- Duke of Aquitaine
The Duke of Aquitaine (Occitan: Duc d'Aquitània, French: Duc d'Aquitaine, IPA: [dyk dakitɛn]) ruled the historical region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English and later French kings.
As a successor state for the Visigothic Kingdom (418–721), Aquitania (Aquitaine) and Languedoc (Toulouse) inherited the Visigothic Law and Roman Law which had combined to allow women more rights than their contemporaries would enjoy until the 20th century. Particularly with the Liber Judiciorum as codified 642/643 and expanded on in the Code of Recceswinth in 653, women could inherit land and title and manage it independently from their husbands or male relations, dispose of their property in legal wills if they had no heirs, and women could represent themselves and bear witness in court by age 14 and arrange for their own marriages by age 20. As a consequence, male-preference primogeniture was the practiced succession law for the nobility.
- 1 Coronation
- 2 Dukes of Aquitaine under Frankish kings
- 3 Direct rule of Carolingian kings
- 4 Restored dukes of Aquitaine under Frankish kings
- 5 Plantagenet rulers of Aquitaine
- 6 Valois and Bourbon dukes of Aquitaine
- 7 See also
- 8 References
The Merovingian kings and dukes of Aquitaine had their capital at Toulouse. The Carolingian kings used different capitals situated further north. In 765 Pepin the Short bestowed the captured golden banner of the Aquitainian duke, Waiffre, on the Abbey of Saint Martial in Limoges. Pepin I of Aquitaine was buried in Poitiers. Charles the Child was crowned at Limoges and buried at Bourges. When Aquitaine briefly asserted independence after the death of Charles the Fat, it was Ranulf II of Poitou who took the royal title. In the late tenth century, Louis the Indolent was crowned at Brioude.
The Aquitainian ducal coronation is preserved in a late twelfth-century ordo (formula) from Saint-Étienne in Limoges, based on an earlier Romano-German ordo. In the early thirteenth century a commentary was added to this ordo, which emphasises Limoges as the capital of Aquitaine. The ordo indicates that the duke received a silk mantle, coronet, banner, sword, spurs, and the ring of Saint Valerie.
Dukes of Aquitaine under Frankish kings
Merovingian kings are in boldface.
- Chramn (555–560)
- Desiderius (583–587)
- Bladast (583–587)
- Gundoald (584/585)
- Astrobald (587–589)
- Sereus (589–592)
- Charibert II (629–632)
- Chilperic (632)
- Boggis (632–660)
- Felix (660–670)
- Lupus I (670–676)
- Odo the Great (688–735), his reign commenced perhaps as late as 692, 700, or 715, unclear parentage
- Hunald I (735–748), son of previous, abdicated to monastery, may have returned later (see below)
- Waifer (748–767), son of previous
- Hunald II (767–769), either Hunald I returning or a different Hunald, fled to Lupus II of Gascony and was handed over to Charlemagne
- Lupus II (768–781), Duke of Gascony, opposed Charlemagne's rule and Hunald's relatives
Direct rule of Carolingian kings
After 778, Charlemagne appointed no more Dukes, assuming direct rule of Aquitaine (and accordingly is enumerated Charles I of Aquitaine, as the first so named King in that kingdom). In 781, he appointed his son Louis as a subordinate King and assigned him with Aquitaine. After Louis, several other members of the dynasty ruled over the region as subordinate kings.
- Louis I the Pious (781–817)
- Pepin I (817–838), son of Louis
- Charles II the Bald (838–855), brother of Pepin I; in contest with:
- Pepin II (claimant 838–864), son of Pepin I
- Charles III the Child (855–866), son of Charles the Bald.
- Louis II the Stammerer (866–879), son of Charles the Bald, also King of France from 877
- Carloman (880–884), son of previous, also King of Burgundy
After 877, when Louis the Stammerer succeeded his father Charles the Bald as King of the Franks and similarly in 882, when Carloman succeeded his brother Louis III to become King of (all) Western Francia, Aquitaine remained under the supremacy of the Western Frankish kings with only two instances where the title resurfaced.
- Ranulf II (888–890), an Aquitainian noble with no Carolingian blood, also Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou
- Louis III the Sluggard (982–986), son of Lothair of France, crowned king along with his wife Adelaide of Anjou at Brioude, also King of France from 986,
Restored dukes of Aquitaine under Frankish kings
The Carolingian kings again appointed Dukes of Aquitaine, first in 852, and again since 866. Later on, this Duchy was also called Guyenne.
House of Poitiers (Ramnulfids)
- Ranulph I (852–866), also Count of Poitiers.
No duke 866-887
- Ranulph II (887–890), son of previous, also Count of Poitiers, called himself King of Aquitaine from 888 until his death.
- Ebalus the Bastard (also called Manzer) (890–893), illegitimate son of Ranulph, also Count of Poitiers and Auvergne.
House of Auvergne
- William I the Pious (893–918), also Count of Auvergne
- William II the Younger (918–926), nephew of William I, also Count of Auvergne.
- Acfred (926–927), brother of William II, also Count of Auvergne.
