Antanas Baranauskas


Antanas Baranauskas

Antanas Baranauskas ( _la. Antonius Baranovski, _pl. Antoni Baranowski (audio|Baranowski.ogg|pronunciation; ) (January 17, 1835, Anykščiai - November 26, 1902) was a Lithuanian [ cite journal|title=The Everyday of a bishop: Antanas Baranauskas, a Concealed Suffragan|journal=Lietuvos etnologija|date=2006|first=Paulius|last=Subačius|coauthors=|volume=5|issue=|pages=|id= |url=http://www.istorija.lt/le/subacius2005en.html|format=|accessdate=2007-12-09 ] [Encyclopedia Britannica [http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-52602/Antanas-Baranauskas] ] [Encyclopedia Wiem [http://wiem.onet.pl/wiem/016a85.html] ] poet,pl icon cite book | author =various authors | coauthors = | title =Biografie suwalskie | year =1993 | editor =Małgorzata Pawłowska
pages = | chapter =Antoni Baranowski | chapterurl =http://www.dziecionline.pl/Suwalki/ludzie/baranowski.htm | publisher =Jaćwież
location =Suwałki | oclc = 69481751 | url = | format = | accessdate =2006-07-17 | language = Polish
] mathematician and a bishop of Sejny. He used the pseudonyms A.B., Bangputys, Jurksztas Smalaūsis, Jurkštas Smalaūsis, and Baronas.. He also wrote Poetry in Polish [Encyclopedia Wiem [http://wiem.onet.pl/wiem/016a85.html] ] .

Early years

Baranauskas was born to a humble peasant family of szlachta originPawłowska, op.cit.] . Early in his youth, his parents sent him to a local parochial school. After finishing his studies there, Baranauskas initially remained in the parish. As described in his diary, between the years 1841-1843, he learned the Polish language and later between 1848-1851, Russian as well.cite book
author =Egidijus Aleksandravičius
title =Giesmininko kelias
year =2003
pages =
chapter =
publisher =Versus Aureus
location =Vilnius
oclc = 60351917
url =
format =
accessdate =2006-07-18
language = Lithuanian
pages = 58
] His first attempts to write poetry and rhyme in Lithuanian, are to be found in his diaries. Later he attended a bi-yearly school for communal writers in Rumšiškės. There he started writing his first poems in Polish.

Adulthood

In 1853, he finished school and started working as a writer and chancellor in various towns. During this period he met Lithuanian poetesscite web
url=http://samogitia.mch.mii.lt/KULTURA/Zem_rasytojai_Telsiai.htm
title=Žemaitijos rašytojai
accessdate=2007-04-18
first=Danutė
last=Mukienė |date=2003-05-15
language = Lithuanian
] cite journal
author =Krystyna Syrnicka
year =2002 | month =May
title =Karolina Proniewska - zapomniana poetka ze Żmudzi
journal =Nasz Czas
volume =20
issue =559
pages =25
id = ISSN|1641-7933 oclc|69526313
language = Polish
url =http://nasz-czas1.tripod.com/025/syrnic.html
format =
accessdate =
quote=Dla historii literatury litewskiej najbardziej znaczący jest wysoko oceniony przez literaturoznawców jej przekład legendy o Egle, królowej węży z Witoloraudy J.I.Kraszewskiego. "Ţalčiř motë" ("Matka węży") była zamieszczona w kalendarzu L. Iwińskiego (L. Ivinskisa) za 1859 rok.
] Karolina Praniauskaitė ( _pl. Karolina Proniewska), a renowned writer form Samogitia, with whom he shared a passion for the poetry of Adam Mickiewicz.cite journal
author =Krystyna Syrnicka
year =2002
month =May
title =Karolina Proniewska - zapomniana poetka ze Żmudzi
journal =Nasz Czas
volume =20
issue =559
pages =25
id = ISSN|1641-7933 oclc|69526313
language = Polish
url =http://nasz-czas1.tripod.com/025/syrnic.html
format =
accessdate =
] Praniauskaitė also suggested that Baranauskas should try to write more in Lithuanian.cite journal
author =Krystyna Syrnicka
year =2002
month =May
title =Karolina Proniewska - zapomniana poetka ze Żmudzi
journal =Nasz Czas
volume =20
issue =559
pages =25
id = ISSN|1641-7933 oclc|69526313
language = Polish
url =http://nasz-czas1.tripod.com/025/syrnic.html
quote=To Proniewska skłoniła Baranowskiego do pisania wierszy po litewsku - " budzić uczucia ojczystym dźwiękiem" (It was Proniewska who did encouraged Barnauskas write poetry in Lithuanian - "to wake feelings whit fathers {language] sound")
] In 1856, Karolina's family tried to separate the couple, by sponsoring Baranauskas' entry into the Catholic Seminary of Varniai. While studying there, he began to concentrate on the development of the written Lithuanian language, and wrote a commentary on Lithuanian and Samogitian dialects "Apie lietuvių ir žemaičių kalbą". It was the first scholarly attempt to distinguish these different Lithuanian dialects.

