California Proposition 8

California Proposition 8
Proposition 8
Eliminates Rights of Same-Sex Couples to Marry. Initiative Constitutional Amendment
Election results
Yes or no Votes Percentage
Yes check.svg Yes 7,001,084 52.24%
X mark.svg No 6,401,482 47.76%
Valid votes 13,402,566 97.52%
Invalid or blank votes 340,611 2.48%
Total votes 13,743,177 100.00%
Voter turnout 79.42%
Electorate 17,304,428
Election results by county
Source: California Secretary of State[1]

Proposition 8 (ballot title: Eliminates Rights of Same-Sex Couples to Marry. Initiative Constitutional Amendment; called California Marriage Protection Act by proponents) was a ballot proposition and constitutional amendment passed in the November 2008 state elections. The measure added a new provision, Section 7.5 of the Declaration of Rights, to the California Constitution, which provides that "only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California."[2][3][4]

By restricting the recognition of marriage to opposite-sex couples, the proposition overturned the California Supreme Court's ruling of In re Marriage Cases that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry. The wording of Proposition 8 was precisely the same as that which had been found in Proposition 22, which had passed in 2000 and, as an ordinary statute, had been invalidated by the State Supreme Court in 2008. California's State Constitution put Proposition 8 into immediate effect the day after the election.[5] The proposition did not affect domestic partnerships in California,[6] nor same-sex marriages performed before November 5, 2008.[7][8][9]

Proponents of the constitutional amendment argued that exclusively heterosexual marriage was "an essential institution of society," that leaving the constitution unchanged would "result in public schools teaching our kids that gay marriage is okay," and that "gays ... do not have the right to redefine marriage for everyone else." Opponents argued that "the freedom to marry is fundamental to our society," that the California constitution "should guarantee the same freedom and rights to everyone" and that the proposition "mandates one set of rules for gay and lesbian couples and another set for everyone else." They also argued that "equality under the law is a fundamental constitutional guarantee" (see Equal Protection Clause).[10]

The campaigns for and against Proposition 8 raised $39.9 million and $43.3 million, respectively, becoming the highest-funded campaign on any state ballot and surpassing every campaign in the country in spending except the presidential contest. After the elections, demonstrations and protests occurred across the state and nation. Same-sex couples and government entities filed numerous lawsuits with the California Supreme Court challenging the proposition's validity and effect on previously administered same-sex marriages. In Strauss v. Horton, the California Supreme Court upheld Proposition 8, but allowed existing same-sex marriages to stand (under the grandfather clause principle). United States district court Judge Vaughn R. Walker overturned Proposition 8 on August 4, 2010 in the case Perry v. Schwarzenegger, ruling that it violated both the Due Process and Equal Protection clauses of the United States Constitution.[11] Judge Walker issued an injunction against enforcing Proposition 8 and a stay to determine suspension of his ruling pending appeal.[12][13] The Ninth Circuit Court of Appeals continued the stay, keeping Judge Walker's ruling on hold pending appeal.[14]


History of the ballot initiative

Proposition 8 was a California ballot proposition that sought to change the California Constitution to add a new section (7.5) to Article I, that would read: "Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California."[2][3][4] This change would restrict the definition of marriage to opposite-sex couples, and eliminate same-sex couples' right to marry, thereby overriding portions of the ruling of In re Marriage Cases by "carving out an exception to the preexisting scope of the privacy and due process clauses"[15] of the state constitution.

To qualify for the ballot, Proposition 8 needed 694,354 valid petition signatures, equal to 8% of the total votes cast for governor in the November 2006 General Election. The initiative proponents submitted 1,120,801 signatures, and on June 2, 2008, the initiative qualified for the November 4, 2008 election ballot through the random sample signature check.[16]

Pre-election legal challenges

Petition to remove proposition from ballot

On July 16, 2008, the California Supreme Court denied a petition calling for the removal of Proposition 8 from the November ballot. The petition asserted the proposition should not be on the ballot on the grounds it was a constitutional revision that only the Legislature or a constitutional convention could place before voters. Opponents also argued that the petitions circulated to qualify the measure for the ballot inaccurately summarized its effect. The court denied the petition without comment.[17] As a general rule, it is improper for courts to adjudicate pre-election challenges to a measure's substantive validity.[18] The question of whether Proposition 8 is a constitutional amendment or constitutional revision was ruled on by the California Supreme Court on May 26, 2009, and found that it was not a revision and therefore would be upheld. They also declared that the same-sex marriages performed prior to the passing of Prop 8 would remain valid.[19]

Challenge to title and summary

The measure was titled: "Eliminates Rights of Same-Sex Couples to Marry. Initiative Constitutional Amendment." The ballot summary read that the measure "changes the California Constitution to eliminate the right of same-sex couples to marry in California."[20][21]

Proponents of the measure objected to the wording of the ballot title and summary on the grounds that they were argumentative and prejudicial. The resulting legal petition Jansson v. Bowen[22] was dismissed August 7, 2008, by California Superior Court Judge Timothy M. Frawley, who ruled that "the title and summary includes an essentially verbatim recital of the text of the measure itself",[23] and that the change was valid because the measure did, in fact, eliminate a right upheld by the California Supreme Court.

