceded by= New Party
succeeded by= N/A
Flash and Circle
The British Union of Fascists (BUF) was a
political partyin the United Kingdomformed in 1932 by a Labour government minister and former MP of the Conservative Party, Sir Oswald Mosley. The party was a union of smaller fascistparties such as the British Fascisti.
Oswald Mosley had been a junior minister of
Ramsay MacDonald's Labour government advising on rising unemployment. In 1930 he issued his ' Mosley Memorandum': A proto-Keynesian programme of policies designed to tackle the unemployment problem. He resigned in early 1931 when these were rejected and formed the New Party, with policies based on his memorandum. Despite winning 16% of the vote at a by-election in Ashton-under-Lynein early 1931, the party failed to achieve electoral success.
During 1931 New Party policies became increasingly influenced by
Fascism. In January 1932, Mosley's conversion to Fascism was confirmed when he visited Benito Mussoliniin Italy. He wound up the New Party in April 1932 but kept the youth movement as the basis for a Fascist fighting force. He spent summer that year writing a Fascist programme; "The Greater Britain". The BUF was launched in October 1932. Thorpe, Andrew. (1995) "Britain In The 1930s", Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0-613-17411-7]
Mosley modelled himself on
Benito Mussoliniand the BUF on Mussolini's National Fascist Partyin Italy. Mussolini and, later, Mosley instituted black uniforms for members, earning them the nickname " Blackshirts." The BUF was anti-communist and protectionist, and proposed replacing parliamentary democracywith elected executives having jurisdiction over specific industries – a system similar to the corporatismof the Italian fascists. Unlike the Italian system, British fascist corporatism planned a democracy that would replace the House of Lordswith elected executives drawn from major industries, the clergy, and colonies. The House of Commons was to be reduced to allow for a faster, "less factionist" democracy. [Tomorrow We Live (1938)]
The BUF's programme and ideology were outlined in Mosley's "Tomorrow We Live" (Abbey Supplies, Ltd., 1938), and A. Raven Thompson's "The Coming Corporate State" (1938).
Most BUF policies were built on
isolationism, prohibiting trade by British nationals outside the British Empire. Mosley proposed this would protect the British economy from the flux of the world market, especially during the Great Depression, and prevent "cheap slave competition from abroad." [Tomorrow We Live (1938), by Sir Oswald Mosley and http://www.oswaldmosley.com/audio/speeches.html entitled http://www.oswaldmosley.com/audio/speeches.html']
Many members were from aristocratic and military families and included military scientist
J.F.C. Fuller. The policy throughout the 1930s was not officially anti-Semiticbut many members were openly so. The BUF's propaganda director, American-born William Joyce, was outspoken in his hatred of Jews, whom he denounced as "a perpetual nuisance," and, in his last public message as reported by the BBC, announced, "In death as in life, I defy the Jews who caused this last war, and I defy the powers of darkness they represent." [ [http://www.bbc.co.uk/ww2peopleswar/stories/29/a2015029.shtml BBC - WW2 People's War - The Capture of Lord Haw Haw ] ] Mosley, in his autobiography, "My Life", admitted: "As we shall see I had a quarrel years later with certain Jews for political reasons, but have not at any time been an anti-semite." [ [http://www.globusz.com/ebooks/Mosley/ My Life by Sir Oswald Mosley ] ]
Of anti-Semitism in the BUF, "
The Times" wrote, in 1934:
"The listeners heard Sir O. Mosley refer to his would-be interrupters as 'sweeping of the Continental ghettoes, hired by Jewish financiers...an alien gang imported from all quarters of Britain by Jewish money to prevent Englishmen putting their case [forward] ....'" [
The Times, Monday, Oct 01, 1934; pg. 14; Issue 46873; col C - "Fascist Rally At Manchester Counter-Invective"]
Responding, in 1935, to a question from "The Times" about BUF policy regarding Jewish Britons, Mosley said: "We will not tolerate within the State a minority organized against the interests of the State. Jews must either put the interests of Britain before the interests of Jewry or they will be deported from Britain." [*The Times, Monday, Mar 25, 1935; pg. 16; Issue 47021; col D - "Fascist Policy"]
The BUF claimed 50,000 members at one point and the "
Daily Mail" was an early supporter, running the headline "Hurrah for the Blackshirts!".
