- Outline of physics
Physics (Greek: physis – φύσις meaning "nature") is a natural science pertaining to the study of matter and its motion through spacetime and all that derives from these, such as energy and force. More broadly, it is the general analysis of nature, conducted in order to understand how the world and universe behave.
Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines, or perhaps the oldest through its inclusion of astronomy. Over the last two millennia, physics had been considered synonymous with philosophy, chemistry, and certain branches of mathematics and biology, but during the Scientific Revolution in the 16th century, it emerged to become a unique modern science in its own right. However, in some subject areas such as in mathematical physics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics remain difficult to distinguish.
The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to physics:
Physics started with a philosophical commitment to simplicity. It should not be considered a difficult subject (although it is deep); one can learn classical physics on a playground, which describes the motion of balls, swings, slides and merry-go-rounds.
- Note: the Theory column below contains links to articles with infoboxes at the top of their respective pages which list the major concepts.
- General concepts
- Gravity — Light — Physical system — Physical observation — Physical quantity — Physical state — Physical unit — Physical theory — Physical experiment —
- Theoretical concepts
- Mass-energy equivalence — Particle — Physical field — Physical interaction — Physical law — Fundamental force — Physical constant — Wave
- Basic quantities
- Space — Length — Time — Mass — Electric charge — Energy — Matter — Potential [disambiguation needed ] — Force — Momentum — Velocity — Acceleration — Entropy — Temperature
- Acoustics — Aerodynamics — Classical mechanics — Condensed matter physics — Cosmology — Dynamics — Electromagnetism — Hydrodynamics — Kinematics — Mathematical physics — Mechanics — Optics — plasma physics — Quantum mechanics — Relativity — Statics — Thermodynamics
- Ibn al-Haytham - Father of optics and discovered reflection and refraction.
- Archimedes - discovered the laws of flotation and developed Archimedes' principle.
- Galileo Galilei - "Father of modern physics.".
- Isaac Newton - Laid the groundwork for classical mechanics, made significant contributions to the field of optics and co-invented the calculus. Often considered the greatest physicist of all time.
- Albert Einstein - Generally considered greatest scientist of the 20th century. Developed both the Special and General Theories of Relativity and proved the existence of atoms beyond doubt.
- Niels Bohr - made fundamental contributions to understanding atomic structure and quantum mechanics. Widely considered one of the greatest physicists of the twentieth century.
- Richard Feynman - Expanded the theory of quantum electrodynamics, and developed the tool known as Feynman diagrams.
- Robert Oppenheimer - "Father of the atomic bomb."
- Nikola Tesla - Expanded theories of nuclear physics and theoretical physics. One of the main influences of the second industrial revolution.
- Stephen Hawking - made fundamental contributions to black hole physics and cosmology. Also authored popular books on these subjects.
- List of Common Physics Abbreviations
- List of equations in classical mechanics
- List of important publications in physics
- List of laws in science
- List of letters used in mathematics and science
- List of noise topics
- List of optical topics
- List of physicists
- List of scientific journals in physics
- List of scientific units named after people
- List of wave topics
- Variables commonly used in physics
- Category:Fundamental physics concepts
- Category:Physics lists
- Elementary physics formulae
- Glossary of classical physics
- ^ R. P. Feynman, R. B. Leighton, M. Sands (1963), The Feynman Lectures on Physics, ISBN 0-201-02116-1 Hard-cover. p.1-1 Feynman begins with the atomic hypothesis, as his most compact statement of all scientific knowledge: "If, in some cataclysm, all of scientific knowledge were to be destroyed, and only one sentence passed on to the next generations ..., what statement would contain the most information in the fewest words? I believe it is ... that all things are made up of atoms – little particles that move around in perpetual motion, attracting each other when they are a little distance apart, but repelling upon being squeezed into one another. ..." vol. I p. I–2
- ^ James Clerk Maxwell (1878), Matter and Motion. New York: D. Van Nostrand. p.1: "Nature of Physical Science – Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature." | accessdate=2008-11-04
- ^ H.D. Young & R.A. Freedman, University Physics with Modern Physics: 11th Edition: International Edition (2004), Addison Wesley. Chapter 1, section 1.1, page 2 has this to say: "Physics is an experimental science. Physicists observe the phenomena of nature and try to find patterns and principles that relate these phenomena. These patterns are called physical theories or, when they are very well established and of broad use, physical laws or principles."
