Duke of Aquitaine


Duke of Aquitaine
Map of France in 1154

The Duke of Aquitaine (Occitan: Duc d'Aquitània, French: Duc d'Aquitaine, IPA: [dyk dakitɛn]) ruled the historical region of Aquitaine (not to be confused with modern-day Aquitaine) under the supremacy of Frankish, English and later French kings.

As a successor state for the Visigothic Kingdom (418–721), Aquitania (Aquitaine) and Languedoc (Toulouse) inherited the Visigothic Law and Roman Law which had combined to allow women more rights than their contemporaries would enjoy until the 20th century. Particularly with the Liber Judiciorum as codified 642/643 and expanded on in the Code of Recceswinth in 653, women could inherit land and title and manage it independently from their husbands or male relations, dispose of their property in legal wills if they had no heirs, and women could represent themselves and bear witness in court by age 14 and arrange for their own marriages by age 20.[1] As a consequence, male-preference primogeniture was the practiced succession law for the nobility.

Contents

Coronation

The Merovingian kings and dukes of Aquitaine had their capital at Toulouse. The Carolingian kings used different capitals situated further north. In 765 Pepin the Short bestowed the captured golden banner of the Aquitainian duke, Waiffre, on the Abbey of Saint Martial in Limoges. Pepin I of Aquitaine was buried in Poitiers. Charles the Child was crowned at Limoges and buried at Bourges. When Aquitaine briefly asserted independence after the death of Charles the Fat, it was Ranulf II of Poitou who took the royal title. In the late tenth century, Louis the Indolent was crowned at Brioude.

The Aquitainian ducal coronation is preserved in a late twelfth-century ordo (formula) from Saint-Étienne in Limoges, based on an earlier Romano-German ordo. In the early thirteenth century a commentary was added to this ordo, which emphasises Limoges as the capital of Aquitaine. The ordo indicates that the duke received a silk mantle, coronet, banner, sword, spurs, and the ring of Saint Valerie.

Dukes of Aquitaine under Frankish kings

Merovingian kings are in boldface.

  • Chramn (555–560)
  • Desiderius (583–587)
  • Bladast (583–587)
  • Gundoald (584/585)
  • Astrobald (587–589)
  • Sereus (589–592)
  • Charibert II (629–632)
  • Chilperic (632)
  • Boggis (632–660)
  • Felix (660–670)
  • Lupus I (670–676)
  • Odo the Great (688–735), his reign commenced perhaps as late as 692, 700, or 715, unclear parentage
  • Hunald I (735–748), son of previous, abdicated to monastery, may have returned later (see below)
  • Waifer (748–767), son of previous
  • Hunald II (767–769), either Hunald I returning or a different Hunald, fled to Lupus II of Gascony and was handed over to Charlemagne
  • Lupus II (768–781), Duke of Gascony, opposed Charlemagne's rule and Hunald's relatives

Direct rule of Carolingian kings

After 778, Charlemagne appointed no more Dukes, assuming direct rule of Aquitaine (and accordingly is enumerated Charles I of Aquitaine, as the first so named King in that kingdom). In 781, he appointed his son Louis as a subordinate King and assigned him with Aquitaine. After Louis, several other members of the dynasty ruled over the region as subordinate kings.

After 877, when Louis the Stammerer succeeded his father Charles the Bald as King of the Franks and similarly in 882, when Carloman succeeded his brother Louis III to become King of (all) Western Francia, Aquitaine remained under the supremacy of the Western Frankish kings with only two instances where the title resurfaced.

  • Ranulf II (888–890), an Aquitainian noble with no Carolingian blood, also Duke of Aquitaine and Count of Poitou
  • Louis III the Sluggard (982–986), son of Lothair of France, crowned king along with his wife Adelaide of Anjou at Brioude, also King of France from 986,
Coat of arms of the duchy of Aquitaine

Restored dukes of Aquitaine under Frankish kings

The Carolingian kings again appointed Dukes of Aquitaine, first in 852, and again since 866. Later on, this Duchy was also called Guyenne.

House of Poitiers (Ramnulfids)

House of Auvergne

House of Poitiers (Ramnulfids) restored (927–932)

  • Ebalus the Bastard (927–932), for a second time.

House of Rouergue

House of Capet

House of Poitiers (Ramnulfids) restored (962–1152)

Homage of Edward I of England (kneeling) to Philip IV of France (seated). As Duke of Aquitaine, Edward was a vassal to the French king

From 1152 the Duchy of Aquitaine was held by the Plantagenets, who also ruled England as independent monarchs, as well also holding other territories in France by separate inheritance (see Plantagenet Empire). The Plantagenets were often more powerful than the kings of France, and their reluctance to do homage to the kings of France for their lands in France was one of the major sources of conflict in medieval Western Europe.

House of Plantagenet

Richard Lionheart was outlived by his mother Eleanor of Aquitaine. In 1189 she acted as regent for the Duchy while he was on crusade — a position he resumed on his return to Europe.

Plantagenet rulers of Aquitaine

In 1337, King Philip VI of France reclaimed the fief of Aquitaine from Edward III, King of England. Edward in turn claimed the title of King of France, by right of his descent from his maternal-grandfather King Philip. This triggered the Hundred Years' War, in which both the Plantagenets and the House of Valois claimed the supremacy over Aquitaine due to the King of France.

