- Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten
Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten Leader Alexander De Croo Founded 1846 (Liberal Party)
2007 (Open VLD)
Preceded by PVV and PL/LP Headquarters national secretariat
Melsensstraat 34 Brussels
International affiliation Liberal International European affiliation European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party European Parliament Group Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe Cartel Open VLD Official colours Blue and yellow Walloon counterpart Reformist Movement German-speaking counterpart Party for Freedom and Progress Chamber of Representatives Senate Regional Parliament European Parliament Website www.vld.be Politics of Belgium
Open Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten (Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats), commonly known as Open VLD and also simply as the VLD, is a Flemish liberal political party in Belgium, created in 1992 from the former Party for Freedom and Progress (PVV) and a few other politicians from other parties. The party led the government for three cabinets under Guy Verhofstadt from 1999 until March 2008. VLD most recently formed the Federal Government (the so-called purple governments from June 2003 through 2007 with the Flemish SP.a-Spirit cartel, the Francophone Socialist Party (PS) and the Francophone Reformist Movement (MR). In the Flemish Parliament, the VLD formed a coalition government with SP.a-Spirit and Christian Democratic and Flemish (CD&V) from after the 2004 regional election until the 2009 regional election. VLD has been a member of the Leterme I Government formed on 22 March 2008, the Van Rompuy I Government formed on 2 January 2009, and the Leterme II Government formed on 24 November 2009.
Ideologically, the VLD started as an economic liberal, somewhat Thatcherite party under its founder, Guy Verhofstadt. The VLD rapidly became more centrist and gave up much of its free market approach, partly under the influence of Verhofstadt's political scientist brother Dirk Verhofstadt. Party chairman Bart Somers called in November 2006 for a "revolution" within the party, saying that "a liberal party," like the VLD, "can only be progressive and social."
From 2000 to 2004, during the second period of its participation in the Belgian federal government and under Belgian Prime Minister Guy Verhofstadt, the VLD allegedly lost most of its ideological appeal. Several of its thinkers such as (former member) Boudewijn Bouckaert, president of Nova Civitas, heavily criticised the party. Many others resented the priority it placed on the 'Belgian compromise', which enabled the French Community Socialist Party to gain a dominant position in the formulation of Belgian federal government policy.
In 2004 the VLD teamed up with the minority liberal party Vivant for both the Flemish and European elections. VLD-Vivant lost the elections to arch rivals CD&V and the Flemish Bloc. The VLD fell from second to third place among the Flemish political parties, slipping narrowly behind the SP.a-Spirit cartel. Internal feuds, the support for electoral rights for immigrants and an unsuccessful economic policy were seen as the main reasons for its election defeat.
On 19 June 2004 the VLD successfully negotiated a regional coalition government with CD&V and the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA), the Christian Democrats and moderate nationalists, and with the social-democratic SP.a-Spirit. In a federal cabinet reshuffle in July 2004, VLD chairman Karel De Gucht replaced Louis Michel (Reformist Movement) as minister for Foreign Affairs. Former Flemish Minister-President Bart Somers is the new party chairman.
As such the liberal party is the oldest political party of Belgium. In 1846, Walthère Frère-Orban succeeded in creating a political program which could unite several liberal groups into one party. Before 1960, the Liberal Party of Belgium was barely organised. The school pact of 1958, as a result of which the most important argument for the traditional anti-clericalism was removed, gave the necessary impetus for a thorough renewal. During the liberal party congress of 1961, the Liberal Party was reformed into the bilingual Party for Freedom and Progress (PVV-PLP), and Omer Vanaudenhove became the chairman of the new party. The new liberal party, which struggled with an anti-clerical image, opened its doors for believers, but wasn't too concerned about the situation of the employees and primarily defended the interests of employers.
In the late 1960s and the early 1970s, the tensions between the different communities in Belgium rose and there were disagreements within the liberal movement as well. In 1972, the unitary PVV-PLP was split into separate a Flemish and a Francophone parties. On Flemish side, under the guidance of Frans Grootjans, Herman Vanderpoorten and Willy De Clercq, the PVV was created, on Walloon side Milou Jeunehomme became the head of the PLP and Brussels got its own but totally disintegrated liberal party landscape. Willy De Clercq became the first chairman of the independent Party of Freedom and Progress (Dutch: Partij voor Vrijheid en Vooruitgang, PVV). De Clercq , together with Frans Grootjans and Herman Vanderpoorten, set out the lines for the new party. This reform was coupled an Ethical Congress, on which the PVV adopted very progressive and tolerant stances regarding abortion, euthanasia, adultery, homosexuality and gender equality.
In 1982, the 29-year-old reformer Guy Verhofstadt became the chairman of the party, and even was Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Budget from 1986 to 1988. Annemie Neyts succeeded him as chairman, becoming the first female party chairman. In 1989, Verhofstadt once more became the chairman of the PVV, after his party had been condemned to the opposition by the Christian People's Party (CVP) in 1987.
