Lee "Scratch" Perry


Lee "Scratch" Perry

Infobox Musical artist
Name = Lee "Scratch" Perry



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Background = solo_singer
Birth_name = Rainford Hugh Perry
Alias = Pipecock Jaxxon
The Upsetter
Born = Birth date and age|1936|3|20|mf=y
Died =
Origin = Kendal, Jamaica
Instrument =
Genre = Reggae, Dub, Ska, Rocksteady, Drum and Bass
Occupation =
Years_active =
Label =
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Lee "Scratch" Perry (born Rainford Hugh Perry, on March 20, 1936, in Kendal, Jamaica) is a reggae and dub artist, who has been highly influential in the development and acceptance of reggae and dub music in Jamaica and overseas. He employs numerous pseudonyms, such as "Pipecock Jaxxon" and "The Upsetter".

Career

Perry's musical career began in the late 1950s as a record seller for Clement Coxsone Dodd's sound system. As his sometimes turbulent relationship with Dodd developed, he found himself performing a variety of important tasks at Dodd's Studio One hit factory, going on to record nearly 30 songs for the label. Disagreements between the pair due to personality and financial conflicts, a recurring theme throughout Perry's career, led him to leave the studio and seek new musical outlets. He soon found a new home at Joe Gibbs's Amalgamated records.

Working with Joe Gibbs, Perry continued his recording career but, once again, financial problems caused conflict. Perry broke ranks with Gibbs and formed his own label, Upsetter, in 1968. His first single "People Funny Boy", which was an insult directed at Gibbs, sold very well. It is notable for its innovative use of a sample (a crying baby) as well as a fast, chugging beat that would soon become identifiable as "reggae" (the new sound did not really have a name at this time). From 1968 until 1972 he worked with his studio band The Upsetters. During the 1970s, Perry released numerous recordings on a variety of record labels that he controlled, and many of his songs were popular in both Jamaica and the UK. He soon became known for his innovative production techniques as well as his eccentric character.

In the early 1970s, Perry was one of the producers whose mixing board experiments resulted in the creation of dub. In 1973, Perry built a studio in his back yard, The Black Ark, to have more control over his productions and continued to produce notable musicians such as Bob Marley & the Wailers, Junior Byles, Junior Murvin, The Heptones, The Congos and Max Romeo. With his own studio at his disposal, Perry's productions became more lavish, as the energetic producer was able to spend as much time as he wanted on the music he produced. It is important to note that virtually everything Perry recorded in The Black Ark was done using rather basic recording equipment; through sonic sleight-of-hand, Perry made it sound unique. Perry remained behind the mixing desk for many years, producing songs and albums that stand out as a high point in reggae history.

By 1978, stress and unwanted outside influences began to take their toll: both Perry and The Black Ark quickly fell into a state of disrepair. Eventually, the studio burned to the ground. Perry has constantly insisted that he burned the Black Ark himself in a fit of rage. After the demise of the Black Ark in the early 1980s, Perry spent time in England and the United States, performing live and making erratic records with a variety of collaborators. It was not until the late 1980s, when he began working with British producers Adrian Sherwood and Neil Fraser (who is better known as Mad Professor), that Perry's career began to get back on solid ground again. Perry also has attributed the recent resurgence of his creative muse to his deciding to quit drinking alcohol and smoking cannabis. Perry stated in an interview that he wanted to see if "it was the smoke making the music or Lee Perry making the music. I found out it was me and that I don't need to smoke." [cite news |first=Douglas |last=Heselgrave |title=Lee Scratch Perry: From the Black Ark to the Skull Cave, the Madman Becomes a Psychiatrist |url=http://www.musicbox-online.com/interviews/lee-scratch-perry-2006.html |work= |publisher=Music Box Magazine |date=2006-12 |accessdate=2006-12-28 ]

