- Byzantine–Arab Wars
Infobox Military Conflict
Greek fire, first used by the Byzantine Navyduring the Byzantine-Arab Wars.
place=Palestine, Syria, Egypt, North Africa, Anatolia, Crete, Sicily, Southern Italy
result= Overall Arab gains, despite Byzantine resurgence
Palestine, Egyptand North Africaannexed by Arabs.
Byzantine Empire,The Empire's levies included Christian Armenians, Arab Ghassanids, Mardaites, Slavs, and Rus'] Ghassanids, ["Ghassan." Encyclopædia Britannica. 2006. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. 18 Oct. 2006 [http://www.britannica.com/eb/article-9036664] ] Bulgars, Italian city-states, Crusader states
Rashidun Caliphate, Umayyad Caliphate, Abbasid Caliphate, Aghlabids, Emirate of Bari, Emirate of Crete, Hamdanids of Aleppo, Fatimid Caliphate
Heraclius, Sergius, Theodore TrithyriusKIA, Gregory the PatricianKIA, Constans II, Constantine IV, Justinian II, Constantine V, Leo V the Armenian, Theophilos, Niketas Ooryphas, John Kourkouas, Himerios, Nikephoros II Phokas, John I Tzimiskes, Basil II, Nikephoros Ouranos, George Maniakes, Andronikos Kontostephanos
Zayd ibn HarithahKIA, Abu Bakr, Khalid ibn al-Walid, Abu Ubaidah ibn al-Jarrah, 'Amr ibn al-'As, Shurahbil ibn Hassana, Yazid ibn Abu Sufyan, 'Iyāḍ ibn Ghanm, Al-Zubayr, Abdullah ibn Saad, Yazid I, Muawiyah I, Maslama, Mu'awiyah ibn Hisham, Sulayman, Harun al-Rashid, Al-Ma'mun, Al-Mu'tasim, Leo of Tripoli, Sayf al-Daula
casualties2=The Byzantine–Arab Wars were a series of wars between Arab Caliphates and the
Byzantine Empirebetween the 7th and 12th centuries AD. These started during the initial Muslim conquestsunder the Rashidunand Umayyad caliphs and continued in the form of an enduring border tussle until the beginning of the Crusades. As a result, the Byzantines, also called the Romans (" Rûm" in Muslimhistorical chronicles; the Byzantine Empire was formerly the Eastern half of the Roman Empire), saw an extensive loss of territory.
The initial conflict lasted from 634 to 717, ending with the Second Arab Siege of Constantinople that halted the rapid expansion of the Arab Empire into
Asia Minor. Conflicts however continued between the 800s and 1169. The occupation of southern Italian territories by the Abbassidforces in the 9th and 10th centuries were not as successful as in Sicily. However, under the Macedonian dynasty, the Byzantines recaptured territory in the Levantwith the Byzantines armies' advance even threatening Jerusalemto the south. The Emirateof Aleppoand its neighbours became vassals of the Byzantines in the east, where the greatest threat was the Egyptian Fatimidkingdom, until the rise of the Seljuk dynastyreversed all gains and pushed Abbassidterritorial gains deep into Anatolia. This resulted in the Byzantine emperorAlexius I Comnenus' request for military aid from Pope Urban IIat the Council of Piacenza; one of the events often attributed as precursors to the First Crusade.
The prolonged and escalating Byzantine–Sassanid wars of the sixth and seventh centuries left both empires exhausted and vulnerable in the face of the sudden emergence and expansion of the Arabs. The last of these wars was victorious for the Byzantines: Emperor
Heracliusregained all occupied territories, and restored the True Crossto Jerusalemin 629. [Theophanes, "Chronicle", 317–327* Greatrex–Lieu (2002), II, 217–227; Haldon (1997), 46; Baynes (1912), "passim"; Speck (1984), 178] Nevertheless, neither empire was given any chance to recover, as within a few years they were struck by the onslaught of the Arabs(newly united by Islam), which, according to Howard-Johnston, "can only be likened to a human tsunami". [Foss (1975), 746–47; Howard-Johnston (2006), xv] According to George Liska, the "unnecessarily prolonged Byzantine–Persian conflict opened the way for Islam". [Liska (1998), 170]
In late 620s Prophet
Muhammadhad already managed to unify much of Arabia under Muslim rule, and it was under his leadership that the first Muslim-Byzantine skirmishes took place. Just a few months after Heraclius and the Persian general Shahrbarazagreed on terms for the withdrawal of Persian troops from occupied Byzantine eastern provinces in 629, Arab and Byzantine troops confronted each other at Mu'tah. [Kaegi (1995), 66] Muhammaddied in 632 and was succeeded by Abu Bakr, the first Caliph and the undisputed leader of the entire Arab peninsula after the successful Ridda Wars, which resulted in the consolidation of a powerful Muslim state throughout the peninsula. [Nicolle (1994), 14]
According to Muslim biographies, in 630 Muhammed led a force of as many as 30,000 north to
Taboukin present-day northwestern Saudi Arabia, with the intention of engaging the Byzantine army. Though not a battle in the typical sense, if historical the event would represent the first Arab expedition against the Byzantines, which however did not lead to a military confrontation. ["Muhammad", "Late Antiquity"; Butler (2007), 145] There is no contemporary Byzantine account of the events, and much of the details come from later Muslim sources. Contemporary Byzantine sources do however mention the Battle of Mu´tah fought in 629. [Kaegi (1995), 67] The engagements started as conflicts with the Arab client states of the Byzantine and Sassanid empires: the Ghassanidsand the Lakhmidsof Al-Hirah. These conflicts soon turned into a full blown concurrent war with both empires resulting in the conquest of the Levantand Persiaunder the two Rashidun generals, Khalid ibn al-Walidand 'Amr ibn al-'As.