In 1992, the PVV was reformed into the Vlaamse Liberalen en Democraten or VLD under the impulse of Verhofstadt. Although the VLD was the successor of the PVV, many politicians with democratic nationalist or socialist roots joined the new party. Notable examples are Jaak Gabriëls, then president of the Volksunie, and Hugo Coveliers. From the early 1990s, the VLD advanced in every election, only to get in government following the 1999 general election when the VLD became the largest party. Guy Verhofstadt became Prime Minister and Patrick Dewael became Minister-President of Flanders. They were both at the head of a coalition of liberals, socialists and greens.
Before the 2007 elections, the VLD participated in a cartel with Vivant and Liberal Appeal. In February 2007, it decided to cease the cartel and start operating under the name Open Vld. In the 10 June 2007 general elections, Open VLD won 18 out of 150 seats in the Chamber of Representatives and 5 out of 40 seats in the Senate.
The party is fairly pro-European, and holds three seats in the European Parliament, where it sits as a member of the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe (ALDE) group. Then-current VLD prime minister Guy Verhofstadt was rejected as a candidate for the presidency of the European Commission in June 2004.
Election results (1991–2010)
Chamber of Representatives
Belgian Chamber of Representatives Election year # of total votes % of overall vote # of seats won 1995 798,363 13.1% 21 1999 888,973 14.3% 23 2003 1,009,223 15.4% 25 2007 789,445 11.8% 18 2010 563,873 8,6% 13 Belgian Senate Election year # of Dutch constituency votes % of Dutch constituency vote # of seats won 1995 796,154 21.2% 6 1999 952,116 24.6% 6 2003 1,007,868 24.7% 7 2007 821,980 20.1% 5 2010 533.124 13.3% 4 European Parliament Election year # of Dutch constituency votes % of Dutch constituency vote # of seats won 1994 678,421 18.4% 3 1999 847,099 21.9% 3 2004 880,279 21.9% 3 2009 837,834 20.6% 3
The party is a member of the Liberal International, which is co-chaired by Annemie Neyts, member of the VLD.
- Albert Mechelynck 1920–1921
- Edouard Pecher 1924–1926
- Albert Devèze 1927–1933
- Octave Dierckx 1933–1934
- Léon Dens 1935–1936
- Victor de Laveleye 1936–1937
- Emile Coulonvaux 1937–1940
- Jane Brigode and Fernand Demets (co-presidents) 1940–1945
- Roger Motz 1945–1953
- Henri Liebaert 1953–1954
- Maurice Destenay 1954–1958
- Roger Motz 1958–1961
- Omer Vanaudenhove 1961–1968
- Norbert Hougardy and Milou Jeunehomme (co-presidents) 1968–1969
- Pierre Descamps 1969–1972
- Willy De Clercq 1972–1973
- Frans Grootjans 1973–1977
- Willy De Clercq 1977–1982
- Guy Verhofstadt 1982–1985
- Annemie Neyts 1985–1989
- Guy Verhofstadt 1989–1992
- Guy Verhofstadt 1992–1995
- Herman De Croo 1995–1997
- Guy Verhofstadt 1997–1999
- Karel De Gucht 1999–2004
- Dirk Sterckx 2004
- Bart Somers 2004–2009
- Guy Verhofstadt 2009
- Alexander De Croo 2009–present
- Annemie Neyts, former party leader, chairwoman of the Liberal International and current party leader of the ELDR
- Bart Somers, former minister-president of Flanders and former party leader
- Fientje Moerman, former vice-minister-president of Flanders
- Dirk Van Mechelen, former Flemish Minister of Finance and Budget and Town and Country Planning
- Fons Borginon, former VLD floor leader in the Belgian Chamber of Representatives
- Guy Vanhengel, Minister of Finance
- Guy Verhofstadt, former party leader and former prime minister
- Karel De Gucht, former party leader and former Minister of Foreign Affairs
- Karel Poma, former minister and member of parliament
- Marc Verwilghen, former minister of the Economy, Trade, Science and Energy
- Margriet Hermans member of the Flemish Parliament and senator
- Marino Keulen, former Flemish Minister of Integration
- Patricia Ceysens, former Flemish Minister of the Economy and former VLD floor leader in the Flemish Parliament
- Patrick Dewael, former minister-president of Flanders and former Minister of Internal Affairs
- Bart Tommelein, VLD floor leader in the Belgian Senate
- Vincent Van Quickenborne, minister of economy, also responsible for the simplification of the administration
Notable former members
This section also mentions members of the liberal political party before the foundation of the VLD:
- Boudewijn Bouckaert, a former VLD board member who left the party subsequently to Dedecker's exclusion, believing the party turned "left-liberal". He and Dedecker are founders of a new political party, Lijst Dedecker.
- Eugène Defacqz (1797–1871) one of the founders of the liberal party of the 19th century
- Herman Teirlinck (1879–1967), a famous Belgian writer.
- Hugo Coveliers, left the VLD to found his own political party VLOTT.