In 1360 both sides signed the Treaty of Bretigny, in which Edward renounced the French crown but remained sovereign Lord of Aquitaine (rather than merely Duke). However, when the treaty was broken in 1369, English claims and the war resumed.

In 1362, King Edward III, as Lord of Aquitaine, made his eldest son Edward, Prince of Wales Prince of Aquitaine.

In 1390, King Richard II, son of Edward the Black Prince appointed his uncle John of Gaunt as Duke of Aquitaine. That title passed on to John's descendants.

  • John of Gaunt (1390–1399), fourth son of Edward III and Queen Philippa, also Duke of Lancaster.
  • Henry IV (1399), inherited the duchy from his father, but ceded it to his son upon becoming King of England.
  • Henry V (1399–1422), son of previous, also King of England 1413–22.

Henry V continued to rule over Aquitaine as King of England and Lord of Aquitaine. He invaded France and succeeded at the siege of Harfleur 1414 as well as the Battle of Agincourt 1415. He succeeded in obtaining the French crown for his family by the Treaty of Troyes in 1420. Henry V died in 1422, when his son Henry VI inherited the French throne at the age of less than a year; his reign saw the gradual loss of English control of France.

Valois and Bourbon dukes of Aquitaine

The Valois Kings of France, claiming supremacy over Aquitaine, granted the title of Duke to their heirs, the Dauphins.

With the end of the Hundred Years War, Aquitaine returned to direct rule of the King of France and remained in the possession of the King. Only occasionally was the Duchy or the title of Duke granted to another member of the dynasty.


The Infante Jaime, Duke of Segovia, son of Alfonso XIII of Spain, was one of the Legitimist pretenders to the French throne; as such he created his son Gonzalo, Duke of Aquitaine (1972-2000); Gonzalo had no legitimate children.

See also

  • List of Aquitainian consorts

References

  1. ^ Klapisch-Zuber, Christine; A History of Women: Book II Silences of the Middle Ages, The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, Massachusetts, London, England. 1992, 2000 (5th printing). Chapter 6, "Women in he Fifth to the Tenth Century" by Suzanne Fonay Wemple, pg 74. According to Wemple, Visigothic women of Spain and the Aquitaine could inherit land and title and manage it independently of their husbands, and despose of it as they saw fit if they had no heirs, and represent themselves in court, appear as witnesses (by the age of 14), and arrange their own marriages by the age of twenty

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • William IX, Duke of Aquitaine — Miniature of William from a 13th century chansonnier now in the Bibliothèque nationale de France William IX (Occitan: Guilhèm de Peitieus; French: Guillaume de Poitiers) (22 October 1071 – 10 February 1126), called the Troubador, was the Duke of… …   Wikipedia

  • William VIII, Duke of Aquitaine — William VIII (1025 ndash; 25 September 1086), born Guy Geoffrey ( Gui Geoffroi ), was duke of Gascony (1052 1086), and then duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitiers (as William VI) between 1058 and 1086, succeeding his brother William VII (Pierre… …   Wikipedia

  • William X, Duke of Aquitaine — William X of Aquitaine (1099 – April 9, 1137), nicknamed the Saint was duke of Aquitaine, duke of Gascony and count of Poitiers as William VIII of Poitiers between 1126 and 1137. He was the son of William, the troubadour by his second wife,… …   Wikipedia

  • William VII, Duke of Aquitaine — William VII (born Peter, Pierre Guillaume ) (1023 ndash; Autumn 1058), called the Eagle ( Aigret ) or the Bold ( le Hardi ), was the duke of Aquitaine and count of Poitou (as William V) between 1039 and his death, following his half brother Otto …   Wikipedia

  • Aquitaine — This article is about the region in France. For other uses, see Aquitaine (disambiguation). Aquitaine   Region of France   …   Wikipedia

  • Duke of Cornwall — For the steamship, see TSS Duke of Cornwall. HRH The Prince of Wales, the current Duke of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall was the first duchy created in the peerage of England. The present Duke of Cornwall is The Prince of Wales, the eldest son of …   Wikipedia

  • Aquitaine — /ak wi tayn /; Fr. /ann kee ten /, n. a lowland region in SW France, formerly an ancient Roman province and medieval duchy. Latin, Aquitania /ak wi tay nee euh/. * * * Historical region, southwestern France. It was roughly equivalent to Aquitania …   Universalium

  • Duke — For other uses, see Duke (disambiguation) and Duchess (disambiguation). Royal and noble ranks Emperor Empress King Queen …   Wikipedia

  • Duke of Lancaster — This article is about the Duke of Lancaster. For the ship, see TSS Duke of Lancaster. For the regiment of the British Army, see Duke of Lancaster s Regiment. Henry, Prince of Wales, was the last person to hold the title before it merged in the… …   Wikipedia

  • Duke of Beaufort (England) — The title Duke of Beaufort in the Peerage of England was created by Charles II in 1682 for Henry Somerset, 3rd Marquess of Worcester, a descendant of Charles Somerset, 1st Earl of Worcester, illegitimate son of Henry Beaufort, 3rd Duke of… …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.