Arab conquest of Roman Syria: 634–638
In the Levant, the
Rashidun armywere engaged by a Byzantine armycomposed of imperial troops as well as local levies. Monophysitesand Jewsthroughout Syria welcomed the Arab conquerors, as they were discontented with Byzantine rule.cref|a The Arabian tribes also had significant economic, cultural and familial ties with predominantly Arab citizens of the Fertile Crescent.The Roman Emperor Heracliushad fallen ill and was unable to lead his armies to resist the Arab conquests of Syria and Palestine in 634. In a battle fought near Ajnadaynin the summer of 634, the Rashidun Caliphate armyachieved a decisive victory. [Nicolle (1994), 47–49] After their victory at Fahl, Muslim forces conquered Damascus in 634 under the command of Khalid ibn Walid.Kaegi (1995), 112] Byzantine response involved the collection and dispatch of the maximum number of available troops under major commanders, including Theodore Trithyriusand the Armenian general Vahan, to eject the Mulsims from their newly won territories. At the Battle of Yarmoukin 636, however, the Muslims, having studied the ground in detail, would lure the Byzantines into a series of costly assaults, before turning the deep valleys and cliffs into a catastrophic trap. [Nicolle (1994), 45] Heraclius farewell exclamation, while departing Antiochfor Constantinople, is expressive of his disappointment: "Peace unto thee, O Syria, and what an excellent country this is for the enemy!"cref|b The impact of Syria's loss on the Byzantines is illustrated by Joannes Zonaras' words: " [...] since then [after the fall of Syria] the race of the Ishmaelites did not cease from invading and plundering the entire territory of the Romans". [Zonaras, "Annales", CXXXIV, 1288 * Sahas (1972), 20]
Sometime in 637, the Arabs captured and occupied Jerusalem, which was surrendered by Patriarch
Sophronius.cref|c In the summer of 637, the Muslims captured Gaza, and, during the same period, the Byzantine authorities in Egypt purchased an expensive truce, which lasted three years. In 638, the Muslims occupied northern Syria, except for upper Mesopotamia, which they granted a one-year truce. At the expiration of this truce in 639–640, the Arabs overran Byzantine Mesopotamia, and terminated the conquest of Palestine by storming Caesarea Maritimaand effecting their final capture of Ascalon. In December 639, the Muslims departed from Palestine to invade Egypt in early 640. [Kaegi (1995), 67]
Arab conquests of North Africa: 639–717
Conquest of Egypt and Cyrenaica
Antiochtemporarily remained under Byzantine control, but by the time Heraclius died, much of the Egypt had been lost, and by 647–648 the whole of Syria was in Muslim hands.cref|d With 3,500–4,000 troops under his command, 'Amr ibn al-A'as first crossed into Egypt from Palestine at the end of 639 or the beginning of 640. He was progressively joined by further reinforcements, notably 12,000 soldiers by Al-Zubayr. 'Amr first besieged and conquered Babylon, and then attacked Alexandria. The Byzantines, divided and shocked by the sudden loss of so much territory, agreed to give up the city by September 642. [Kennedy (1998), 62] The fall of Alexandria extinguished Byzantine rule in Egypt, and allowed the Muslims to continue their military activities in North Arica; between 643–644 'Amr completed the conquest of Cyrenaica. [Butler (2007), 427–428] During the same period, the Arabs took Cyprus, and Uthmansucceeded Caliph Umarafter his death.Davies (1996), 245, 252]
The Byzantine navy briefly won back
Alexandriain 645, but recapitulated it in 646 shortly after the Battle of Nikiou. [Butler (2007), 465–483] The local Christian Coptswelcomed the Arabs just as the Monophysites did in Jerusalem.Read (2003), 97] The loss of this lucrative province deprived the Byzantines of their valuable wheat supply, thereby causing bread shortages throughout the Byzantine Empire and in its soldiers' rations in the following decades. [Haldon (1999), 167; Tathakopoulos (2004), 318]