California Attorney General Jerry Brown explained that the changes were required to more "accurately reflect the measure" in light of the California Supreme Court's intervening In re Marriage Cases decision.[24]

On July 22, 2008, Proposition 8 supporters mounted a legal challenge to the revised ballot title and summary, contending that Attorney General Brown inserted "language [...] so inflammatory that it will unduly prejudice voters against the measure".[25] Supporters claimed that research showed that an attorney general had never used an active verb like “eliminates” in the title of a ballot measure in the past fifty years in which ballot measures have been used.[25] Representatives of the Attorney General produced twelve examples of ballot measures using the word "eliminates" and vouched for the neutrality and accuracy of the ballot language.[26][27]

On August 8, 2008, the California Superior Court turned down the legal challenge, affirming the new title and summary, stating, "[t]he title and summary is not false or misleading because it states that Proposition 8 would 'eliminate the right of same-sex couples to marry' in California." The Superior Court based their decision on the previous Marriages Cases ruling in which the California Supreme Court held that same-sex couples have a constitutional right to marry under the California Constitution."[24][28] That same day, proponents of Prop. 8 filed an emergency appeal with the state appeals court. The Court of Appeal denied their petition later that day and supporters did not seek a review by the Supreme Court of California.[29][30] The deadline for court action on the wording of ballot summaries and arguments in the voter pamphlet was August 11, 2008.[31]

While turning down the challenge to the title and summary, the California Superior Court also found that the Yes on 8 campaign had overstated its ballot argument on the measure's impact on public schools and ordered a minor change in wording. The original arguments included a claim that the Supreme Court's legalization of same-sex marriage requires teachers to tell their students, as young as kindergarten age, that same-sex marriage is the same as opposite-sex marriage. The court said the Yes on 8 argument was false because instruction on marriage is not required and parents can withdraw their children. The court said the ballot argument could be preserved by rewording it to state that teachers "may" or "could" be required to tell children there is no difference between same-sex and opposite-sex marriage.[28]


Campaign funding and spending

By Election Day, volunteers on both sides spent thousands of hours getting their messages across to the state's 17.3 million registered voters.[32][33] The campaigns for and against Proposition 8 raised $39.9 million and $43.3 million, respectively.[34] Contributions totaled over $83 million from over 64,000 people in all fifty states and more than twenty foreign countries, setting a new record nationally for a social policy initiative and trumping every other race in the country in spending except the presidential contest.[35] Contributions were much greater than those of previous same-sex marriage initiatives. Between 2004 and 2006, 22 such measures were on ballots around the country, and donations to all of them combined totaled $31.4 million, according to the nonpartisan National Institute on Money in State Politics.[36] A spokeswoman estimated that 36 companies which had previously contributed to Equality California were targeted to receive a letter requesting similar donations to[37][38][39][40]

In 2010, the California Fair Political Practices Commission fined the LDS church for failing to follow campaign disclosure policies during the last two weeks leading up to the election, which amounted to $37,000 in non-monetary contributions. They were fined $5,538.[41]


Official "Yes on 8" campaign sign.[42]

The organization sponsored the initiative that placed Proposition 8 on the ballot[43] and continues to support the measure. The measure also attracted the support of a number of political figures and religious organizations.

Political figures

Republican presidential nominee and U.S. Senator John McCain released a statement of support for the proposed constitutional amendment.[44] Former Speaker of the House Newt Gingrich released a video in support. Both characterized the court ruling requiring recognition of same sex marriage as being against the will of the people.[45] Other notable supporters include Republican State Senator Tom McClintock and 20 other Republican State Senators and Assemblymembers.[46]

Religious organizations

The Roman Catholic Church,[47] as well as a Roman Catholic lay fraternal organization, the Knights of Columbus,[48] firmly supported the measure. The bishops of the California Catholic Conference released a statement supporting the proposition,[49] a position met with mixed reactions among church members, including clergy.[50][51]

Rally for Yes on Prop 8 in Fresno

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints,[52][53][54] whose members are commonly known as Mormons, also publicly supported the proposition. The First Presidency of the church announced its support for Proposition 8 in a letter intended to be read in every congregation in California. In this letter, church members were encouraged to "do all you can to support the proposed constitutional amendment by donating of your means and time."[52] Local church leaders set organizational and monetary goals for their membership—sometimes quite specific—to fulfill this call.[55][56] The response of church members to their leadership's appeals to donate money and volunteer time was very supportive,[57] such that Latter-day Saints provided a significant source for financial donations in support of the proposition, both inside and outside the State of California.[58] About 45% of out-of-state contributions to came from Utah, over three times more than any other state.[59] ProtectMarriage, the official proponents of Proposition 8, estimate that about half the donations they received came from Mormon sources, and that "eighty to ninety percent" of the early volunteers going door-to-door were LDS.[60] The The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints produced and broadcast to its congregations a program describing the support of the Proposition, and describing the timeline it proposes for what it describes as grassroots efforts to support the Proposition.[61]

Other religious organizations that supported Proposition 8 include the Union of Orthodox Jewish Congregations of America,[62] Eastern Orthodox Church,[63] a group of Evangelical Christians led by Jim Garlow and Miles McPherson,[64] American Family Association, Focus on the Family[65] and the National Organization for Marriage.[66] Rick Warren, pastor of Saddleback Church, also endorsed the measure.[67]


