- International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions Abbreviation INTOSAI Motto Experientia Mutua Omnibus Prodest, "Mutual experience benefits all" Formation 1953 Type IGO Headquarters Vienna, Austria Website http://www.intosai.org
The International Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions (INTOSAI) is a worldwide affiliation of governmental entities. Its members are the Chief Financial Controller/Comptroller General Offices of nations.
INTOSAI was founded in 1953 in Havana, Cuba. 34 audit organizations formed the group originally and as of 2010 the current membership includes 193 institutions (188 national institutions, the European Court of Auditors and 4 associated members).
The members of INTOSAI are the primary external auditors of the United Nations. The UN's General Assembly appoints the UN Board of Auditors (3 members appointed for 6 years) among the INTOSAI member representatives.
INTOSAI holds a triennial conference entitled the International Congress of Supreme Audit Institutions (INCOSAI). It publishes the quarterly International Journal of Government Auditing. Examples of its major publications are:
- Guidelines for Internal Control Standards for the Public Sector (1992 - The current text is the 2004 revision by the INTOSAI Internal Control Standards Committee, approved by the XVIIIth INCOSAI of October 2004. It has been subsequently integrated in the INTOSAI standards/guidances as "INTOSAI GOV 9100"). It relies upon the COSO's integrated framework for internal control (as stated in the preface), and uses the COSO's definition of Internal Control and IIA's definition of Internal Audit.
- Guidelines on Best Practice for the Audit of Privatizations, (1998)
- Guidance for Planning an Audit of Internal Controls for Public Debt, (2002)
The ISSAIs, International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions
The 'International Standards of Supreme Audit Institutions' ISSAI are a benchmark for auditing public entities (External Audit Standards for public entities).
The "INTOSAI Auditing Standards" had been approved by the INCOSAI in 1998 and updated in 2001. In its strategic plan 2005-2010, the INTOSAI decided to "provide an up-to-date framework of professional standards", so the INTOSAI Professional Standards Committee decided to merge the existing and new INTOSAI standards and guidelines into a framework.
The framework comprises all documents endorsed by INCOSAI with the purpose of guiding the professional standards used by SAIs
- Auditing Standards (ISSAI-numbers of 3 digits) stipulate general principles and postulates for carrying out the audit work;
- Implementation Guidelines (ISSAI-numbers of 4 digits) give more detailed guidance, practical assistance to SAIs in implementing the Standards in their individual constituents.
Hierarchical level of the text ISSAI series Name Notes Link to ISSAI document Level 1: Founding Principles ISSAI 1 The Lima Declaration (endorsed 1977) Comprehensive precepts on auditing in the public sector Level 2: Prerequisites ISSAI 10-40 Prerequisites for the Functioning of Supreme Audit Institutions * The 'ISSAI 30' Code of Ethics is the statement of values and principles guiding the daily work of the auditors. One of the principles outlined in the Code of Ethics is the statutory auditor’s obligation to apply generally accepted auditing standards. (not to be mistaken with the AICPA's Generally accepted auditing standards) Level 3: Fundamental Auditing Principles ISSAI 100-400 Basic Principles, General Standards, Field Standards (endorsed 2001), and Reporting Standards Level 4: Auditing Guidelines ISSAI 1000-1810 Financial Audit Guidelines Financial_Audit_Guidelines_E.pdf ISSAI 3000-3100 Performance Audit Guidelines ISSAI 4000-4200 Compliance Audit Guidelines ISSAI 5000-5010 Guidelines on auditing International Institutions ISSAI 5100-5140 Guidelines on Environmental Audit ISSAI 5200-5240 Guidelines on Privatisation ISSAI 5300-5399 guidelines on IT-audit ISSAI 5400-5499 Guidelines on Audit of Public Debt ISSAI 5500-5599 Guidelines on Audit of Disaster-related Aid ISSAI 5600-5699 Guidelines on Peer Reviews Guidance for Good governance INTOSAI GOVs 9100 - 9230 Internal Control and Accounting Standards www.issai.org/media(891,1033)/Internal_Control_Standards.pdf
Two main types of audit
The INTOSAI Auditing Standards distinguish basically two types of audit that a Government Auditor may perform:
- Regularity audit or Statutory audit, which is a Financial audit of the financial reporting or budget reporting of the audited entity.
In a regularity audit, the audit report contains the auditor's opinion.
- Performance audit, refers to an examination of a program, function, operation or the management systems and procedures of a governmental or non-profit entity to assess whether the entity is achieving economy, efficiency and effectiveness in the employment of available resources.
In a performance audit, the report should contain a statement of assurance on those items tested for compliance, as the auditor's conclusion (as opposed to opinion).