Conquest of the remaining Byzantine territories in North Africa
In 647, an Arab army led by
Abdallah ibn al-Sa’admoved into the Byzantine Exarchate of Africa. Tripolitaniawas taken, followed by Sufetula, convert|150|mi|km south of Carthage, and the governor and self-proclaimed Emperor of Africa Gregory was killed. Abdallah's booty-laden force returned to Egypt in 648 after Gregory's successor, Gennadius, promised them an annual tribute of some 300,000 " nomismata". [Treadgold (1997), 312]
Following a civil war in the Arab Empire the Umayyads came to power under
Muawiyah I. Under the Umayyads the conquest of the remaining Byzantine territories in North Africa was completed and the Arabs were able to move across large parts of Maghreb, entering into Visigothic Spain through the Strait of Gibraltarunder the command of the Berber general Tariq ibn-Ziyad. But this happened only after they developed a naval power of their own,cref|e and they conquered and dismantled the Byzantine stronghold of Carthage between 695–698. [Fage–Tordoff, 153–154] The loss of Africa meant that soon, Byzantine control of the Western Mediterranean was challenged by a new Arab fleet operating from Tunisia. [Norwich (1990), 334]
Muawiyah began consolidating the Arab territory from the
Aral Seato the western border of Egypt. He put a governor in place in Egypt at al-Fustat, and launched raids into Sicilyin 652 and Anatoliain 663. Then from 665 to 689 a new North African campaign was carried out to protect Egypt "from flank attack by Byzantine Cyrene". An Arab army of 40,000 took Barca, defeating 30,000 Byzantine. Will Durant, "The History of Civilization: Part IV—The Age of Faith". 1950. New York: Simon and Schuster. ISBN 0671012002]
A vanguard of 10,000 Arabs under
Uqba ibn Nafifollowed from Damascus. In 670, Kairouanin modern Tunisiawas established as a base for further operations; Kairouan would become the capital of the Islamic province of Ifriqiya, and one of the main Arabo-Islamic cultural centers in the Middle Ages. [ [http://www.ucalgary.ca/applied_history/tutor/islam/caliphate/umTerritory.html/ The Islamic World to 1600: Umayyad Territorial Expansion] .] Then ibn Nafi "plunged into the heart of the country, traversed the wilderness in which his successors erected the splendid capitals of Fes and Morocco, and at length penetrated to the verge of the Atlanticand the great desert. [cite book |last=Clark |first=Desmond J. |authorlink= |coauthors=Roland Anthony Oliver, J. D. Fage, A. D. Roberts |editor= |others= |title=The Cambridge History of Africa |origdate= |origyear=1975 |origmonth= |url= |format= |accessdate= |accessyear= |accessmonth= |edition= |series= |date= |year= |month= |publisher=Cambridge University Press |location= |language= |isbn=0-5212-1592-7 |oclc= |doi= |id= |pages=Page 637 |chapter= |chapterurl= |quote=] In his conquest of the Maghreb, he took the coastal cities of Bugiaand Tingi, overwhelming what had once been the Roman province of Mauretania Tingitanawhere here he was finally halted.Edward Gibbon, "History of the Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire", [http://etext.library.adelaide.edu.au/g/gibbon/edward/g43d/chapter51.html Chapter 51.] ] As the historian Luis Garcia de Valdeavellano explains:
cquote|In their struggle against the Byzantines and the Berbers, the Arab chieftains had greatly extended their African dominions, and as early as the year 682 Uqba had reached the shores of the Atlantic, but he was unable to occupy Tangier, for he was forced to turn back toward the
Atlas Mountainsby a man who became known to history and legend as Count Julian.Luis Garcia de Valdeavellano, "Historia de España". 1968. Madrid: Alianza.
