List of Ottoman titles and appellations


List of Ottoman titles and appellations

This is a list of Ottoman titles and appellations. Muslims in the Ottoman Empire carried titles such as "Pasha", "Hoca", "Bey", "Hanım", "Efendi", etc. These titles either defined their formal profession (such as Pasha, Hoca, etc.) or their informal status within the society (such as Bey, Hanım, Efendi, etc.).

Contents

Usage

The sovereigns main titles were Han, (Great) Sultan and Padishah, of Arabic viz. Persian origin.[citation needed] His full style was the result of a long historical accumulation of titles expressing the empires rights and claims as successor to the various states it annexed or subdued. Beside all these imperial titles, "Caesar" of Rome (Kayser-i Rûm) is also one of the main one among the other titles which is claimed by Sultan Mehmed II since the conquest of Constantinople.

A late version translates as: Sultan (given name) Khan, Sovereign of the House of Osman, Sultan of Sultans, Khan of Khans, Commander of the Faithful and Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe, Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca, Medina and Jerusalem, Emperor of The Three Cities of Constantinople, Andrinopole and Bursa, and of the Cities of Damascus and Cairo, of all Azerbaijan, of the Magris, of Barka, of Kairuan, of Aleppo, of Arabic Iraq and of Ajim, of Basra, of El Hasa, of Dilen, of Raka, of Mosul, of Parthia, of Diyarbakır, of Cicilia, of the Vilayets of Erzurum, of Sivas, of Adana, of Karaman, Van, of Barbary, of Abyssinia, of Tunisia, of Tripoli, of Damascus, of Cyprus, of Rhodes, of Candia, of the Vilayet of the Morea, of the Marmara Sea, the Black Sea and also its coasts, of Anatolia, of Rumelia, Baghdad, Kurdistan, Greece, Turkistan, Tartary, Circassia, of the two regions of Kabarda, of Georgia, of the plain of Kypshak, of the whole country of the Tartars, of Kefa and of all the neighbouring countries, of Bosnia and its dependencies, of the City and Fort of Belgrade, of the Vilayet of Serbia, with all the castles, forts and cities, of all Albania, of all Iflak and Bogdania, as well as all the dependencies and borders, and many other countries and cities.

The Heir Apparent was styled in full: Daulatlu Najabatlu Vali Ahad-i-Sultanat (given name) Effendi Hazlatlari, i.e. Crown Prince, with the style of His Imperial Highness. Other Male descendants of a Sovereign in the male line: Daulatlu Najabatlu Shahzada Sultan (given name) Hazretleri Effendi, i.e. Prince (given name) Effendi, with the style of His Imperial Highness. The husbands of Imperial Princesses: Damad-i-Shahyari (given name) Bey Effendi, the latter, only if not possessed of a higher rank or title, with the style of His Highness. The sons of Imperial Princesses: Sultanzada (given name) Bey-Effendi, i.e. Prince, with the style of His Highness. The daughters of Imperial Princesses: (given name) Hanimsultan ,i.e. Princess,with the style of Her Highness. The grandsons of Imperial Princesses merely: (given name) Bey. The granddaughters of Imperial Princesses merely: (given name) Hanim.

During the time of Suleiman

Titles and appellations in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent, from Albert Howe Lybyer's book "The government of the Ottoman empire in the time of Suleiman the Magnificent":[1]