The Grossmont Union High School District in San Diego County, California, publicly voted on a resolution endorsing Proposition 8. The Governing Board voted 4–0 to endorse the amendment of the California State Constitution.[68]

The Asian Heritage Coalition held a rally in support of Proposition 8 in downtown San Diego on October 19, 2008.[69]

During the November 2008 election campaign, Porterville's City Council was the only City Council in California that passed a Resolution in favor of Proposition 8.[70]

"Whether You Like It or Not" advertisement

In the months leading up to Election Day, Proposition 8 supporters released a commercial featuring San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom stating in a speech regarding same-sex marriage: "This door's wide open now. It's going to happen, whether you like it or not."[71] Some observers noted that polls shifted in favor of Proposition 8 following the release of the commercial; this, in turn, led to much speculation about Newsom’s unwitting role in the passage of the amendment.[72][73][74]


Official "Vote NO on Prop 8" logo

Equality for All was the lead organization opposed to Proposition 8.[75] They also ran the campaign.[76] As with the measure's proponents, opponents of the measure also included a number of political figures and religious organizations. Some non-partisan organizations and corporations, as well as the editorial boards of many of the state's major newspapers, also opposed the measure.

Political figures

San Francisco Mayor Gavin Newsom speaks at an Anti-Proposition 8 Rally on Sproul steps at UC Berkeley

While Democratic presidential nominee and U.S. Senator, Barack Obama stated that while he personally considered marriage to be between a man and woman,[77] and supported civil unions that confer comparable rights rather than gay marriage,[78] he opposed "divisive and discriminatory efforts to amend the California Constitution... the U.S. Constitution or those of other states."[79] Democratic vice-presidential candidate Joseph Biden also opposed the proposition.[80] Republican California Governor Arnold Schwarzenegger stated that although he opposed and twice vetoed legislative bills that would recognize same-sex marriage in California, he respected and would uphold the court's ruling and oppose the initiative and other attempts to amend the state's constitution.[81][82] The U.S. House Speaker, California Representative (8th District), Nancy Pelosi[83] along with other members of the California congressional delegation and both of California's U.S. senators, Dianne Feinstein and Barbara Boxer, voiced their opposition to Proposition 8.[84] Also voicing their opposition were the Lieutenant Governor, State Controller John Chiang, former governor and Attorney General Jerry Brown, 42 of 80 members of the state assembly, half of the state senators, and the mayors of San Francisco, Los Angeles, and San Diego: Gavin Newsom, Antonio Villaraigosa, and Jerry Sanders, respectively.[85][86][87][88]

Religious organizations

All six Episcopal diocesan bishops in California jointly issued a statement opposing Proposition 8 on September 10, 2008.[89] Southern California's largest collection of rabbis, the Board of Rabbis of Southern California, voted to oppose Proposition 8.[90] Other Jewish groups who opposed Proposition 8 include Jewish Mosaic,[91] the American Jewish Committee, Progressive Jewish Alliance, National Council of Jewish Women, and the Anti-Defamation League.[62] Los Angeles Jews were more opposed to Prop 8 than any other religious group or ethnic group in the city. Jewish Angelenos voted 78% against the measure while only 8% supported the measure; the remainder declined to respond.[92] The legislative ministry of the Unitarian Universalists opposed Proposition 8, and organized phone banks toward defeating the measure.[93] They see opposition to the proposition as a civil rights and social justice issue and their actions against it as a continuation of their previous works in civil rights.

In addition, the California Council of Churches issued a statement urging the "immediate removal of Proposition 8" – saying that it infringes on the freedom of religion for churches who wish to bless same-sex unions.[94]


The League of Women Voters of California opposed Proposition 8 because "no person or group should suffer legal, economic or administrative discrimination."[95] Additionally, all but two of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People's local chapters in California and NAACP national chairman Julian Bond and President Benjamin Jealous opposed Proposition 8.[96] Amnesty International also condemned Proposition 8, saying that "states should never withhold rights based on minority status".[97]

A coalition of Silicon Valley executives urged a 'No' vote on Proposition 8.[98] Google officially opposed Proposition 8 "as an issue of equality", donating $140,000 to the No on 8 campaign.[99][100] Apple Inc. also opposed Proposition 8 as a "fundamental" civil rights issue, and donated $100,000 to the No on 8 campaign.[100] [101] Biotech leaders warned of potential damage to the state's $73 billion industry, citing Massachusetts as a top competitor for employees.[102]

Many members of the entertainment industry were opposed to Proposition 8.[103] Actor Tom Hanks, a strong supporter of same-sex marriage, was extremely outspoken about his opposition to the bill. Brad Pitt and Steven Spielberg each donated different amounts of money to the opposition campaign "No on 8."[104] In 2010, the documentary film 8: The Mormon Proposition premiered to sell-out audiences at the Sundance Film Festival.