Steve Holzner, Physics for Dummies (2006), Wiley. Chapter 1, page 7 says: "Physics is the study of your world and the world and universe around you." See Amazon Online Reader: Physics For Dummies (For Dummies(Math & Science)), retrieved 24 Nov 2006
- ^ Note: The term 'universe' is defined as everything that physically exists: the entirety of space and time, all forms of matter, energy and momentum, and the physical laws and constants that govern them. However, the term 'universe' may also be used in slightly different contextual senses, denoting concepts such as the cosmos or the philosophical world.
- ^ Evidence exists that the earliest civilizations dating back to beyond 3000BC, such as the Sumerians, Ancient Egyptians, and the Indus Valley Civilization, all had a predictive knowledge and a very basic understanding of the motions of the Sun, Moon, and stars.
- ^ Francis Bacon's 1620 Novum Organum was critical in the development of scientific method.
- ^ Eminent scientists, Published by scholastic India pvt. Ltd.
- AIP.org is the website of the American Institute of Physics
- IOP.org is the website of the Institute of Physics
- APS.org is the website of the American Physical Society
- SPS National is the website of the American Society of Physics Students
- CAP.ca is the website of the Canadian Association of Physicists
- EPS.org is the website of the European Physical Society
- Theoretical Physics as a Challenge (website with outline of physics) by Gerard ‘t Hooft
- General reference
- Culture and the arts
- Geography and places
- Health and fitness
- History and events
- Mathematics and logic
- Natural and physical sciences
- People and self
- Philosophy and thinking
- Religion and belief systems
- Society and social sciences
- Technology and applied sciences
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.
Look at other dictionaries:
Topic outline of physics — For a more comprehensive list, see the List of physics topics. This list of basic physics topics covers much of physics, the science concerned with the discovery and understanding of the fundamental laws which govern matter, energy, space, and… … Wikipedia
Outline of geophysics — Seismic velocities and boundaries in the interior of the Earth sampled by seismic waves. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to geophysics: Geophysics – the physics of the Earth and its environment in space; also … Wikipedia
Outline of chemistry — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to chemistry: Chemistry – science of atomic matter (matter that is composed of chemical elements), especially its chemical reactions, but also including its properties,… … Wikipedia
Outline of science — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to science: Science – in the broadest sense refers to any system of objective knowledge. In a more restricted sense, science refers to a system of acquiring knowledge based on… … Wikipedia
Outline of astronomy — Mauna Kea in Hawaii is one of the world s premier observatory sites. Pictured is the W. M. Keck Observatory, an optical interferometer. The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to astronomy: Astronomy – studies the… … Wikipedia
Outline of energy — See also: Index of energy articles In physics, energy (from the Greek ἐνέργεια – energeia, activity, operation , from ἐνεργός – energos, active, working ) is a scalar physical quantity that describes the amount of work that can be performed by … Wikipedia
Outline of manufacturing — See also: Outline of production The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to manufacturing: Manufacturing – use of machines, tools and labor to produce goods for use or sale. Includes a range of human activity, from… … Wikipedia
Outline of history — History articles Alphabetical index: 0 9 A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z Outline | Portal | Timelines | Category The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to… … Wikipedia
Outline of biophysics — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to biophysics: Biophysics – interdisciplinary science that uses the methods of physical science to study biological systems. Contents 1 Nature of biophysics 1.1 Biophysics… … Wikipedia
Outline of education — The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to education: Education – in the general sense is any act or experience that has a formative effect on the mind, character, or physical ability of an individual. In its… … Wikipedia