*Quotes translated from the Spanish by Helen R. Lane in "Count Julian" by
Juan Goytisolo. 1974. New York: The Viking Press, Inc. ISBN 0-670-24407-4 [http://www.amazon.co.uk/dp/0670244074] ]
Moreover, as Gibbon writes, "this Mahometan Alexander, who sighed for new worlds, was unable to preserve his recent conquests. By the universal defection of the Greeks and Africans he was recalled from the shores of the Atlantic." His forces were directed at putting down rebellions, and in one such battle he was surrounded by insurgents and killed. Then, the third governor of Africa, Zuheir, was overthrown by a powerful army, sent from Constantinople by
Constantine IVfor the relief of Carthage. Meanwhile, a second Arab civil war was raging in Arabiaand Syria resulting in a series of four caliphs between the death of Muawiyah in 680 and the ascension of Abd al-Malikin 685, and was ongoing until 692 with the death of the rebel leader. [Karen Armstrong: "Islam: A Short History". New York, NY, USA: The Modern Library, 2002, 2004 ISBN 0-8129-6618-X]
The Saracen Wars of
Justinian II, last Emperor of the Heraclian Dynasty, "reflected the general chaos of the age". After a successful campaign he made a truce with the Arabs, agreeing on joint possession of Armenia, Iberia and Cyprus; however, by removing 12,000 Christian Mardaitesfrom their native Lebanon, he removed a major obstacle for the Arabs in Syria, and in 692, after the disastrous Battle of Sebastopolis, the Muslims conquered all Armenia. 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica[http://7.1911encyclopedia.org/Justinian_II_Rhinotmetus] ] Deposed in 695, with Carthagelost in 698, Justinian returned to power from 705-711.Davies (1996), 245] His second reign was marked by Arab victories in Asia Minor and civil unrest. Reportedy, he ordered his guards to execute the only unit that had not deserted him after one battle, to prevent their desertion in the next.
Arab sieges of Constantinople
In 674 the Umayyad Caliph Muawiyah I besieged
Constantinopleunder Constantine IV. In this battle, the Umayyads were unable to breach the Theodosian Wallsand blockaded the city along the River Bosporus. The approach of winter however forced the besiegers to withdraw to an island convert|80|mi|km away." [http://www.ospreypublishing.com/title_detail.php/title=S759X~ser=FOR The Walls of Constantinople, AD 324–1453] ", Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1-84176-759-X.]
However, prior to the siege a Assyrian Christian
refugeenamed Kallinikos (Callinicus) of Heliopolis had recently invented for the Byzantine Empire a devastating new weapon that came to be known as " Greek fire". At the Battle of Syllaeumin 677, the Byzantine navyused the weapon to decisively defeat the Umayyad navy in the Sea of Marmaraand lift the siege in 678. Among those killed in the siege was Eyup, the standard bearer of Muhammed and the last of his companions; to Muslims today, his tomb is considered one of the holiest sites in Istanbul. The Byzantine victory halted the Umayyad expansion into Europefor almost thirty years.
The initial conflict came to a close during the reigns of the Byzantine Emperor
Leo III the Isaurianand the Umayyad Caliph Umar ibn Abd al-Aziz, after the Second Arab siege of Constantinoplein (717-718), where the Arab ground forces, led by Maslama, were defeated by Constantinople's walls and the timely arrival of allied Bulgar forces even as the Umayyad naval fleet was defeated by Greek fire:
long quotation|"Maslama had drawn up the Muslims in a line (I had never seen one longer) with the many squadrons. Leo, the
autocratof Rûm, sat on the tower of the gate of Constantinople with its towers. He drew up the foot soldiers in a long line between the wall and the sea opposite the Muslim shore. We showed arms in a thousand ships, light ships, big ships in which there were stores of Egyptian clothing, etc, and galleys with the fighting men… 'Umar and some of those from the ships were afraid to advance against the harbour mouth, fearing for their lives. When the Rum saw this, galleys and light ships came out of the harbour mouth against use and one of them went to the nearest Muslim ship, threw on it grapnels with chains and towed it with its crew into Constantinople. We lost heart." Ibn Asakir, "History of Damascus" [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0041-977X%281959%2922%3A1%2F3%3C350%3ANAC%3E2.0.CO%3B2-P&size=LARGE] ]
The primary conflict ended with the siege of Constantinople in 718, and although later conflicts continued into the 11th century, the conquests of the Arabs began to retard. Arab attempts at taking
Anatoliafailed until the arrival of the Seljuks.
