- Eva Hesse
bgcolour = #6495ED
name = Eva Hesse
birthdate = 1936
deathdate = 1970
nationality = American
Yale University, studied with Josef Albersat Yale, Cooper Union, Pratt Institute, Art Students League of New York
influenced by =
influenced = Pioneer of
Feminismin the Art world
Hesse was born into a family of observant Jews in
Hamburg, Germany. [SFMOMA exhibit notes, 2002 for Hamburg; Danto 2006, p.32 for family being observant Jews.] When Hesse was two years old, her parents, hoping to flee from Nazi Germany, sent Eva and her older sister to the Netherlands. She and her sister were separated from their parents for a few months before they were reunited. Living in Englandfor a while, the family emigrated to New York Cityin 1939. [Lippard 1992, p. 6 and in the Chronology: THE ARTIST'S LIFE, p. 218.] They settled in Manhattan's Washington Heights. Danto 2006, p.32.]
After graduating from New York's
School of Industrial Artin 1952, [Lippard 1992, p.218] Hesse studied at New York's Pratt Institute(1952–1953) and Cooper Union(1954–1957), then at the Yale School of Art and Architecture (1957–1959), where she studied under Josef Albersand received a B.F.A..SFMOMA exhibit notes, 2002.] Upon returning to New York she made friends with many young artists. In 1961, she met and married fellow sculptor Tom Doyle. In August 1962 Eva Hesse and Tom Doyle participated in an Allan Kaprow Happeningat the Art Students League of New Yorkin Woodstock, New York. There Hesse made her first three dimensional piece: a costume for the Happening. [Lippard 1992, p. 21, 218.] In 1963 Eva Hesse had a one-person show of works on paper at the Allan Stone Gallery on New York's Upper East Side. [Lippard 1992, p. 219]
The couple—whose marriage was coming apart—lived and worked in an abandoned textile mill in the Ruhr region of Germany for about a year during 1964-1965. Hesse was not happy to be back in Germany, but began sculpting with materials that had been left behind in the abandoned factory: first relief sculptures made of cloth-covered cord, electrical wire, and
masonite, with playful titles like "Eighter from Decatur" and "Oomamaboomba". Returning to New York City in 1965 she began working in the materials that would become characteristic of her work: latex, fiberglass, and plastics. Danto, 2006, p.33.]
She was associated with the mid-1960s
postminimalanti-form trend in sculpture, participating in New York exhibits such as "Eccentric Abstraction" and "Abstract Inflationism and Stuffed Expressionism" (both 1966). In September 1968 Eva Hesse began teaching at the School of Visual Arts. [Lippard 1992, p.220] Her only one-person show of sculpture in her lifetime was "Chain Polymers" at the Fischbach Galleryon W. 57th Street in New York in November 1968;Danto, 2006, p.30.] her large piece "Expanded Expansion" showed at the Whitney Museumin the 1969 exhibit "Anti-Illusion: Process/Materials". There have been dozens of major posthumous exhibitions in the United States and Europe, including at The Guggenheim Museum (1972, [Lippard 1992, p. 5, 128-129, 138, 180, 182.] the San Francisco Museum of Modern Art(2002), The Drawing Center in New York (2006) and the Jewish Museum of New York (2006).
Except for fiberglass, most of her favored materials age badly, so much of her work presents conservators with an enormous challenge.
Arthur Danto, writing of the Jewish Museum's 2006 retrospective, refers to "the discolorations, the slackness in the membrane-like latex, the palpable aging of the material… Yet somehow the work does not feel tragic. Instead it is full of life, of eros, even of comedy… Each piece in the show vibrates with originality and mischief." [Danto, 2006, p.30–31.]
In 1969 she was diagnosed with a brain tumor. Her death in 1970 ended a career spanning only ten years.
Her art is often viewed in light of all the painful struggles of her life including escaping the Nazis, her parents' divorce, the suicide of her mother when she was ten, her failed marriage and the death of her father. Danto describes her as "cop [ing] with emotional chaos by reinventing sculpture through aesthetic insubordination, playing with worthless material amid the industrial ruins of a defeated nation that, only two decades earlier, would have murdered her without a second thought." She also always felt she was fighting for recognition in a male dominated art world.
Hesse is one of a few artists who led the move from
Minimalismto Postminimalism. Danto distinguishes it from minimalism by its "mirth and jokiness" and "unmistakable whiff of eroticism", its "nonmechanical repetition". She was influenced by and in turn, influenced many famous artists of the 1960s through today. Eva Hesse was for many artists and friends who knew her -- so charismatic that her memory remains simply unforgettable to this day.
List of notable brain tumor patients
*"Eva Hesse". 1976 New York; New York University Press / 1992 Da Capo Press, Inc.
Lucy R. Lippard. illus. Trade Paper. 251p.
*"Eva Hesse Sculpture". 1992 Timken Publishers, Inc. Bill Barrette. illus. Trade Paper. 274p.
*"Eva Hesse Paintings, 1960-1964". 1992 Robert Miller Gallery. Max Kozloff. Edited by John Cheim and Nathan Kernan. illus. Trade Cloth. 58p.
Robert Ryman, Eva Hesse, Bruce Nauman, Susan Rothenberg". Michael Blackwood Productions, Inc. Color VHS 45 min.
*Busch, Julia M., " A decade of sculpture: the 1960s" (The Art Alliance Press: Philadelphia; Associated University Presses: London, 1974) ISBN 0-87982-007-1
*Willson, William S., ""Eva Hesse: On the Threshold of Illusions", in :"Inside the Visible" edited by Catherine de Zegher, MIT Press, 1996.
*de Zegher, Catherine (ed.), "Eva Hesse Drawing". NY/New Haven: The Drawing Center/Yale University Press, 2005. (Including essays by Benjamin H.D. Buchlow, Briony Fer, Mignon Nixon, Bracha Ettinger). ISBN 0-300-11618-7
Griselda Pollockwith Vanessa Corby (eds.), "Encountering Eva Hesse". London and Munich: Prestel, 2006.
* Arthur C. Danto, " [http://www.thenation.com/doc/20060717/danto All About Eva] ", "The Nation", July 17/24, 2006, p. 30–34. Posted online June 28, 2006.
Lucy R. Lippard, "EVA HESSE". 1992 Da Capo Press, Inc. illus. Trade Paper. 251p.
* [http://www.sfmoma.org/exhibitions/exhib_detail.asp?id=24 SFMOMA | Exhibitions | Exhibition Overview | Eva Hesse] (
San Francisco Museum of Modern ArtFebruary 2, 2002 — May 19, 2002 exhibition). Accessed online 19 September 2006.
* [http://x-traonline.org/past_articles.php?articleID=167 Eva Hesse: Random Notes] "Essay by Leslie Dick published in X-TRA"
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