While in the seminary, Baranauskas started writing poems in Lithuanian, and from that time essentially wrote in that language. One of his earlier works written under the influence of Mickiewicz was "Anykščių šilelis" ("The Forest/Pinewood of Anykščiai"). It is considered to be one of the classic works of Lithuanian literature. Literature critics consider it as a symbolic reference to Lithuanian history and language.cite book
author =Justinas Marcinkevičius
title =Tekančios upės vienybė
year =1995
pages =42-44
chapter =Štai kas yra mes
publisher =Santara
location =Kaunas
oclc = 35046901
language = Lithuanian
url =
format =
accessdate =2006-07-18
] It is known that Baranauskas wrote the poem in anger, because his lector Alexander Gabszewicz said that the Lithuanian language was not beautiful enough to write poems in,cite book
author =Egidijus Aleksandravičius
title =Giesmininko kelias
year =2003
pages =
chapter =
publisher =Versus Aureus
location =Vilnius
oclc = 60351917
url =
format =
accessdate =2006-07-18
language = Lithuanian
] although many historians dispute, that this is rather a myth. The poem was first published in 1861, and again in 1862 in Laurynas Ivinskis' calendars.From 1858 to 1862, Barnauskas studied at the St. Petersburg Spiritual Academy, receiving a Masters degree in theology. Between 1863-1864, he studied at Munich's, Rome's, Innsbruck's and Louvain’s Catholic universities.

Starting in 1871, he worked at the Kaunas seminary, and began teaching the Lithuanian language. He authored a grammar textbook in Lithuanian, "Mokslas lietuviškosios kalbos". After Baranauskas went to Sejny, he gained a considerable reputation by being able to preach in both Polish and Lithuanian. He identified himself as "gente Lithuanus, natione Polonus" (which in Latin means "of Lithuanian origin, of Polish nation")Fact|date=April 2007. By 1880, after he realized that the ban of printing the Lithuanian language would not be lifted, in spite of several unofficial promises by Tsarist authorities to do so, his desire to promote the Lithuanian language slowly declined. He never ceased to believe, that Lithuanian should be developed and expanded and until his death worked on a translation of the Bible into Lithuanian, and working 10-12 hours a day, succeeded to translate three fifths of the Old Testament.

In his later years, Antanas Baranauskas, enjoyed some of the comforts of life. His beliefs were similar to the later "Krajowcy" group. Therefore for the rest of his life he tried to reconcile nationalists from both - Lithuanian and Polish - sides. For that he was rather unpopular amongst the nationalists in both sides.

Most of the Lithuanians did not attend his burial, considering him a traitor of the national revival movement, mostly Russian officials and Poles attended it. It was a completely different story when a monument for him was built in Sejny. Only Lithuanians attended the event, and even then paint was spilt on the monument the following night.

Legacy

Before Baranauskas, the main "respectable" languages in the area were considered to be Russian and Polish, so Baranauskas was one of the few primary individuals responsible for re-legitimizing the Lithuanian language, and by extension, Lithuanian culture. Referring to Baranauskas in a lecture, the early 20th century Lithuanian poet Maironis once said, "Without him, there might not be us".

References

External links

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Look at other dictionaries:

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  • Baranauskas, Antanas — ▪ Lithuanian poet born Jan. 17, 1835, Anykščiai, Lithuania, Russian Empire died Nov. 26, 1902, Seinai       Roman Catholic bishop and poet who wrote one of the greatest works in Lithuanian literature, Anykyščių šilelis (1858–59; The Forest of… …   Universalium

  • Antoni Baranowski — Antanas Baranauskas Antanas Baranauskas (lateinisch: Antonius Baranovski, polnisch: Antoni Baranowski; * 17. Januar 1835 in Anykščiai; † 26. November 1902 in Anykščiai) war ein litauischer Dichter,[1] …   Deutsch Wikipedia

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