Among the effects of the Byzantine-Arab Wars was the religious and civil unrest it stirred in the heart of
Byzantium. The "Iconomachia", or "Wars of the Icons", began when a 726 edict of Leo the Isaurian decreed the crucifixbe replaced by a plain Cross, sparking off the controversy of Iconoclasm. Writings suggest that at least part of the reason for the removal may have been military reversals against the Muslimsand the eruption of the volcanic island of Thera, [http://www.decadevolcano.net/santorini/santorini_volcanism.htm Volcanism on Santorini / eruptive history] ] which Leo possibly viewed as evidence of the wrath of God brought on by Iconoduly in the Church.Theophanes, "Chronicle"] According to accounts by Patriarch Nikephoros and the chronicler Theophanes] While fighting the Arabs, Leo had noticed the puritanical values of the Arabs that forbade representational religious art as idolatry, and he believed the Byzantine Empire would receive successes by following their example. Thomas Woods, "How the Catholic Church Built Western Civilization", (Washington, DC: Regenery, 2005), ISBN 0-89526-038-7] "He saw no need to consult the church, and he appears to have been surprised by the depth of the popular opposition he encountered".Warren Treadgold, "A History of the Byzantine State and Society", Stanford University Press, 1997, ISBN 0804726302] In 732, Leo launched a fleet to arrest Pope Gregory IIIfor defying the edict and recover Ravenna."Europe: A History", p273. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0] The ships sank en route in the Adriatic Sea, but the strife was far from over. The controversy weakened the Byzantine Empire, and was a key factor in the schism between the Patriarch of Constantinopleand the Bishop of Rome."Europe: A History", p246. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0]
Meanwhile between 750 and 770, Constantine launched a series of campaigns against the Arabs and Bulgars in an attempt to reverse so many losses. [Haldon, John. Byzantium at War 600 - 1453. New York: Osprey, 2000. ]
Civil war occurred in the Byzantine Empire, often with Arab support. With the support of Caliph
Al-Ma'mun, Arabs under the leadership of Thomas the Slavinvaded, so that within a matter of months, only two "themata" in Asia Minor remained loyal to Emperor Michael II.cite book |author=John Julius Norwich|title=A Short History of Byzantium |publisher=Penguin |year=1998 |id=ISBN 0-14-025960-0] When Thomas captured Thessalonica, the Empire's second largest city, it was quickly re-captured by the Byzantines. Thomas's 821 siege of Constantinople did not get past the city walls, and he was forced to retreat.
Asia Minor, Crete and Sicily
The Arabs did not relinquish their designs on Asia Minor and in 838 began another invasion, sacking the city of
Amorion. [Haldon, John. Byzantium at War 600 - 1453. New York: Osprey, 2000.] With internal Byzantine unity weakened, along with their ties to the West, Crete fell to the Saracensin 824, and Sicily was slowly lost over a 75-year period. Using Tunisiaas their launching pad, the Arabs started by conquering Palermo in 831, Messinain 842, Ennain 859.
However, religious peace came with the emergence of the
Macedonian dynastyin 867, as well as a strong and unified Byzantine leadership; "Europe: A History". Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0] while the Abassidsempire had splintered into many factions. Basil Irevived the Byzantine Empire into a regional power, during a period of territorial expansion, making the Empire the strongest power in Europe, with an ecclesiastical policy marked by good relations with Rome. Basil allied with the Holy Roman EmperorLouis II against the Arabs, and his fleet cleared the Adriatic Seafrom their raids. With Byzantine help, Louis II captured Barifrom the Arabs in 871. The city became Byzantine territory in 876. However, the Byzantine position on Sicilydeteriorated, and Syracuse fell to the Emirate of Sicilyin 878. Catania would be lost in 900, and finally the fortress of Taorminain 902. Sicily would remain under Arab control until the Norman invasion in 1071.
Although most of Sicily was lost, the general Nicephorus Phocas the Elder succeeded in taking
Tarantoand much of Calabriain 880. Crete was retaken by the Byantines in 960, and would be held until 1204, when it fell to the Veniceduring the Fourth Crusade. The successes in the Italian Peninsulaopened a new period of Byzantine domination there. Above all, the Byzantines were beginning to establish a strong presence in the Mediterranean Sea, and especially the Adriatic.
After putting an end to the internal strife,
Basil IIlaunched a campaign against the Arabs in 995. The Byzantine civil wars had weakened the Empire's position in the east, and the gains of Nikephoros II Phokasand John I Tzimiskescame close to being lost, with Aleppobesieged and Antioch under threat. Basil won several battles in Syria, relieving Aleppo, taking over the Orontesvalley, and raiding further south. Although he did not have the force to drive into Palestine and reclaim Jerusalem, his victories did restore much of Syriato the empirendash including the larger city which was the seat of the Patriarch of Antioch.Piers Paul Read, "The Templars"] No emperor since Heracliushad been able to hold these lands for any length of time, and the Empire would retain them for the next 75 years. Piers Paul Readwrites that by 1025, Byzantine land "stretched from the Straits of Messinaand the northern Adriatic in the west to the River Danubeand Crimeain the north, and to the cities of Melitine and Edessa beyond the Euphratesin the east."