The Los Angeles Unified School District Board of Education voted unanimously for a resolution to oppose Proposition 8.[105] The California Teachers Association donated one million dollars to fight Proposition 8.[106] Chancellor Robert Birgeneau of UC Berkeley urged a vote against the measure, claiming a likely threat to California's academic competitiveness if Proposition 8 is passed.[107]

Newspaper editorials and Proposition 8

All ten of the state's largest newspapers editorialized against Proposition 8, including the Los Angeles Times,[108] and the San Francisco Chronicle.[109][110][111][112][113][114][115][116][117] Other papers to have editorialized in opposition include The New York Times,[118] La Opinión (Los Angeles),[119] and The Bakersfield Californian.[120]

Crimes against supporters and opponents

A week before the vote, Fresno Mayor Alan Autry received an email containing death threats against both himself and Pastor Jim Franklin of Fresno's Cornerstone Church, both of whom had spoken in support of Proposition 8 during a rally at Fresno city hall the preceding weekend. According to Fresno Police Chief Jerry Dyer, the email stated that the threat "was stemming from Prop 8".[121][122] Fresno "No on 8" organizer Jason Scott condemned the death threats, and Mayor Autry expressed concern that there might be a backlash against opponents of the measure.[121][122] Fresno-area supporters of gay marriage were also harassed; "No On 8" signs at the Clovis Unitarian Universalist Church were torn up, with Reverend Bryan Jessup alleging that his church experienced vandalism "every night".[121]

At an LDS church in Orangevale (in Sacramento County), vandals spray-painted in red letters on the front sign and sidewalk: "No on 8" and "No on Prop 8".[123] An affiliate group of the Radical Trans/Queer organization Bash Back! claims to have poured glue into the locks of an LDS church and spray painted its walls.[124][dead link]

Santa Clara County Deputy District Attorney (DDA) Jay Boyarsky attributed a surge in anti-gay hate crimes, from 3 in 2007 to 14 in 2008, to controversy over Proposition 8. However, the DDA questioned the reliability of small statistical samples, asserting that the vast majority of hate incidents don't get referred to the DA's office.[125][dead link]

Pre-decision opinion polls

Various opinion polls were conducted to estimate the outcome of the proposition. Those margins with differences less than their margins of error are marked as "n.s.", meaning not significant (see Statistical significance). Those margins considered statistically significant are indicated with the percentage points and the side favored in the poll, as either "pro" for in favor of the proposition's passage (e.g., 1% pro), or "con" for against its passage (e.g., 1% con).

According to the director of the Field Poll, the discrepancy between the pre-election polls and ballot results is because "regular church-goers ... were more prone than other voters to be influenced by last-minute appeals to conform to orthodox church positions when voting on a progressive social issue like same-sex marriage."[126]

Date of opinion poll Conducted by Sample size
(likely voters)
In favor Against Undecided Margin Margin of Error
29–31 October 2008[127] SurveyUSA 637 47% 50% 3% n.s. ±4%
18–28 October 2008[128] The Field Poll 966 44% 49% 7% 5% con ±3.3%
12–19 October 2008[129] Public Policy Institute of California 1,186 44% 52% 4% 8% con ±3%
15–16 October 2008[130] SurveyUSA 615 48% 45% 7% n.s. ±4%
4–5 October 2008[131][132] SurveyUSA 670 47% 42% 10% 5% pro ±3.9%
23–24 September 2008[133][134] SurveyUSA 661 44% 49% 8% 5% pro ±3.9%
9–16 September 2008[135] Public Policy Institute of California 1,157 41% 55% 4% 14% con ±3%
5–14 September 2008[136] The Field Poll 830 38% 55% 7% 17% con ±3.5%
12–19 August 2008[137][138] Public Policy Institute of California 1,047 40% 54% 6% 14% con ±3%
8–14 July 2008[139][140] The Field Poll 672 42% 51% 7% 9% con ±3.9%
17–26 May 2008[141] The Field Poll 1,052 42% 51% 7% 9% con ±3.2%
May 22, 2008[142] Los Angeles Times/KTLA 705 54% 35% 11% 19% pro ±4%


Proposition 8[1]
Choice Votes Percentage
Referendum passed Yes 7,001,084 52.24%
No 6,401,482 47.76%
Valid votes 13,402,566 97.52%
Invalid or blank votes 340,611 2.48%
Total votes 13,743,177 100.00%
Voter turnout 79.42%

Amending the California Constitution by voter initiative requires a simple majority to be enacted.[143]

Edison/Mitofsky conducted an exit poll on behalf of the National Election Pool which is the only source of data on voter demographics in California in the 2008 election.[144][145] The statistical trends from the exit poll of 2,240 voters suggested that an array of voters came out both in opposition to and in support of Proposition 8, with no single demographic group making up most of either the Yes or No vote. Support for Proposition 8 was strong amongst African American voters, interviewed in the exit poll with 70% in favor, more than any other racial group.[146] The high-profile candidacy of Barack Obama is credited with increasing black turnout on the bill which has been seen as the crucial difference in its passing.[147][148] Subsequent analysis showed black support at only 58%, still above the 52% support received by all voters.[149][150] Those who described themselves as religious were the strongest supporters of prop 8.[151] Young voters were more likely to have voted against the ballot measure than older voters, while Republicans were more likely to have supported the measure than were Democrats.[152]

