- Wilton, Wiltshire
infobox UK place
country = England
region= South West England
Wilton is a town in
Wiltshire, (of which it was once the county town), England, with a rich heritage dating back to the Anglo-Saxons. Today it is dwarfed by its larger and more famous neighbour, Salisbury, but still has a range of notable shops and attractions, including Wilton House.
River Wylyemeets the River Nadderat Wilton.
The history of Wilton dates back to the
Anglo-Saxonsin the 8th century, and by the late 9th century (if not before) it was the capital of 'Wiltunscire', a region within the ancient Kingdom of Wessex. It remained the administrative centre of Wiltshire until the 11th century, however. Wilton was of significant importance to the church, with the founding of Wilton Abbeyin 771 and a number of other establishments. A decisive battle against the Danish armies was fought there by King Alfred in 871.
Despite further attacks, Wilton remained a prosperous town, as recorded in the
Domesday book. The building of Salisbury Cathedralnearby, however, proved Wilton's downfall, as the new site of Salisbury, with a new bridge over the River Avon, provided a convenient bypass around Wilton on the trade routes. Wilton Abbeywas surrendered to Henry VIII in 1539 during the Dissolution of the Monasteries, and in 1541 much of the estate was granted to the Earl of Pembroke, upon which Wilton Housewas built.
By the 17th century, weaving had become a large trade, and the carpet industry began in 1741, when two French weavers were brought in by Lord Pembroke to teach the locals new techniques. Carpet weaving prospered until 1815, when peace following the
Napoleonic warsintroduced European competition. The Wilton Royal Carpet Factory was founded at the turn of the century, with the help of Lord Pembroke, to rescue the previous carpet factory that had fallen into financial difficulty. The carpet factory continued to operate until 1995, when it closed temporairly after a takeover. The factory re-opened although it was unable to retain the Wilton Royal prefix.
The headquarters of
United Kingdom Land Forcesis at Wilton, taking advantage of the huge amount of military camps and the ranges of Salisbury Plain. The title of UKLF HQ has varied several times since the 1960s.
Church of St Mary and St Nicholas
The most notable feature of the church, at least from the exterior, is the 105ft
campanile. Many of the materials used the church's construction was imported from Europe, including marble columns from Italyand 12th and 13th century stained glassfrom France.
* [http://www.wiltshire.gov.uk/community/getcom.php?id=246 Wilton community history]
* [http://www.wiltshire.gov.uk/community/getchurch.php?id=608 Church of St Mary and St Nicholas information]
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