Under Basil II, the Byzantines established a swath of new "themata", stretching northeast from Aleppo (a Byzantine protectorate) to Manzikert. Under the Theme system of military and administrative government, the Byzantines could raise a force at least 200,000 strong, though in practice these were strategically placed throughout the Empire. With Basil's rule, the Byzantine Empire reached its greatest height in nearly five centuries, and indeed for the next four centuries.See map depicting Byzantine territories from the 11th century on; "Europe: A History", p 1237. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0]
The wars drew near to a closure when the Turks and various Mongol invaders replaced the threat of either power. From the 11th and 12th centuries onwards, the Byzantine conflicts shifted into the
Byzantine-Seljuk warswith the Seljuk Turks. After the defeat at the Battle of Manzikertby the Turks in 1071, the Byzantine Empire, with the help of Western Crusaders, re-established its position in the Middle Eastas a superpower. Meanwhile, the major Arab conflicts were in the Crusades, and later against Mongolian invasions, especially that of the Golden Hordeand Timur.During the Second Crusade, Baldwin III seized Ascalon in 1153, and the Kingdom of Jerusalemwas able to advance into Egypt and briefly occupy Cairoin the 1160s. The Emperor Manuel married Maria of Antioch, cousin of the Crusader King Amalric I of Jerusalem, while Amalric married Manuel's grand-niece Maria Komnene. In 1168 a formal alliance was negotiated by future Archbishop William of Tyre, and in 1169 Manuel launched a joint expedition with Amalric to Egypt. Manuel's ambitious campaign was a dramatic demonstration of how powerful the Empire had become, involving a fleet of over 200 ships equipped with siege weapons and Greek fire; William of Tyre was particularly impressed by the large transport ships used to transport the cavalry forces of the Komnenian army. William of Tyre, "A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea"] Manuel's wider strategy was to use the Latin Crusaders as a shield for the Empire, and his intervention in Egypt was because he believed control of Egypt would be the deciding factor of the Second Crusade.cite book |author= Michael Angold|title=The Byzantine Empire, 1025-1204 |publisher=Longman |year=1997 |id=ISBN 0-582-29468-1] A successful conquest would have consolidated Crusader control in the Holy Land, and restored the grain supply of the rich province to the Empire.
Furthermore, it would bind the Crusaders more closely to the Empire, a goal which Manuel would pursue with determination throughout his reign and which would be evident when King Amalric subsequently placed his whole kingdom under the protection of Manuel, effectively extending the agreement on Antioch by making the entire Kingdom of Jerusalem at least nominally part of the Empire. However, this was a personal arrangement, in the
feudaltradition of Western Europe, and as such only applied for as long as Manuel and Amalric were the rulers of their respective states.
The invasion could even have expected support from the native
Coptic Christians, who had lived under Islamic rule for over five hundred years. However, the failure of co-operation between the Crusaders and the Byzantines jeopardised the chances to take the province. The Byzantine fleet sailed only with provisions for three months: by the time the crusaders were ready, supplies were already running out, and eventually the fleet retired after an ineffectual attempt to capture Damietta. Each side sought to blame the other for failure, but both also knew that they depended on each other: the alliance was maintained, and further plans were made, which ultimately were to come to naught.
Kilij Arslan IIused this time to eliminate his rivals and build up his power in Asia Minor. The balance of power in the eastern Mediterranean was changing, and the effects of Manuel's failure in Egypt would still be felt long after his death. The rise of Saladinwas only made possible when, in 1171, he was proclaimed Sultan of Egypt; his uniting of Egypt and Syria would ultimately lead to the Third Crusade. Meanwhile, the Byzantine alliance ended with the death of Manuel I in 1180; Manuel would be the last Emperor truly sympathetic to the Crusades." [http://www.ospreypublishing.com/title_detail.php/title=S8278 Crusader Castles in the Holy Land 1192–1302] ", Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1841768278.]
As with any war of such length, the drawn-out Byzantine-Arab Wars had long lasting effects for both the Byzantine Empire and the Arab states. The Byzantines experienced extensive territorial loss, while the Arabs gained strong control in the Middle East and Africa. The focus of the Byzantine Empire shifted from the western reconquests of Justinian to a primarily defensive position on its eastern borders. Without Byzantine interference in the emerging Christian states of medieval Europe, the situation gave a huge stimulus to
feudalismand economic self-sufficiency."Europe: A History", p 257. Oxford: Oxford University Press 1996. ISBN 0-19-820171-0]
Moreover, the view of modern historians is that one of the most important effects was the strain it put on the relationship between Rome and Byzantium. While fighting for survival against the Arabs, it was no longer able to provide the protection it had once offered to the Papacy; worse still, according to
Thomas Woods, the Emperors "routinely intervened in the life of the Church in areas lying clearly beyond the state's competence". The Iconoclast controversy of the 8th and 9th centuries can be taken as a key factor "which drove the Latin Church into the arms of the Franks." Thus it has been argued that Charlemagnewas an indirect product of Muhammad::"The Frankish Empirewould probably never have existed without Islam, and Charlemagne without Mahomet would be inconceivable."Pirenne, Henri
*"Mediaeval Cities: Their Origins and the Rivival of Trade" (Princeton, NJ, 1925). ISBN 0691007608
*See also "Mohammed and Charlemagne" (London 1939) Dover Publications (2001). ISBN 0-486-42011-6.]