  • Agha, a general officer.
  • Ajem-oghlan (Agiamoglani, lanicerotti [Italianized]) (untrained youth), a cadet or apprentice Janissary.
  • Akinji (Achiar, Aconiziae, Aghiar, Alcangi, Alcanzi, Alengi, Aquangi, laching, Yachinji), the irregular cavalry.
  • Alai Bey, a colonel of the feudal cavalry.
  • Ameji, a receiver of petitions, etc.
  • Arpa-emini, intendant of forage.
  • Ashji-bashi, a chief cook.
  • Azab, the irregular infantry.
  • Berat-emini, a distributor of ordinances.
  • Beylerbey (lord of lords), a general of feudal cavalry and governor of a province or group of provinces.
  • Beylikji, a director of the three chancery bureaus.
  • Beylik Kalemi, a bureau of the Chancery.
  • Binbashi (chief of a thousand), a colonel.
  • Boluk-bashi (Balucasi), a captain of the Janissaries.
  • Bostanji, a gardener.
  • Bostanji-bashi, the head gardener of the Sultan's palace — a high official.
  • Carmandari (Italianized), muleteers.
  • Cavriliji (Italianized), a herdsman.
  • Chakirji, a vulturer.
  • Chasnejir, a taster.
  • Chasnejir-bashi, a chief taster.
  • Chaush (Ciaus), an usher.
  • Chaush-bashi, chief of the Chaushes — a high official.
  • Chelebi, a gentleman.
  • Cheri-bashi (chief of soldiery), a petty officer of feudal cavalry.
  • Chokadar, a page of high rank.
  • Danishmend (Talisman), a master of arts.
  • Defterdar, a treasurer.
  • Defter-emini (intendant of account-books), a recorder of fiefs.
  • Deli, crazy (appellation of a scout or a captain of the Akinji).
  • Dervish, a member of a Muslim religious order.
  • Deveji, a camel-driver.
  • Emin (plural Umena), an intendant.
  • Emir, a descendant of the prophet Mohammed.; a commander, a governor.
  • Emir-al-Akhor (Imbrahor, Imbroor, Imrakhor, or Imror, Miri-akhor), a grand equerry.
  • Ghureba (Caripicus, Caripy, Ciarcagi) (foreigner), a member of the lowest corps of the standing cavalry.
  • Gonnullu, a volunteer soldier or sailor.
  • Hekim-bashi, a chief physician.
  • Helvaji-bashi (Calvalgibassi), a chief confectioner.
  • Hoja (Cogia), a teacher; the Sultan's adviser.
  • Ikinji Kapu-oghlan, a white eunuch in charge of the second gate of the palace.
  • Imam, the Caliph or lawful successor of Mohammed; a leader of daily prayers.
  • Iskemleji (Scheni), a page of high rank.
  • Itch-oghlan (inside j'outh), a page in one of the Sultan's palaces.
  • Jebeji-bashi (Hebegibassi), a chief armorer.
  • Jerrah-bashi, a chief surgeon.
  • Kaim, a caretaker of a mosque.
  • Kanuni, legislator.
  • Kapu Aghasi (Capagasi) (general of the gate), the white eunuch in charge of the principal palace.
  • Kapudan Pasha, an admiral.
  • Kapuji, a gatekeeper.
  • Kapuji-bashi (Capiagabasi), a head gatekeeper.
  • Kapujilar-kiayasi, a grand chamberlain.
  • Kazi (Kadi), a judge.
  • Kazasker (Cadilescher, Kadi al asker, Kadi ' esker) (judge of the army), one of the two chief judges of the Ottoman Empire.
  • Kharaji (Carzeri, Caragi), a non-Muslim who pays the kharij.
  • Khatib, a leader of Friday prayers.
  • Khazinehdar-bashi (Casnandarbasi, Khazinchdar-bashi), a treasurer-in-chief.
  • Khazineh-odassi (chamber of the treasury), the second chamber of pages.
  • Khojagan, a chief of a treasury bureau.
  • Kiaya (Cacaia, Cahaia, Caia, Checaya, Chechessi, Chiccaia, Chietcudasci, Gachaia, Ketkhuda, Quaia, Queaya) (common form of ketkhuda), a steward or lieutenant.
  • Kiaya-bey, the lieutenant of the grand vizier.
  • Kiaya Katibi, a private secretary of the Kiaya-bey.
  • Kilerji-bashi, a chief of the sultan's pantry.
  • Kizlar Aghasi (general of the girls), the black eunuch in charge of the palace of the harem.
  • Kul, a slave; one of the sultan's slave-family.
  • Masraf-shehriyari (imperial steward), substitute for the intendant of kitchen.
  • Mektubji, a private secretary of the grand vizier.
  • Mihter (Mecter), a tent-pitcher; a musician.