Adoption by intergovernmental organizations
In addition to the INTOSAI members (the Supreme Audit Institutions), the following intergovernmental organizations have adopted INTOSAI AS:
- Council of Europe
- European Communities
- European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts
- Audit by two appointed Supreme Audit Institutions.
- European Space Agency
- Audit by an Audit Board composed of Supreme Audit Institutions auditors.
- Audit by an appointed Supreme Audit Institution.
- International Criminal Police Organization
- North Atlantic Treaty Organization
- Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development
- Audit by a Supreme Audit Institution.
- The United Nations
INTOSAI and Internal Audit
- ISSAI 1610 – Using the Work of Internal Auditors
- INTOSAI Guidance for Good governance : INTOSAI GOVs 9100 - 9230
The guidance 'INTOSAI GOV 9100' states: -(page 46) "The Supreme Audit Institution also has a vested interest in ensuring that strong internal audit units exist where needed. Those audit units constitute an important element of internal control by providing a continuous means for improving an organisation's operations. In some countries, however, the internal audit units may lack independence, be weak, or be non-existent. In those cases, the SAI should, whenever possible, offer assistance and guidance to establish and develop those capacities and to ensure the independence of the internal auditor's activities." - "The creation of an internal audit unit as part of the internal control system is a strong signal by management that internal control is important.
(...) For an internal audit function to be effective, it is essential that the internal audit staff be independent from management, work in an unbiased, correct and honest way and that they report directly to the highest level of authority within the organisation.
(...) "For professional guidance, internal auditors should use the Professional Practices Framework (PPF) of the Institute of Internal Auditors (IIA) (...)Additionally, internal auditors should follow the INTOSAI Code of Ethics".
Regional working groups
- AFROSAI: African Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
- ARABOSAI: Arab Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
- ASOSAI: Asian Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
- CAROSAI: Caribbean Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions
- EUROSAI: European Organization of Supreme Audit Institutions. For more information please see website.
- OLACES: Organization of Latin American and Caribbean Supreme Audit Institutions
- PASAI: Pacific Association of Supreme Audit Institutions
List of INCOSAI Conferences
INCOSAI Place Date Host Information I November 1953 Ministry of Auditing and Control of the Republic of Cuba II September 1956 Court of Audit of Belgium III May 1959 Tribunal de Contas da União IVVienna (Austria) May 1962 Court of Audit of the Republic of Austria V June 1965 State Comptroller's Office of Israel VI May 1968 Board of Audit of Japan VII September 1971 Office of the Auditor General of Canada VIII May 1974 Tribunal de Cuentas IX October 1977 Contraloría General de la República del Perú X June 1980 Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of Kenya XI April 1983 Philippine Commission on Audit XII April 1986 Australian National Audit Office XIII June 1989 Bundesrechnungshof XIVWashington October 1992 Government Accountability Office XV September - October 1995 Central Auditing Organization of Egypt XVI November 1998 Contraloría General de la República del Uruguay XVII October 2001 Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea XVIII October 2004 Hungarian State Audit Office XIXMexico City, Mexico November 2007 Contraloría General de la República de Mexico http://www.incosai2007.org.mx/ XX November 2010 Auditor-General of South Africa http://www.incosai.co.za/en/ XXI 2013 National Audit Office of the People’s Republic of China
Members of INTOSAI
Typical title of the members of INTOSAI: Office of the Chief Financial Controller / Comptroller / Comptroller General / Auditor General / Comptroller and Auditor General...
The list below is not exhaustive.