Holy Roman Empireof Charlemagne's successors would later come to the aid of the Byzantines under Louis II and during the Crusades, but relations between the two empires would be strained; based on the "Salerno Chronicle", we know the Emperor Basil had sent an angry letter to his western counterpart, reprimanding him for usurping the title of emperor. [Dolger F., "Regesten der Kaiserurkunden des ostromischen Reiches". I, p 59, №487. Berlin, 1924.] He argued that the Frankish rulers were simple " reges", and that each nation has its own title for the ruler, whereas the imperial title suited only the ruler of the Eastern Romans, Basil himself.
Historiography and other sources
According to Walter Emil Kaegi Arabic sources are characterized by obscurities and contradictions. Some non-Arabic sources are also problematic, such as the chronicles of Theophanes and Nicephorus, and those written in Syriac, which tend to be short and provide terse information. Some of the sources Armenian historian
Sebeosused appear to be Syriac. Among the few Latin sources of interest are the seventh-century history of Fredegarius, and two eight-century Spanish chronicles, all of which draw on some Byzantine and oriental historical traditions. [Kaegi (1995), 2] As far as Byzantine military action against the initial Muslim invasions, Kaegi asserts that "Byzantine traditions ... attempt to deflect criticism of the Byzantine debacle from Heraclius to other persons, groups, and things". [Kaegi (1995), 4–5]
The range of non-historical Byzantine sources is vast: they range from papyri to sermons (most notable those of
Sophroniusand Anastasius Sinaita), poetry (especially that of Sophronius and George of Pisidia), correspondence often of a patristic provenance, apologetical treatises, apocalypses, hagiography, military mannuals (in particular the "Strategikon" of Maurice from the beginning of the seventh century), and other non-literary sources, such as epigraphy, archeology, and numismatics. None of these sources contains a coherent account of any of the campaigns of the Muslim conquests, but some do contain invaluable details that survive nowhere else. [Kaegi (1995), 5–6]
Aegyptus (Roman province)
Battle of Tours
Spread of Islam
Ahmad ibn Yahya al-Baladhuri. " Futuh al-Buldan". See a translated excerpt ("The Battle of Yarmouk and after") in [http://www.fordham.edu/halsall/source/yarmuk.html Medieval Sources] .
*cite book |title=Chronique de Michel le Syrien Patriarche Jacobite d'Antioche (translated by J.–B. Chabot)|author=Michael the Syrian|authorlink=Michael the Syrian|year=1899|location=Paris|language=French [volumes I, II, III] , in Syriac [Volume IV]
Theophanes the Confessor. "Chronicle". See original text in [http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/03d/0700-0800,_Theophanes_Abbas_Confessor,_Chronographia_(CSHB_Classeni_Recensio),_GR.pdf Documenta Catholica Omnia] (PDF).
*Zonaras, Joannes, "Annales". See the original text in [http://www.documentacatholicaomnia.eu/04z/z_1050-1150__Ioannes_Zonaras__Annales_(Libri_01_15)_(MPG_0134_0039_1414)__GM.pdf.html Patrologia Graeca] .
*cite journal|last=Baynes|first=Norman H.|year=1912|title=The restoration of the Cross at Jerusalem |doi=10.1093/ehr/XXVII.CVI.287 |journal=The English Historical Review|volume=27|issue=106|issn=0013-8266|pages=287–299
*cite book |title=The Arab Conquest of Egyptndash And the Last Thirty Years of the Roman|last=Butler|first=Alfred J.|year=2007|publisher=Read Books|isbn=1-406-75238-X|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1nvvDMWN-iEC&dq=Heraclius,+battle+of+Tabuk&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |title=Europe|last=Davies|first=Norman|authorlink=Norman Davies|year=1996|publisher=Oxford University Press|isbn=0-198-20171-0|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=jrVW9W9eiYMC&dq=Cyprus,+643,+Arabs&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0|chapter=The Birth of Europe
*cite journal|last=Foss|first=Clive|year=1975|title=The Persians in Asia Minor and the End of Antiquity|journal=The English Historical Review|volume=90|pages=721–47