County breakdown

Post-election events

A constitutional amendment passed by the electorate takes effect the day after the election.[143] On the evening of November 4 the "Yes on 8" campaign issued a statement by Ron Prentice, the chairman of, saying "The people of California stood up for traditional marriage and reclaimed this great institution."[153] The organizers of the "No on Prop 8" campaign issued a statement on November 6 saying "Tuesday’s vote was deeply disappointing to all who believe in equal treatment under the law."[154] The counties of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Yolo, Kern, Santa Barbara, San Luis Obispo, Sonoma, San Diego, San Bernardino, Sacramento, and Tuolumne stopped issuing marriage licenses to same-sex couples the day after the election.[155][156][157][158][159]

Following the passage of Proposition 8, mass protests took place across the state. These included protests outside a temple of the LDS Church in Westwood, Los Angeles;[160] a march through Hollywood that blocked traffic and elicited police intervention;[161] and a candlelight vigil in front of the Sacramento Gay and Lesbian Center.[162] In San Francisco, thousands gathered in front of the City Hall to protest the proposition and to perform a candlelit vigil. Speakers who voiced their opinion in opposition of Proposition 8 included state senator Mark Leno and mayor Gavin Newsom.[163]

These protests led to several lawsuits being filed in the State Supreme Court and the Federal District Court. On November 13, 2008, the California Supreme Court asked California Attorney General Jerry Brown for an opinion on whether the Court should accept these cases for review and whether the measure should be suspended while they decide the case. On November 19, the Court accepted three lawsuits challenging Proposition 8, which consolidated into Strauss v. Horton.[164]

Overturned in federal district court and stay

After the California Supreme Court upheld the voter initiative, a suit, Perry v. Schwarzenegger was filed in a Federal District Court in San Francisco. On August 4, 2010, U.S. District Chief Judge Vaughn R. Walker overturned Proposition 8 but also stayed the ruling; the voter initiative was to remain in effect pending appeal.[12] On August 12, Walker announced his decision to lift the stay (which would have allowed same-sex marriages to be performed) as of August 18, 2010.[165][166] However, on August 16, 2010, the United States Court of Appeals for the Ninth Circuit indefinitely extended the District Court's stay, stopping new same-sex marriages in the state of California pending appeal. It also scheduled an accelerated time table for hearing an appeal of Walker's ruling.[167]

On January 4, 2011, the appeals court ruled that Imperial County did not have standing to intervene in the suit. In the second, the court certified a question to the California Supreme Court as to whether non-governmental proponents of the amendment have standing to appeal.[168] The California Supreme Court on February 16 unanimously agreed to address the Ninth Circuit's request.[169] The state court set an expedited schedule [170] and heard oral arguments on September 6, 2011. On November 17, they issued an advisory opinion that the proponents did have standing.[171][172]

Full text

Proposition 8 consisted of only two short sections. Its full text was:[173]

Section I. Title

This measure shall be known and may be cited as the "California Marriage Protection Act."
Section 2. Article I. Section 7.5 is added to the California Constitution, to read:
Sec. 7.5. Only marriage between a man and a woman is valid or recognized in California.