- Jean-Marie Dedecker, was excluded from the VLD after several conflicts with the top of the party. He asked for an economic policy more in favour of free markets and limited government and believed that the party was too closely aligned with the Socialists. He founded the Lijst Dedecker party.
- Julius Hoste Jr. (1884–1954), businessman and leading Flemish liberal politician.
- Leo Govaerts, left the VLD to found his own political party Veilig Blauw (Safe Blue).
- Louis Franck (1868–1937), a leading Flemish liberal politician.
- Walthère Frère-Orban, (1812–1896), wrote the first charter of the liberal party.
- Ward Beysen, left the VLD to found his own political party Liberaal Appèl.
- Contributions to liberal theory
- Liberaal Vlaams Verbond (LVV)
- Liberal Archive
- Liberal democracy
- Liberalism in Belgium
- Liberalism worldwide
- List of liberal parties
- ^ (Dutch)"Somers wil revolutie binnen de VLD". Belga. 4 November 2006. http://nieuws.skynet.be/?l1=actuality&l2=news&l3=homepage&l4=detail&id=149570&new_lang=nl.
- ^ "Elections 2007 – Chamber – Start page". Polling2007.belgium.be. http://polling2007.belgium.be/en/cha/results/results_start.html. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- ^ "Elections 2010 – Chamber". http://www.polling2010.belgium.be/en/cha/results/results_tab_CKR00000.html. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- ^ "Elections 2007 – Senate – Start page". Polling2007.belgium.be. http://polling2007.belgium.be/en/sen/results/results_start.html. Retrieved 18 June 2010.
- ^ "Elections 2010 Senate". http://www.polling2010.belgium.be/en/sen/results/results_graph_SEL12025.html. Retrieved 20 June 2010.
- Flemish Liberals and Democrats (VLD) official site
Member parties of international liberal organisations Liberal International
Andorra: PLA • Angola: PLD • Argentina: Recrear* • Austria: LIF • Belgium: MR, VLD • Bulgaria: DPS, NDSV • Burkina Faso: ADF-RDA* • Cambodia: PSR* • Canada: Liberal Party • DR Congo: ANADER* • Costa Rica: PML • Côte d'Ivoire: RDR • Croatia: HNS-LD*, HSLS • Cuba: ULC, PSD • Denmark: RV, Venstre • Equatorial Guinea: UDENA • Estonia: Reform • Finland: Keskusta, SFP • Georgia: RPG* • Germany: FDP • Gibraltar: Liberal Party • Guatemala: MR* • Honduras: PLH • Hungary: SzDSz • Iceland: FSF • Israel: Shinui • Italy: FdLI* • Kenya: LDP* • Kosovo: PLK* • Latvia: LC • Lithuania: LCU, NU-SL* • Luxembourg: DP • Macedonia: LDP • Madagascar: MFM* • Malawi: UDF • Mali: PCR* • Mexico: NA* • Moldova: PSL • Montenegro: LSCG • Morocco: AdL*, UC, MP • Netherlands: D66 , VVD • Nicaragua: ALN* • Norway: Venstre • Paraguay: PLRA • Philippines: LP • Romania: PNL • Russia: Yabloko • Senegal: PDS • Serbia: LS • Seychelles: SNP* • Slovakia: ANO • Slovenia: LDS • South Africa: DA • Spain: UM • Sri Lanka: LP • Sweden: Cp*, FpL • Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals • Taiwan: DPP • Tanzania: CCW/CUF • Tunisia: PSL* • United Kingdom: APNI • Lib Dems • Zambia: UNDP** Observer
National groups: Brazilian Group* • German Group • Israeli Group • Italian Group* • Netherlands Group • Catalan Group • British Group
European Liberal Democrat and Reform PartyAndorra: LPA • Austria: LIF • Belgium: MR, VLD • Bosnia and Herzegovina: LDS • Bulgaria: DPS, NSDV • Croatia: HNS-LD, HSLS, IDS • Cyprus: ΕD • Czech Republic: ODA • Denmark: RV , Venstre • Estonia: Kesk, Reform • Finland: Keskusta, SFP • Germany: FDP • Hungary: SzDSz • Ireland: FF • Italy: MRE, RAD, PRI, IDV • Kosovo: PLK • Latvia: LC • Lithuania: LCU, LRLS, NS-SL • Luxembourg: DP • Macedonia: LPM, LDP • Moldova: AMN • Netherlands: D66, VVD • Norway: Venstre • Poland: PD • Romania: PNL • Russia: Yabloko • Serbia: LS • Slovakia: ANO • Slovenia: LDS • Spain: CDC, UM • Sweden: Cp, FpL • Switzerland: FDP.The Liberals • United Kingdom: APNI, Lib Dems
Youth organisation: LYMEC
Other parties in the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe EP Group Liberal South East European Network Council of Asian Liberals and Democrats Africa Liberal Network Liberal Network for Latin America Political parties in Belgium Flemish parties Francophone parties German parties Pan-BelgianWorkers' Party of Belgium · Vivant · Belgian Union · Pirate Party
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