*cite book |title=The Roman Eastern Frontier and the Persian Wars (Part II, 363–630 AD) |last=Greatrex |first=Geoffrey |coauthors=Lieu, Samuel N. C. |year=2002 |publisher=Routledge |isbn=0-415-14687-9 |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=zoZIxpQ8A2IC&dq=Eternal+Peace,+Justinian,+Kavadh&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book|last=Haldon|first=John|title=Byzantium in the Seventh Century: the Transformation of a Culture|publisher=Cambridge|year=1997|isbn=0-521-31917-X|chapter=The East Roman World: the Politics of Survival|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pSHmT1G_5T0C&dq=Rhodes,+Arab,+655&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |last=Haldon |first=John F. |title=Warfare, State and Society in the Byzantine World, 565-1204 |year=1999|publisher=Routledge |isbn=1-8572-8494-1 |chapter=The Army at Wars: Campaigns |url=http://books.google.com/books?id=-R0G0Enf58AC&dq=Haldon,+Warfare,+Byzantine+Society&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |title=East Rome, Sasanian Persia And the End of Antiquity: Historiographical And Historical Studies|last=Howard-Johnston|first=James|authorlink=James Howard-Johnston|year=2006|publisher=Ashgate Publishing|isbn=0-860-78992-6|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=1U4rUaLdYnQC&dq=Howard-Johnston,+East+Rome,+Sasanian+Persia+and+the+End+of+Antiquity&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book|last=Kaegi|first=Walter Emil|year=1995 |title=Byzantium and the Early Islamic Conquests |publisher=Cambridge University Press |isbn=0-5214-8455-3|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=YSULouFrzx4C&dq=Kaegi,+Arab,+1995&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |title=The Cambridge Ancient History|last=Kennedy|first=Hugh|authorlink=Hugh N. Kennedy|year=1970|publisher=Cambridge University Press|editor=Edwards, Iorwerth Eiddon Stephen |chapter=Syria, Palestine, and Mesopotamia|isbn=0-521-32591-9|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=Qf8mrHjfZRoC&dq=muslim+conquest+of+Antioch&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |title=The Cambridge History of Egypt|last=Kennedy|first=Hugh|year=1998|publisher=Cambridge University Press|editor=Daly, M.W.; Petry, Calf. F.|chapter=Egypt as a Province in the Islamic Caliphate, 641–868|isbn=0-521-47137-0|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=2GD6og3c15IC&dq=muslim+conquest+of+Egypt&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |title=The Byzantine and Early Islamic Near East|last=Kennedy|first=Hugh|year=2006|publisher=Ashgate Publishing, Ltd.|chapter=Antioch: from Byzantium to Islam|isbn=0-754-65909-7|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=XdFqgSBTYeYC&dq=muslim+conquest+of+Antioch&as_brr=3&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book |title=Expanding Realism: The Historical Dimension of World Politics|last=Liska|first=George|year=1998|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=0-847-68680-9|url=http://books.google.gr/books?id=oaPlJgAACAAJ&dq=Liska,+Expanding+Realism&ei=HmB6SNCGMYKejgHz7azpBw&hl=en|chapter=Projection contra Prediction: Alternative Futures and Options
*cite encyclopedia |year=1999 |title=Muhammad |encyclopedia=Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World |publisher=Harvard University Press |editor=Warren Bowersock, Glen; Brown, Peter; Robert Lamont Brown, Peter; Grabar, Oleg |isbn=0-674-51173-5|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=c788wWR_bLwC&dq=Late+Antiquity:+A+Guide+to+the+Postclassical+World&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
*cite book|last=Nicolle|first=Davis|title=Yarmuk AD 636|year=1994|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=IR9rNAai2koC&dq=muslim+conquest+of+Syria&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0|isbn=1-855-32414-8|publisher=Osprey Publishing
*cite book|last=Read|first=Piers Paul|authorlink=Piers Paul Read|title=The Templars (translated in Greek by G. Kousounelou)|publisher=Enalios|year=2003—English edition 1999|id=ISBN 9-605-36143-4
*cite book|last=Runciman|first=Steven|authorlink=Steven Runciman|title=A History of the Crusades|year=1987|publisher=Cambridge University Press|isbn=0-521-34770-X
*cite book|last=Sahas|first=Daniel J.|title=John of Damascus on Islam|year=1972|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=pYSl_cyYHssC&dq=Baladhuri,+Heraclius,+Antioch&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0|isbn=9-004-03495-1|publisher=BRILL|chapter=Historical Considerations
*cite book|last=Speck|first=Paul|title=Varia 1 (Poikila Byzantina 4)|year=1984|publisher=Rudolf Halbelt|chapter=Ikonoklasmus und die Anfänge der Makedonischen Renaissance|pages=175–210
*cite book |last=Stathakopoulos |first=Dionysios |title=Famine and Pestilence in the Late Roman and Early Byzantine Empire |year=2004 |publisher=Ashgate Publishing |isbn=0-7546-3021-8
*cite book|last=Treadgold|first=Warren|title=A History of the Byzantine State and Society|publisher=Stanford University Press|year=1997|isbn=0-804-72630-2|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=nYbnr5XVbzUC&dq=Gregory,+Arab,+Exarchate,+Gennadius&source=gbs_summary_s&cad=0
* cite book
author=Kennedy, Hugh N.
title=The Armies of the Caliphs: military and society in the early Islamic state
* cite book
author=Kennedy, Hugh N.
title=The Byzantine And Early Islamic Near East
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