See also


  1. ^ a b c "Statement of Vote: 2008 General Election" (PDF). California Secretary of State. 2008-12-13. Retrieved 2010-06-10. 
  2. ^ a b Scan of Initiative filing from California Attorney General's web site
  3. ^ a b "Propositions that are on the November 4, 2008 General Election Ballot", California Secretary of State
  4. ^ a b Text of Proposition 8, Official Voter Information Guide (draft copy), retrieved July 28, 2008
  5. ^ "California Constitution Article XVIII". 
  6. ^ Wisckol, Martin (2009-02-04). "Gays would lose few legal rights with marriage ban". Orange County Register. Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  7. ^ John Schwartz (2009-05-26). "California High Court Upholds Gay Marriage Ban". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  8. ^ "Same-Sex Married Couples". California Franchise Tax Board. 5009-05-26. Retrieved 2009-12-17. 
  9. ^ Smith, Dan (October 12, 2009). "Schwarzenegger signs gay rights bills". Retrieved 2009-12-17. [dead link]
  10. ^ "California General Election Tuesday November 4 Voter Information Guide". Retrieved 2009-08-20. 
  11. ^ "Ruling by United States District Court". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  12. ^ a b Egelko, Bob; Bulwa, Demian (August 4, 2010). "Judge strikes down ban on same-sex marriage". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  13. ^ Keys, Matthew (August 4, 2010). "Federal Judge: Same Sex Marriage Ban Under Proposition 8 Violates Constitution".,0,598175.story. Retrieved August 4, 2010. 
  14. ^ Bulwa, Demian; Fagan, Kevin; Gordon, Rachel (August 22, 2010). "Prop. 8: Appeals court puts ruling on hold". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  15. ^ Werdegar, Kathryn Mickle (2009-05-26). "California Supreme Court Concurring Decision by Werdeger". p. 35. Retrieved 2009-06-18. [dead link]
  16. ^ Folmar, Kate (2008-06-02). "Secretary of State Debra Bowen Certifies Eighth Measure for November 4, 2008, General Election" (PDF). California Secretary of State. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  17. ^ Dolan, Maura (2008-07-17). "Bid to ban gay marriage will stay on ballot, California Supreme Court rules". Los Angeles Times (David Hiller).,0,4823383.story. Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  18. ^ Costa v. Superior Court (2006) 37 Cal.4th 986, 1005–1006.
  19. ^ "Official Prop 8 Ruling Document". SFist. May 26, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-26. 
  20. ^ "Initiative Measure Title and Summary (07-0068)" (PDF). California Attorney General. 2007-11-29. 
  21. ^ "Ballot Label (Proposition 8)" (PDF). California Secretary of State. 2008-07-03. 
  22. ^ Garrison, Jessica (July 29, 2008). "Opponents of gay marriage say they will sue over changed wording in Proposition 8". Los Angeles Times. 
  23. ^ "California Elections Code". The State of California. Retrieved 2008-12-06. 
  24. ^ a b Jansson v. Bowen, et al., Petition for Writ of Mandate, Order After Hearing (Superior Court of California, County of Sacramento 2008-08-07).
  25. ^ a b "Lawsuit filed to challenge California ballot’s ‘inflammatory’ rewording of marriage amendment". CNA (Catholic News Agency). 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2009-03-28. 
  26. ^ Garrison, Jessica (2008-07-28). "Gay marriage foes challenge ballot wording". AZ Retrieved 2008-08-07. 
  27. ^ "Request for judicial notice in support of opposition to petition for writ of mandate". Attorney General of the State of California. 2008-08-04. Retrieved 2008-11-07. [dead link]
  28. ^ a b Egelko, Bob (2008-08-08). "Judge refuses to order change in Prop. 8 title". Retrieved 2008-08-08. 
  29. ^ Egelko, Bob (2008-08-12). "Prop. 8 backers drop challenge on wording". San Francisco Chronicle. 
  30. ^ "Order Denying Petition (Case No. C059606)". California Court of Appeal, 3rd District. 2008-08-08. 
  31. ^ Egelko, Bob (2008-08-12). "Prop. 8 backers drop challenge on wording". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  32. ^ Lisa Leff. "Calif. gay marriage ban sparks 'War of the Rings'". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-09-30. [dead link]
  33. ^ "Record 17.3 million Californians registered to vote". The Sacramento Bee. 2008-11-03. Retrieved 2008-11-03. [dead link]
  34. ^ "Donors pumped $83M to Calif. gay marriage campaign". Associated Press. 2009-02-02.,4670,GayMarriageMoney,00.html. Retrieved 2010-12-16. 
  35. ^ "California Same-Sex Marriage Initiative Campaigns Shatter Spending Records". U.S. News & World Report. 2008-10-29. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  36. ^ Morain, Dan; Garrison, Jessica (October 25, 2008). "Proposition 8 proponents and foes raise $60 million". Los Angeles Times.,0,2856145.story. 
  37. ^ Prentice, Ron; Mark Jansson, Edward Dolejsi, Andrew Pugno (2008-10-20). "Letter addressed to Abbott and Associates" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-10-23. [dead link]
  38. ^ Leff, Lisa (2008-10-23). "Calif. gay marriage ban backers target businesses". Associated Press. Retrieved 2008-10-23. [dead link]
  39. ^ "Equality California Sponsors". Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  40. ^ "Threatening Letters Spark New Prop 8 Controversy". KFMB-TV, San Diego. 2008-10-23. Retrieved 2008-10-23. [dead link]
  41. ^ Vives, Ruben (2010-06-09). "Mormon Church to be fined by state political commission over Proposition 8". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2010-06-09. 
  42. ^ " "Get a Yard Sign" – the official "Yes on 8" sign.". 
  43. ^ "". Retrieved 2008-07-07. 
  44. ^ "McCain Supports Efforts to Ban Gay Marriage". U.S. News & World Report. 2008-06-27. Retrieved 2008-09-01. 
  45. ^ Gingrich, Newt. "Stop Imperial Judges...Support Proposition 8". Newt Gingrich. Retrieved 2008-10-01. 