Opinion was divided on the BUF's black-shirted followers; in some quarters, their unified appearance, and the vision of militant Britishness, won supportersFact|date=February 2007. Others found them absurd.
P.G. Wodehousebased the "amateur dictator" Roderick Spodeand his Black Shorts, in " Jeeves and Wooster", on Mosley and the BUF.
Despite considerable and sometimes violent resistance from Jewish people, the Labour Party, democrats and the
Communist Party of Great Britain, the BUF found a following in the East End of London, where in the London County Councilelections of 1937 it obtained good results in Bethnal Green, Shoreditchand LimehouseFact|date=February 2007. However, the BUF never faced a General Election: feeling unready in 1935Fact|date=February 2007, it urged voters to abstain, offering "Fascism Next Time". There never was a "next time", as the next General Election was not held until July 1945, by which time World War IIin Europe had ended and fascism had been discredited.
Towards the middle of the 1930s, the BUF's violent activities, and discomfort at perceived alignment with the German Nazi party, began to alienate some
middle-classsupporters. Membership decreased. At the Olympia rally in London, in 1934, BUF stewards were in a violent confrontation with militant communists, and this caused the "Daily Mail" to withdraw support.
Final years and legacy
With lack of electoral success, the party drew away from mainstream politics and towards extreme
anti-Semitismduring 1934-1935, which saw the resignation of members such as Dr Robert Forgan). It organised anti-Semitic marches and protests in London, recalling tactics of predecessors such as the British Brothers League), such as one that resulted in the Battle of Cable Streetin October 1936.
Membership fell to below 8,000 by the end of 1935. The government was sufficiently concerned, however, to pass the
Public Order Act of 1936, which banned political uniforms , required police consent for political marches, and destroyed the movement. The BUF was banned in May 1940, and Mosley and 740 other fascists were interned for much of World War II. Mosley made unsuccessful attempts at a comeback after the war, notably in the Union Movement.
The BUF in popular culture
In the film "
It Happened Here", the BUF appears to be the ruling party of German-occupied Britain. Harry Turtledove's alternate historynovel, " In the Presence of Mine Enemies", is set in 2010 in a world where the Nazis were triumphant, the BUF governs Britain — and the first stirrings of the reform movement come from there. The BUF and Mosley also appear as background influences in Turtledove's Colonization trilogy which follows the Worldwartetralogy and is set in the 1960s.
The BUF is also in
Guy Waltersbook "The Leader" (2003), where Mosely is the dictator of Britain leading up to WWII.
British humorous writer
P.G. Wodehousesatirized the BUF in books and short stories. The BUF was satirized as "The Black Shorts" (shorts being worn as all the best shirt colors were already taken) and their leader was Roderick Spode, owner of a ladies' underwear shop.
The BUF and Oswald Mosley are also alluded to in
Kazuo Ishiguro's novel " The Remains of the Day".
The BUF Anthem resembles the German "
Horst-Wessel-Lied" (anthem of the NSDAP), which is now banned in Germany, and was set to the same tune.
The lyrics are as follows::"Comrades, the voices of the dead battalions,:"Of those who fell that Britain might be great,:"Join in our song, for they still march in spirit with us,:"And urge us on to gain the fascist state!: (Repeat Last Two Lines)
:"We're of their blood, and spirit of their spirit,:"Sprung from that soil for whose dear sake they bled,:"Against vested powers, Red Front, and massed ranks of reaction,:"We lead the fight for freedom and for bread!: (Repeat Last Two Lines)
:"The streets are still, the final struggle's ended;:"Flushed with the fight we proudly hail the dawn!:"See, over all the streets the fascist banners waving,:"Triumphant standards of our race reborn!: (Repeat Last Two Lines)
Despite the short period of operation the BUF attracted prominent members and supporters. These included:
William Edward David Allen
* John Beckett
A. K. Chesterton
Neil Francis Hawkins
Harold Sidney Harmsworth, 1st Viscount Rothermere
Alliott Verdon Roe
Alexander Raven Thomson
List of British fascist parties
Diana Mosley- Wife of BUF leader Oswald Mosley
*"Blackshirt: Sir Oswald Mosley and British Fascism" by Stephen Dorril
* [http://www.oswaldmosley.com OswaldMosley.com The Friends of Oswald Mosley]
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