Country/Area INTOSAI Member Responsible ♦The European Union The European Court of Auditors, the fifth institution of the European Union, established in 1975 in Luxembourg to audit the accounts of EU institutions The President of the ECA. Australia Australian National Audit Office Auditor General of the Australian National Audit Office Austria Court of Audit of the Republic of Austria Belgium Court of Audit of Belgium Bolivia Contraloría General de la República de Bolivia Brazil Tribunal de Contas da União Canada Auditor General of Canada Chile Contraloría General de la República de Chile China National Audit Office of the People's Republic of China Auditor General of China Hong Kong Director of Audit of Hong Kong Colombia The Office of the Comptroller General of the Republic of Colombia (Spanish: Contraloría General de la República de Colombia) is an independent government institution that acts as the highest form of fiscal control in the country. As such, it has a mission to seek the proper allocation of resources and public funds Comptroller General of Colombia (Contralor General de la República, currently Dr. Julio César Turbay Quintero) http://www.contraloriagen.gov.co Costa Rica Contraloría General de la República de Costa Rica Cuba Ministry of Auditing and Control of the Republic of Cuba Ecuador Contraloría General de la República del Ecuador Egypt Central Auditing Organization of Egypt France Cour des Comptes "First President of the Cour des Comptes" FR fr:Premier président de la Cour des comptes (could be translated as "Chief Baron" of the French Court of Audit, by analogy with the judges of the English Court of Exchequer) Germany Bundesrechnungshof Greece Chamber of Accounts (Greece) Guatemala Contraloría General de Cuentas de la República de Guatemala Honduras Contraloría General de la República de Honduras Hungary Hungarian State Audit Office India Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of India The Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India is an authority, established by the Constitution of India, who audits all receipts and expenditure of the Government of India and the state governments, including those of bodies and authorities substantially financed by the government. The CAG is also the external auditor of government-owned companies. The reports of the CAG are taken into consideration by the Public Accounts Committees, which are special committees in the Parliament of India and the state legislatures (Vidhan Sabha and Vidhan Parishad). The CAG of India is also the head of the Indian Audits and Accounts Service, which has over 58,000 employees across the country. Indonesia Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia, "Badan Pemeriksa Keuangan" (Cf. Constitution of Indonesia) Chairman of the Audit Board of the Republic of Indonesia (currently Hadi Poernomo) http://www.bpk.go.id Ireland Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General (Irish: Ard-Reachtaire Cuntas agus Ciste) The Comptroller and Auditor General is a constitutional officer whose office was established under Article 33 of the Constitution of Ireland. The CAG is appointed by the President on the nomination of Dáil Éireann. Based in Dublin Castle, the CAG operates independently of government. The office of the CAG is required to audit all accounts of moneys and all spending authorized by the legislature. The current CAG is John Buckley. The office of the CAG deals directly with citizens along with State officials. Israël State Comptroller's Office of Israel State Comptroller's Office Italy Corte dei conti Japan Board of Audit of Japan Kenya Office of the Comptroller and Auditor General of Kenya Comptroller and Auditor General of Kenya Korea Board of Audit and Inspection of Korea Mexico Contraloría General de la República de Mexico Nicaragua Contraloría General de la República de Nicaragua Norway Office of the Auditor General of Norway Pakistan Auditor General of Pakistan Panamá Contraloría General de la República de Panamá Paraguay Contraloría General de la República del Paraguay Perú Contraloría General de la República del Perú Philippines Philippine Commission on Audit República Dominicana Contraloría General de la República de República Dominicana Scotland Auditor General for Scotland Singapore In Singapore, the body managing tax records is referred to as The Comptroller of Income Tax. Slovenia Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia President of the Court of Audit of the Republic of Slovenia South Africa Auditor-General (South Africa) Spain Tribunal de Cuentas The President of the Court of Accounts - currently Manuel Núñez Pérez Sri Lanka Auditor General of Sri Lanka Taiwan Control Yuan of the Republic of China The United States The GAO Comptroller General of the United States; Cf. Generally Accepted Government Auditing Standards or GAGAS or Yellow Book UK The National Audit Office Comptroller and Auditor General Uruguay Contraloría General de la República del Uruguay Venezuela Contraloría General de la República de Venezuela
- Government performance auditing
- CGAP: Institute of Internal Auditors#Other certificates offered by the IIA
- Negative assurance and Positive assurance
- ^ a b Hussey, Roger; Ong, Audra Wei Ming (2006), International Financial Reporting Standards Desk Reference, Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, p. 289, ISBN 9780471727156, OCLC 57573800, http://books.google.com/?id=RZmspx3g9qgC&printsec=frontcover#PPA289,M1
- ^ a b Franda, Marcus F. (2006), The United Nations in the Twenty-first Century: Management and Reform Processes in a Troubled Organization, Lanham, Maryland: Rowman & Littlefield, p. 219, ISBN 9780742553347, OCLC 62895793, http://books.google.com/?id=OA6b7qv5BMoC&printsec=frontcover#PPA219,M1
- ^ http://www.un.org/auditors/board/mandate.shtml#cm
- ^ Shah, Anwar (2007), Performance Accountability and Combating Corruption, Washington, D. C.: World Bank, p. 309, ISBN 978082136941, OCLC 77116846, http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INTWBIGOVANTCOR/Resources/DisruptingCorruption.pdf
- ^ http://eca.europa.eu/portal/page/portal/audit
- ^ http://www.un.org/auditors/board/modusop.shtml#soa
- ^ The INTOSAI Financial Audit Guidelines will be based on the International Standards on Auditing (ISA) issued by the IAASB http://www.afrosai-e.org.za/HOME/Menu/TechnicalAdvancement/INTOSAIauditingstandards/tabid/82/Default.aspx
- ^ Official membership list http://www.intosai.org/en/portal/about_us/organisation/membership_list/
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