  46. ^ "Protect Marriage » Endorsements » Officials". Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  47. ^ "Catholic Bishops Endorse Prop. 8". Retrieved 2008-09-19. [dead link]
  48. ^ "Proposition 8 to Protect Marriage Receives $1 Million Donation from the Knights of Columbus Catholic Organization". Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  49. ^ "A Statement of the Catholic Bishops of California in Support of Proposition 8". California Catholic Conference. Retrieved 2009-11-27. [dead link]
  50. ^ "Catholic Bishops Endorse Prop. 8". Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  51. ^ "I was Blackballed". Retrieved 2009-02-02. 
  52. ^ a b "California and Same-Sex Marriage". Retrieved 2008-09-05. 
  53. ^ "LDS Donate Millions to Fight Gay Marriage". Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  54. ^ "Prop 8 supporters see surge in donations". Retrieved 2008-09-19. [dead link]
  55. ^ Kirchick, James. "The New Religious Right". The Advocate. Retrieved 2009-06-18. [dead link]
  56. ^ "Preserving Traditional Marriage and Strengthening Families" (PDF). The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. 2008-06-20. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  57. ^ "Preserving the Divine Institution of Marriage". The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  58. ^ "LDS donate millions to fight gay marriage". 2008-09-16. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  59. ^ "Opponents of gay marriage ban ride wave of donations". 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2008-10-30. 
  60. ^ McKinley, Jesse; Johnson, Kirk (2008-11-14). "Mormons Tipped Scale in Ban on Gay Marriage". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  61. ^ "Church Readies Members on Proposition 8". 2008-10-08. Retrieved 2009-02-24. 
  62. ^ a b "Orthodox Join Fight Against Gay Nuptials". The Forward. Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  63. ^ "Orthodox Christian Bishops of California in support of Proposition 8". 
  64. ^ "Christian Marriage Movement's Ground Zero". Retrieved 2008-09-19. 
  65. ^ "Prop 8 supporters see surge in donations". Retrieved 2008-09-19. [dead link]
  66. ^ Newspapers, McClatchy (2008-09-16). "California's ballot battle over gay marriage shows US cultural divide". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  67. ^ Warren, Rick (October 23, 2008). "Pastor Rick's News & Views". Saddleback Church. Retrieved April 19, 2009. 
  68. ^ "Resolution for the Endorsement of Proposition 8 – The California Marriage Protection Act" (PDF). Grossmont Union High School District. 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-10-13. [dead link]
  69. ^ Gustafson, Craig (2008-10-19). "Asian group rallies for traditional marriage". Union Tribune. Retrieved 2008-10-19. 
  70. ^ Haagenson, Gene (unknown (2009)). "Prop 8 debate underway in Porterville". KFSN-TV News (Fresno: Retrieved 2009-11-09. 
  71. ^ "Newsom was central to same-sex marriage saga". 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  72. ^ Newsom seeks to get beyond Prop. 8 fiasco in quest to become governor[dead link]
  73. ^ "'Historic' campaign scored Prop 8's win in California". 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  74. ^ Darman, Johnatha (2009-01-17). "Hoping That Left Is Right". Newsweek. Retrieved 2009-06-18. 
  75. ^ "Join No On Prop 8, Equality For All". Equality for All. Retrieved 2008-07-31. 
  76. ^ "Vote No On Prop 8". Vote No On Prop 8. Retrieved 2008-09-21. [dead link]
  77. ^ Obama, Barack (2006-06-07). "Obama Statement on Vote Against Constitutional Amendment to Ban Gay Marriage". Senate. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  78. ^ "Obama on same sex marriage". CNN. 2008-01-25. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  79. ^ Rojas, Aurelio (2008-07-01). "Obama rejects proposed California gay marriage ban". Sacramento Bee. Archived from the original on 2008-07-31. Retrieved 2008-08-13. 
  80. ^ "Biden says he had oppose Calif. gay marriage ban". San Francisco Chronicle. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-10-21. [dead link]
  81. ^ Allison Hoffman (2008-04-12). "Schwarzenegger: No to Marriage Amendment". Associated Press. [dead link]
  82. ^ "Gov. Schwarzenegger Issues Statement on Today's State Supreme Court Ruling" (Press release). Office of the Governor of California. 2008-05-15. [dead link]
  83. ^ "Pelosi Statement on California State Supreme Court Ruling on Gay Marriage" (Press release). House Speaker Nancy Pelosi. 2008-05-15. [dead link]
  84. ^ "Feinstein opposes Prop 8". Bay Area Reporter. 2008-09-11. 
  85. ^ Hemmelgarn, Seth (2008-09-11). "Feinstein silent on Prop 8". Bay Area Reporter. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  86. ^ "Gavin Newsom Speaks on Prop 8". YouTube. Retrieved 2008-09-17. 
  87. ^ "San Diego Mayor Stands Up For Marriage Equality". YouTube. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  88. ^ "Who Opposes Prop 8?". No On 8, Equality for All. Retrieved 2008-10-30. [dead link]
  89. ^ Helfand, Duke (2008-09-11). "California's top Episcopal bishops oppose gay marriage ban". Los Angeles Times.,0,7646017.story. 
  90. ^ "Southern California rabbi board opposes gay marriage ban". Los Angeles Times. 2008-09-27.,0,1387683.story. [dead link]
  91. ^ Drinkwater, Gregg (October 20, 2008). "Speaking out for love, justice and the freedom to marry". Jewish Mosaic. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  92. ^ "Most L.A. Jews voted against same-sex ban". Jewish Telegraphic Agency. November 9, 2008. 
  93. ^ Deakin, Michelle Bates (2008-10-20). "Unitarian Universalists work to preserve gay marriage in Calif.". UUWorld. Retrieved 2008-12-24. 
  94. ^ "CA Council of Churches Condemn Court Decision". CA Council of Churches. 2009-05-26. Retrieved 2009-05-26. [dead link]