House of Poitiers (Ramnulfids) restored (927–932)
- Ebalus the Bastard (927–932), for a second time.
House of Rouergue
House of Capet
- Hugh the Great (955–962)
House of Poitiers (Ramnulfids) restored (962–1152)
- William III Towhead (962–963), son of Ebalus, also Count of Poitiers and Auvergne.
- William IV Iron Arm (963–995), son of William III, also Count of Poitiers.
- William V the Great (995–1030), son of William IV, also Count of Poitiers.
- William VI the Fat (1030–38), first son of William V, also Count of Poitiers.
- Odo (1038–39), second son of William V, also Count of Poitiers and Duke of Gascony.
- William VII the Eagle (1039–58), third son of William V, also Count of Poitiers.
- William VIII (1058–86), fourth son of William V, also Count of Poitiers and Duke of Gascony.
- William IX the Troubadour (or the Younger) (1086–1127), son of William VIII, also Count of Poitiers and Duke of Gascony.
- William X the Saint (1127–37), son of William IX, also Count of Poitiers and Duke of Gascony.
- Eleanor (1137–89), daughter of William X, also Countess of Poitiers and Duchess of Gascony, married the kings of France and England in succession.
From 1152 the Duchy of Aquitaine was held by the Plantagenets, who also ruled England as independent monarchs, as well also holding other territories in France by separate inheritance (see Plantagenet Empire). The Plantagenets were often more powerful than the kings of France, and their reluctance to do homage to the kings of France for their lands in France was one of the major sources of conflict in medieval Western Europe.
House of Plantagenet
- Henry II of England (1152–89), also King of England, duke in right of his wife Eleanor.
- Richard I Lionheart (1189–99), also King of England, duke in right of his mother.
- John I (1199–1216), also King of England, duke in right of his mother until 1204,
- Henry III of England (1216–72), also King of England.
- Edward I Longshanks (1272–1307), also King of England.
- Edward II (1307–25), also King of England.
- Edward III (1325–62), also King of England.
Richard Lionheart was outlived by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1189 she acted as regent for the Duchy while he was on crusade — a position he resumed on his return to Europe.
Plantagenet rulers of Aquitaine
In 1337, King Philip VI of France reclaimed the fief of Aquitaine from Edward III, King of England. Edward in turn claimed the title of King of France, by right of his descent from his maternal-grandfather King Philip. This triggered the Hundred Years' War, in which both the Plantagenets and the House of Valois claimed the supremacy over Aquitaine due to the King of France.
In 1360 both sides signed the Treaty of Bretigny, in which Edward renounced the French crown but remained sovereign Lord of Aquitaine (rather than merely Duke). However, when the treaty was broken in 1369, English claims and the war resumed.
In 1362, King Edward III, as Lord of Aquitaine, made his eldest son Edward, Prince of Wales Prince of Aquitaine.
- Edward, the Black Prince (1362–72), first son of Edward III and Queen Philippa, also Prince of Wales.
In 1390, King Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince appointed his uncle John of Gaunt as Duke of Aquitaine. That title passed on to John's descendants.
- John of Gaunt (1390–1399), fourth son of Edward III and Queen Philippa, also Duke of Lancaster.
- Henry IV (1399), inherited the duchy from his father, but ceded it to his son upon becoming King of England.
- Henry V (1399–1422), son of previous, also King of England 1413–22.
Henry V continued to rule over Aquitaine as King of England and Lord of Aquitaine. He invaded France and succeeded at the siege of Harfleur 1414 as well as the Battle of Agincourt 1415. He succeeded in obtaining the French crown for his family by the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. Henry V died in 1422, when his son Henry VI inherited the French throne at the age of less than a year; his reign saw the gradual loss of English control of France.
Valois and Bourbon dukes of Aquitaine
- John II of France (1345–50), son of Philip VI of France, acceded in 1350 as King of France.
- Charles (1392?–1401), son of Charles VI of France, Dauphin.
- Louis (1401–15), son of Charles VI of France, Dauphin.
With the end of the Hundred Years War, Aquitaine returned to direct rule of the King of France and remained in the possession of the King. Only occasionally was the Duchy or the title of Duke granted to another member of the dynasty.
- Charles, Duc de Berry (1469–72), son of Charles VII of France.
- Xavier (1753–54), second son of Louis, Dauphin of France.
The Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, son of Alfonso XIII of Spain, was one of the Legitimist pretenders to the French throne; as such he created his son Gonzalo, Duke of Aquitaine (1972-2000); Gonzalo had no legitimate children.
- List of Aquitainian consorts
- ^ Klapisch-Zuber, Christine; A History of Women: Book II Silences of the Middle Ages, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. 1992, 2000 (5th printing). Chapter 6, "Women in he Fifth to the Tenth Century" by Suzanne Fonay Wemple, pg 74. According to Wemple, Visigothic women of Spain and the Aquitaine could inherit land and title and manage it independently of their husbands, and despose of it as they saw fit if they had no heirs, and represent themselves in court, appear as witnesses (by the age of 14), and arrange their own marriages by the age of twenty
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