- Operation LAC
Operation LAC (Large Area Coverage), was a U.S. Army Chemical Corps operation which dispersed microscopic zinc cadmium sulfide (ZnCdS) particles over much of the United States. The purpose was to determine the dispersion and geographic range of biological or chemical agents.
There were tests that occurred prior to the first spraying affiliated with Operation LAC. The Army admitted to spraying in Minnesota locations from 1953 into the mid-1960s.
Operation LAC was undertaken in 1957 and 1958 by the U.S. Army Chemical Corps. Principally, the operation involved spraying large areas with zinc cadmium sulfide. The U.S. Air Force loaned the Army a C-119, "Flying Boxcar", and it was used to disperse zinc cadmium sulfide by the ton in the atmosphere over the United States. The first test occurred on December 2, 1957 along a path from South Dakota to International Falls, Minnesota.
The tests were designed to determine the dispersion and geographic range of biological or chemical agents. Stations on the ground tracked the fluorescent zinc cadmium sulfide particles. During the first test and subsequently, much of the material dispersed ended up being carried by winds into Canada. However, as was the case in the first test, particles were detected up to 1,200 miles away from their drop point. A typical flight line covering 400 miles would release 5,000 pounds of zinc cadmium sulfide and in fiscal year 1958 around 100 hours were spent in flight for LAC. That flight time included four runs of various lengths, one of which was 1,400 miles.
The December 2, 1957 test was incomplete due to a mass of cold air coming down from Canada. It carried the particles from their drop point and then took a turn northeast, taking most of the particles into Canada with it. Military operators considered the test a partial success because some of the particles were detected 1,200 miles away, at a station in New York state. A February 1958 test at Dugway Proving Ground ended similarly. Another Canadian air mass swept through and carried the particles into the Gulf of Mexico. Two other tests, one along a path from Toledo, Ohio to Abilene, Texas, and another from Detroit, to Springfield, Illinois, to Goodland, Kansas, showed that agents dispersed through this aerial method could achieve widespread coverage when particles were detected on both sides of the flight paths.
According to Leonard A. Cole, an Army Chemical Corps document titled "Summary of Major Events and Problems" (1958) described the scope of Operation LAC. Cole stated that the document outlined that the tests were the largest ever undertaken by the Chemical Corps and that the test area stretched from the Rocky Mountains to the Atlantic Ocean, and from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico. Other sources describe the scope of LAC varyingly, examples include, "Midwestern United States", and "the states east of the Rockies". Specific locations are mentioned as well. Some of those include: a path from South Dakota to Minneapolis, Minnesota,Dugway Proving Ground, Corpus Christi, Texas, north-central Texas, and the San Francisco Bay area.
Risks and issues
A large body of evidence exists of ZnCdS having adverse health effects as a result of LAC. However, a U.S. government study, done by the U.S. National Research Council stated, in part, "After an exhaustive, independent review requested by Congress, we have found no evidence that exposure to zinc cadmium sulfide at these levels could cause people to become sick." Still, the use of ZnCdS remains controversial and some critics have accused the Army of "literally using the country as an experimental laboratory".
- Human experimentation in the United States
- Operation Dew
- ^ a b c d e LeBaron, Wayne. America's Nuclear Legacy, (Google Books), Nova Publishers, 1998, p. 83–84, (ISBN 1560725567).
- ^ a b Guillemin, Jeanne. Biological Weapons: From the Invention of State-Sponsored Programs to Contemporary Bioterrorism, (Google Books), Columbia University Press, 2005, p. 108, (ISBN 0231129424).
- ^ a b c d e Novick, Lloyd F. and Marr, John S. Public Health Issues Disaster Preparedness: Focus on Bioterrorism, (Google Books), Jones & Bartlett Publishers, 2003, p. 89, (ISBN 0763725005).
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j Cole, Leonard A., The Eleventh Plague, (Google Books), Macmillan, 2002, pp. 19–23, (ISBN 0805072144).
- ^ Carlton, Jim. "Years Ago, The Military Sprayed Germs on U.S. Cities", Wall Street Journal, October 22, 2001, via American Patriot Friends Network, accessed November 13, 2008.
- ^ Leary, Warren E. "Secret Army Chemical Tests Did Not Harm Health, Report Says, The New York Times, May 15, 1997, accessed November 13, 2008.
- ^ Moreno, Jonathan D. Undue Risk: Secret State Experiments on Humans, (Google Books), Routledge, 2001, p. 235, (ISBN 0415928354).
United States biological weapons program
- Subcommittee on Zinc Cadmium Sulfide, U.S. National Research Council, Toxicologic Assessment of the Army's Zinc Cadmium Sulfide Dispersion, (Google Books), National Academies Press, 1997, (ISBN 0309057833).
Weaponized agents Researched agents WeaponsE120 bomblet · E133 cluster bomb · E14 munition · E23 munition · E48 particulate bomb · E61 bomb · E77 balloon bomb · E86 cluster bomb · E96 cluster bomb · Flettner rotor bomblet · M114 bomb · M115 bomb · M143 bomblet · M33 cluster bomb Operations and testingEdgewood Arsenal experiments · Operation Big Buzz · Operation Big Itch · Operation Dark Winter · Operation Dew · Operation Drop Kick · Operation LAC · Operation Magic Sword · Operation May Day · Operation Polka Dot · Operation Whitecoat · Project 112 · Project Bacchus · Project Clear Vision · Project Jefferson FacilitiesU.S. Army Biological Warfare Labs · Blue Grass Army Depot · Building 101 · Building 257 · Building 470 · Deseret Test Center · Dugway Proving Ground · Edgewood Arsenal · Fort Detrick · Fort Douglas · Fort Terry · Granite Peak Installation · Horn Island Testing Station · One-Million-Liter Test Sphere · Pine Bluff Arsenal · Rocky Mountain Arsenal · Vigo Ordnance Plant Related topicsUnited States chemical weapons program Agents and chemicals WeaponsBigeye bomb · M1 chemical mine · M104 155mm Cartridge · M110 155mm Cartridge · M121 155mm Cartridge · M125 bomblet · M134 bomblet · M138 bomblet · M139 bomblet · M2 mortar · M23 chemical mine · M34 cluster bomb · M360 105mm Cartridge · M426 8-inch shell · M43 BZ cluster bomb · M44 generator cluster · M55 rocket · M60 105mm Cartridge · M687 155mm Cartridge · XM-736 8-inch projectile · MC-1 bomb · M47 bomb · Weteye bomb Operations and testingDugway sheep incident · Edgewood Arsenal experiments · Unethical human experimentation in the United States · MKULTRA · Operation CHASE · Operation Davy Jones' Locker · Operation Geranium · Operation LAC · Operation Red Hat · Operation Steel Box · Operation Ranch Hand · Operation Top Hat · Project 112 · Project SHAD FacilitiesAnniston Army Depot · Anniston Chemical Activity · Blue Grass Army Depot · Deseret Chemical Depot · Edgewood Chemical Activity · Hawthorne Army Depot · Johnston Atoll Chemical Agent Disposal System · Newport Chemical Depot · Pine Bluff Chemical Activity · Pueblo Chemical Depot · Tooele Chemical Agent Disposal Facility · Umatilla Chemical Depot Units and formations Equipment Related topics
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