Perry now lives in Switzerland with his wife Mireille and two children. Although he celebrated his 70th birthday in 2006, he continues recording and performing to enthusiastic audiences in Europe and North America. His modern music is a far cry from his reggae days in Jamaica; many now see Perry as more of a performance artist in several respects. In 2003, Perry won a Grammy for Best Reggae Album with the album "Jamaican E.T.". In 2004, Rolling Stone Magazine ranked Perry #100 on their list of the [http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939214/the_immortals_the_first_fifty/ 100 Greatest Artists of All Time] . [cite web| title = The Immortals: The First Fifty| work = Rolling Stone Issue 946| publisher = Rolling Stone| url =http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/5939214/the_immortals_the_first_fifty] More recently, he teamed up with a group of Swiss musicians and performed under the name Lee Perry and the White Belly Rats, and made a brief visit to the United States using the New York City based group Dub Is A Weapon as his backing band. Currently there are two feature length movies made about his life and work: Volker Schaner's "Vision Of Paradise" and "The Upsetter" by filmmakers Ethan Higbee and Adam Bhala Lough.

In 2006, Perry met "king of party music" and television personality, Andrew W.K. at SXSW, forging a friendship bolstered by mutual artistic appreciation. In 2007, Perry invited Andrew W.K. to co-produce his upcoming full-length album, "Repentance". The album was released on the 19th of August 2008, on Narnack Records and will feature several guest artists including renowned electronic musician and producer Moby, seminal producer Don Fleming, drummer Brian Chippendale of staccato noise duo Lightning Bolt, bassist Josh Werner of Matisyahu, and adult entertainer Sasha Grey.

Discography

Albums

* "The Upsetter" (1969)
* "Return of Django" (1969)
* "Clint Eastwood" (1970)
* "Many Moods of the Upsetters" (1970)
* "Scratch the Upsetter Again" (1970)
* "The Good, the Bad and the Upsetters" (1970)
* "Eastwood Rides Again" (1970)
* "Africa's Blood" (1972)
* "Cloak and Dagger" (1973)
* "Rhythm Shower (1973)
* "Upsetters 14 Dub Blackboard Jungle" aka "Blackboard Jungle Dub" (1973)
* "Double Seven" (1974)
* "DIP Presents the Upsetter" (1975)
* "Musical Bones" (1975)
* "Return of Wax" (1975)
* "Kung Fu Meets the Dragon" aka "Heart of the Dragon" (1975)
* "Revolution Dub" (1975)
* "Super Ape" aka "Scratch the Super Ape" (1976)
* "Roast Fish Collie Weed & Corn Bread" (1978)
* "Return of the Super Ape" (1978)
* "The Return of Pipecock Jackxon" (1980)
* "Mystic Miracle Star" (with the Majestics) (1982)
* "History, Mystery & Prophecy" (1984)
* "Battle Of Armagideon (Millionaire Liquidator)" (1986)
* "Time Boom X De Devil Dead" (with Dub Syndicate) (1987)
* "On the Wire" (1988)
* "Satan Kicked the Bucket" (with Bullwackie) (1988)
* "Chicken Scratch" (1989)
* "Mystic Warrior" (1989)
* "Mystic Warrior Dub" (with Mad Professor) (1989)
* "From The Secret Laboratory" (with Dub Syndicate) (1990)
* "Message From Yard" (with Bullwackie) (1990)
* "Satan's Dub" (with Bullwackie) (1990)
* "Lord God Muzik" (1991)
* "Sounds From The Hotline" (1991)
* "The Upsetter and The Beat" (1992)
* "Excaliburman" (1992)
* "Spiritual Healing" (1994)
* "Black Ark Experryments" (with Mad Professor) (1995)
* "Experryments at the Grass Roots of Dub" (with Mad Professor) (1995)
* "Super Ape Inna Jungle" (with Mad Professor) (1995)
* "Who Put The Voodoo Pon Reggae" (with Mad Professor) (1996)
* "Dub Take The Voodoo Out Of Reggae" (Mad Professor with Lee Perry) (1996)
* "Dub Fire" (with Mad Professor) (1998)
* "The Original Super Ape" (1998)
* "Son of Thunder" (2000)
* "Jamaican E.T." (2002)
* "Earthman Skanking" (2003)
* "Encore" (2003)
* "Alien Starman" (2003)
* "Panic in Babylon" (2004)
* "Alive, more than ever" (2006)
* "End of an American Dream" (2007)
* "Repentance" (2008)
* "Scratch Came Scratch Saw Scratch Conquered" (2008)