  • Mihter-bashi, the chief tent-pitcher.
  • Mir Alem, the imperial standard bearer.
  • Molla, a judge of high rank.
  • Mosellem, a fief holder by ancient tenure.
  • Muderis, a professor in a Medresseh.
  • Muezzin, one who calls Muslims to prayer.
  • Mufettish, a special judge dealing with endowments.
  • Mufti, a Muslim legal authority; in particular, the Sheik ul-Islam.
  • Muhtesib, a lieutenant of police.
  • Mujtahid, a doctor of the Sacred Law.
  • Mulazim (candidate), a graduate of the higher Medressehs.
  • Munejim-bashi, a chief astrologer.
  • Muste emin, a resident foreigner.
  • Mutbakh-emini, intendant of the kitchen.
  • Muteveli, an administrator of an endowment.
  • Naib, an inferior judge.
  • Nakib oI-Eshraf, the chief of the Seids or descendants of the prophet Mohammed.
  • Nazir, an inspector of an endowment.
  • Nishanji, a chancellor.
  • Nizam al-mulk, basis of the order of the kingdom (title of a vizier of Melek Shah).
  • Oda-bashi (head of chamber), the page of highest rank; a corporal of the Janissaries.
  • Papuji, a page of high rank.
  • Pasha (Bascia, Bassa), a very high official.
  • Peik, a member of the body-guard of halbardiers.
  • Reis Effendi, or Reis ul-Khuttab, a recording secretary; a recording secretary of the Divan, later an important minister of state.
  • Rekiab-Aghalari (generals of the stirrup) , a group of high officers of the outside service of the palace.
  • Rusnamehji, a chief book-keeper of the Treasury.
  • Sakka, a water-carrier.
  • Sanjak-bey, a high officer of feudal, cavalry and governor of a Sanjak.
  • Sarraf, a banker.
  • Segban-bashi (Seymen-bashi) (master of the hounds), the second officer of the corps of Janissaries.
  • Seid, a descendant of the prophet Mohammed.
  • Seraskier, a commander-in-chief.
  • Serraj, saddlers.
  • Shahinji, a falconer.
  • Sharabdar (Seracter) (drink-bearer), a page of high rank.
  • Shehr-emini (Saremin), intendant of imperial buildings.
  • Sheik, a preacher; a head of a religious community.
  • Sheik ul-Islam, the Mufti of Constantinople and head of the Muslim Institution.
  • Sherif, a descendant of the prophet Mohammed.
  • Silihdar (Selicter, Sillictar, Suiastrus, Suluphtar) (sword-bearer), a member of the second corps of standing cavalry; the page who carried the sultan's arms.
  • Sofi, woolen; a dervish (an appellation of the Shah of Persia).
  • Softa (Sukhta), an undergraduate in a Medresseh.
  • Solak (left-handed) , a janissary bowman of the sultan's personal guard.
  • Spahi (Sipah, Sipahi, Spachi, Spai), a cavalry soldier; a member of the standing or feudal cavalry.
  • Spahi-oghlan (Spacoillain) (cavalry youth), a member of the highest corps of the standing cavalry.
  • Subashi, a captain of the feudal cavalry and governor of a town.
  • Sultana, a princess or queen mother; (the true Turkish form uses a proper name or the word Valideh, followed by Sultan).
  • Tahvil Kalemi, a bureau of the Chancery.
  • Terjuman, an interpreter (dragoman).
  • Terjuman Divani Humayun, a chief interpreter of the sultan.
  • Teshrifatji, a master of ceremonies.
  • Teskereji, a master of petitions.
  • Teskereji-bashi (chief of document-writers), the Nishanji.
  • Timarji, the holder of a Timar.
  • Ulufaji (Ouloufedgis, Allophase, Holofagi) (paid troops), a member of the third corps of the sultan's standing cavalry.
  • Veznedar, an official weigher of money.
  • Vizier (burden-bearer), a minister of state.
  • Voivode (Slavic), an officer, a governor.
  • Yaya, a fief holder by ancient tenure, owing infantry service.
  • Yaziji (laxagi), a scribe or secretary.
  • Zagarji-bashi (master of the harriers), a high officer of the Janissaries.
  • Zanijiler (Italianized), lancers or Voinaks (?).
  • Zarabkhane-emini, intendant of mints and mines.
  • Ziam, the holder of a Ziamet.

Other titles

Other titles include:[2]

  • Agha (or Agha): commander, a title junior to Bey and conferred on military officers on a personal basis.
  • Alp: brave warrior, a title conferred during the early years of Ottoman rule.
  • Amir ul-Muminin: Commander of the Faithful, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
  • Bey: a title junior to Pasha and conferred on civil and military officers on a personal basis; also borne as a curtesy title for the sons of a Pasha.
  • Bey Effendi: part of the title of a husband and sons of an Imperial Princess.
  • Beylerbeyi (or Beglerbegi): Lord of Lords. An office signifying rule over a great province, equivalent to Governor-General. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha.
  • Beyzade: son of a Bey, a courtesy title borne by a son of a Bey Effendi.
  • Bimbashi: Major (army) or Commander (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
  • Khalif (also Caliph or Khalifa): Successor (of the Prophet).
  • Khalif ur-Rasul Rub al-A'alimin: Successor of the Prophet of the Lord of the Universe. The highest earthly title of the Muslim world, enjoyed by the Sultans of Turkey after their conquest of Egypt in 1517.
  • Damad-i-Shahriyari: Imperial son-in-law, title conferred on the husbands of Imperial Princesses.
  • Effendi: master, title equivalent to Esquire; frequently used together with higher titles in order to indicate signify enhanced status. Used by the sons of Sultans from the reign of Sultan 'Abdu'l Majid I.
  • Ferik: Lieutenant-General (army) or Vice-Admiral (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
  • Ghazi: victorious, a title conferred on leaders who distinguished in war.
  • Gözde: noticed (by the Sultan). Style borne by junior ladies of the Harem when first gaining favour from the Sultan.
  • Khadim ul-Haramain us-Sharifain: Protector of the Holy Cities of Mecca and Medina, a title awarded to Salim I by the Sherif of Mecca.
  • Haji (or Hacci): honorific used for men who have made the pilgrimage to Mecca.
  • Hakhan ul-Barrayun wa al-Bahrain: Lord of the Lands and Seas, one of the many titles of the Sultan.
  • Haseki Kadin Effendi: Lady favourite, title borne by junior ladies of the Harem, who had borne a daughter to a Sultan.
  • Haseki Sultana: Princess favourite, title borne by junior ladies of the Harem, who had borne a son to a Sultan, usually limited to the first four or six to become mothers.
  • Hazretleri: style equivalent to Highness.
  • Kaimakam: Lieutenant-Colonel (army) or Commander (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Bey.
  • Khan (or Hân): a title signifying sovereign or ruler in Turkey, but a very junior title signifying a male noble, or even a mere name, in other parts of the Muslim world.
  • Khakhan: Khan of Khans, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
  • Khanum: female of Khan, equivalent to Lady.
  • Khanum Effendi: title borne by the official wives of Imperial Princes.
  • Khanum Sultana: Princess Lady, title borne by the daughters of Imperial Princesses.
  • Kizlar Aghasi: Chief of the Eunuchs. The office entitled the holder to the style of His Highness.
  • Iqbal (or Ikhal): fortunate, title borne by the favourite Harem ladies of a Sultan.
  • Iqbal Effendi (or Ikhal Effendi): title borne by an official favourite wife of a Sultan.
  • Kapudan Pasha: Grand Admiral or Admiral of the Fleet.The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
  • Lewa (or Liva): Major-General (army) or Rear-Admiral (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
  • Mahd-i Ulya-i-Sultanat: crade of the great Sultan, another title for the Sultan's mother.
  • Miralai: Colonel (army) or Captain (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Bey.
  • Mulazim Awal: Lieutenant (army) or Sub-Lieutenant (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
  • Mulazim Tani: Second Lieutenant (army) or Midshipman (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.
  • Mushir: Field Marshal.The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Pasha.
  • Nishan (or Nichan): order of chivalry or decoration of honour.
  • Padshah (or Padishah): Emperor, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
  • Pasha: Lord, a title senior to that of Bey and conferred on a personal basis on senior civil officials and military officers. Awarded in several grades, signified by a whip, the highest rank being a whip of five Yaks tails.
  • Pashazada: son of a Pasha, used as an alternative courtesy title to Bey.
  • Sadaf-i-Durr-i-Khilafat: shell of the pearl of the caliphate, another title for the mother of the Sultan.
  • Saraskar: C-in-C.
  • Shah: King, title of Persian origin.
  • Shah-i-Alam Panah: King, refuge of the world, one of the titles of the Sultan.
  • Shahzada (or Shahzade): son of the King, title used for the sons of Sultans from the reign of Muhammad I.
  • Shahzada Hazratlari (or Shahzade Hazretleri): Imperial Highness.
  • Shaikh ul-Islam: the title held by the highest ranking Muslim religious official below the Khalif. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha together the style of His Highness.
  • Shalabi (or Cecebi): gracious lord, title borne by sons of the Sultan until the reign of Muhammad II.
  • Silahadar: Master-General of the Ordnance.
  • Sipah Salar: General of Cavalry.
  • Sultan: title borne by male members of the Imperial family, particularly after then reign of Muhammad II. When it is used before the given name, together with Khan after the name, it signifies ruler. When used before the name, Imperial Prince. When used after the name, Imperial Princess.
  • Sultan Khan: The Grand Sultan, the chief title borne by the ruler of Turkey and the Ottoman empire, equivalent to Emperor.
  • Sultan us-Selatin: Sultan of Sultan, one of the many titles of the Sultan of Turkey.
  • Sultanzada (or Sultanzade): son of a Sultan, the title borne by the sons of Imperial Princesses.
  • Sünnetçi: Circumciser.
  • Vali: Governor. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha.
  • Vali Ahad (or Veliaht): Heir Apparent or Presumptive usually translated as Crown Prince.
  • Vali Ahad Zevcesi: Heir Apparent's wife, the title borne by the official wives of the Heir Apparent, equivalent to Crown Princess but not usually translated.
  • Valide Sultana: Princess Mother, the title borne by the mother of a reigning Sultan.
  • Vizier: bearer of the burden, i.e. Minister.
  • Vizier-i-Azam: Grand Vizier, the title borne by the incumbent Prime Minister. The office entitled the holder to the personal title of Pasha together the style of His Highness.
  • Yuzbashi (or Youzbashi): Captain (army) or Lieutenant (navy). The holder of the rank enjoyed the title of Effendi.

See also

References

External links


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