Compilations

* "Chicken Scratch" (produced by Coxsone Dodd) (1963-1966)
* "Reggae Greats: Lee "Scratch" Perry" (1984)
* "Open The Gate" (1989)
* "Upsetter Collection" (1994)
* "Upsetters A Go Go" (1995)
* "Introducing Lee Perry" (1996)
* "Words Of My Mouth Vol.1 (The Producer Series)" (1996)
* "Voodooism (Pressure Sounds)" (1996)
* "Arkology" (1997)
* "The Upsetter Shop Vol.1: Upsetter In Dub" (1997)
* "Dry Acid" (1998)
* "Lee Perry Arkive" (1998)
* "Produced and Directed By The Upsetter (Pressure Sounds)" (1998)
* "Lost Treasures of The Ark" (1999)
* "Upsetter Shop Vol.2 1969-1973" (1999)
* "Words Of My Mouth Vol.2 (The Producer Series)" (1999)
* "Words Of My Mouth Vol.3 (Live As One/The Producer Series)" (2000)
* "Scratch Walking" (2001)
* "Black Ark In Dub" (2002)
* "Divine Madness ... Definitely (Pressure Sounds)" (2002)
* "Dub Triptych" (2000)
* "Trojan Upsetter Box Set" (2002)
* "This is Ska and Reggae Roots" (2005)
* "The Upsetter Selection - A Lee Perry Jukebox" (2007)

Appearances

* Produced The Clash's single "Complete Control" (1977)
* Co-wrote "Police and Thieves" with Junior Murvin who recorded it originally. Later covered by The Clash on their debut album (1977)
* "The Only Alternative" on the compilation "Roots Of Innovation - 15 And X Years On-U Sound" (1994) by Dub Syndicate on On-U Sound label
* "Dr. Lee, PhD" on the album "Hello Nasty" (1998) by Beastie Boys
* Appears on two tracks on the album "Whaa!" (2005) by Zuco 103
* Starred in a series of Guinness advertisements (2008)

Films

* Ich sende aus dem All - 16mm, 30 min, CH/D, 1995, directed by Peter Braatz
* The Upsetter - 90 min, 2008, directed by Ethan Higbee and Adam Bhala Lough

Videos

*"Lee Scratch Perry: The Unlimited Destruction", 2002, USA
*"Lee Scratch Perry: In Concert - The Ultimate Alien", 2003, USA
*"Lee Scratch Perry With Mad Professor", 2004, USA
*"Roots Rock Reggae - Inside the Jamaican Music Scene", 1977. Directed by Jeremy Marre.

References

Further reading

*cite book | author=Katz, David | title=People Funny Boy: The Genius of Lee Scratch Perry | publisher=Payback Press, UK | year=2000 | id=ISBN 0-86241-854-2
*David Katz & Jeremy Collingwood, "Give Me Power: A Complete Discography", Trax On Wax
*Gary Simons, "Super Scratch: The Almost Complete Lee Perry Discography", 1999, Secret History Books

External links

* [http://www.furious.com/Perfect/leeperry/leeperry2.html Good Always Conquers Evil:The Musical Genius of Lee Perry]
*myspace|leescratchperry|Official Lee 'Scratch' Perry
* [http://www.thewire.co.uk/archive/interviews/lee_perry.html Wire Interview]
* [http://www.upsetter.net/scratch/ Eternal Thunder]
* [http://www.blackark.com/ The Black Ark]
* [http://www.upsetter.de.vu/ Perry fanatix]
* [http://www.prefixmag.com/features/L/lee-scratch-perry/459 Prefix Interview]
* [http://www.rollingstone.com/news/story/7250030/100_lee_scratch_perry Article By Adam Horovitz]
* [http://www.roots-archives.com/artist/40 Roots Discography]
* [http://larecord.com/issues/2008/09/03/lee-perry-the-sky-is-the-skull/ August 2008 Interview] with L.A. Record


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