  95. ^ "Vote No on Proposition 8". League of Women Voters of California. 
  96. ^ Garofoli, Joe (2009-06-16). "NAACP weighs support of gays who want to marry". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2009-06-17. 
  97. ^ "Amnesty International Urges California Supreme Court to Overturn Prop 8 and Restore Marriage Equality". Newswire. Retrieved 2009-03-04. 
  98. ^ "Silicon Valley Stands United Against Prop. 8". TechCrunch. 2008-10-30. Retrieved 2008-10-31. 
  99. ^ "Our position on California's No on 8 campaign". 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  100. ^ a b "Apple to oppose anti-gay marriage ballot question". 2008-10-24. Retrieved 2008-10-24. 
  101. ^ Quinn, Michelle (October 24, 2008). "Apple donates $100,000 to fight same-sex marriage ban". Los Angeles Times. 
  102. ^ Somers, Terri (2008-10-29). "Proposition 8 would blunt biotech edge, execs say". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  103. ^ Lang, Derrik (October 22, 2008). "Hollywood comes out in support of gay marriage". Retrieved 2008-10-27. [dead link]
  104. ^ "Spielberg Makes Like Pitt, Supports Same-Sex Marriage - E! Online". 2008-09-23. Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  105. ^ "LA Unified Opposes Prop. 8". LA Weekly. 2008-09-10. Retrieved 2008-10-13. 
  106. ^ Larrubia, Evelyn (2008-10-17). "Teachers Union Donates $1 Million to Oppose Proposition 8". LA Times.,0,6308701.story. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  107. ^ "Chancellor Birgeneau informs campus of likely impacts of Proposition 8". 2008-10-22. Retrieved 2008-10-29. 
  108. ^ "Reneging on a right". Los Angeles Times. 2008-08-08. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  109. ^ "Californians should reject Proposition 8". San Francisco Chronicle. 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  110. ^ "Gay marriage right should not be repealed". San Diego Union-Tribune. 2008-09-18. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  111. ^ "California Prop. 8 Editorial: Intrusion into marriage should be even-handed". The Orange County Register. 2008-10-01. Retrieved 2008-10-02. 
  112. ^ "Endorsements '08: Say 'No' to all propositions except 11". Sacramento Bee. 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-10-09. [dead link]
  113. ^ "Editorial: Initiative against gay marriage must be defeated". San Jose Mercury News. 2008-08-17. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  114. ^ "Times recommendations on California propositions". Contra Costa Times. 2008-10-19. Retrieved 2008-10-20. 
  115. ^ "No on 8". The Press-Enterprise. 2008-09-27. Retrieved 2008-10-20. [dead link]
  116. ^ "No on Prop. 8". The Fresno Bee. 2008-10-21. Retrieved 2008-10-21. [dead link]
  117. ^ "No on Prop. 8". Daily News. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  118. ^ "Preserving California’s Constitution". The New York Times. 2008-09-28. Retrieved 2008-09-29. 
  119. ^ "Una propuesta innecesaria" (in Spanish). La Opinión. 2008-10-09. Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  120. ^ "Vote no on Proposition 8". The Bakersfield Californian. 2008-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10-28. [dead link]
  121. ^ a b c "Prop 8 Threat: Fresno Police close to Arrest", by Andres Araiza, KFSN-TV30/Fresno, October 31, 2008
  122. ^ a b "Prop 8 Death Threats", by Amanda Perez, KFSN-TV30/Fresno, October 31, 2008
  123. ^ "Prop 8 Protesting Turns Ugly". 2008-11-10. Retrieved 2009-04-04. 
  124. ^ "Radical Gay Activist Group Plans More Disruptions". Chicago Tribune. November 20, 2008. 
  125. ^ "Surge in anti-gay hate crime cases". San Jose Mercury News. 2009-03-16. Retrieved 2009-03-16. 
  126. ^ DiCamillo, Mark (November 10, 2008). "Why Prop. 8 confounded pre-election pollsters". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved November 12, 2008. 
  127. ^ "Proposition 8, on Marriage, Still in Doubt". SurveyUSA. 2008-11-01. Retrieved 2008-11-02. 
  128. ^ Wildermuth, John (2008-10-22). "Prop. 8 still trails, but margin narrows". The Field Poll. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  129. ^ "Californians & Their Government — PPIC Survey" (PDF). Public Policy Institute of California. 2008-10-22. MBS.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-23. [dead link]
  130. ^ "California Prop 8 Remains a Fierce Fight That Could Be Decided Either Way By Handful of Votes". SurveyUSA. 2008-10-17. Retrieved 2008-10-17. 
  131. ^ "Young Voters Lead Prop 8 Support Shift". CBS 5 local. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-10-07. [dead link]
  132. ^ "California Proposition 8 Too Close To Call". SurveyUSA. 2008-10-06. Retrieved 2008-10-07. 
  133. ^ "Action News poll". ABC 30 local. 2008-09-26. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  134. ^ "California Proposition 8 Could Go Either Way". SurveyUSA. 2008-09-25. Retrieved 2008-09-26. 
  135. ^ Wildermuth, John (September 25, 2008). "Poll: Same-sex marriage ban not wooing voters". San Francisco Chronicle: p. B2. 
  136. ^ Sturrock, Carrie (2008-09-18). "Opposition to same-sex marriage ban grows". San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2008-10-23. 
  137. ^ Garrison, Jessica (2008-08-27). "Most oppose bid to ban gay marriage in California, poll finds". Los Angeles Times.,0,6444457.story. Retrieved 2008-08-30. 
  138. ^ "Californians & their government" (PDF). Public Policy Institute of California. 2008-08-27. MBS.pdf. Retrieved 2008-10-22. [dead link]
  139. ^ "Measure to prohibit gay unions is trailing". The San Diego Union-Tribune. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  140. ^ "Release #2278" (PDF). The Field Poll. 2008-07-18. Retrieved 2008-10-22. 
  141. ^ "Field Poll: Majority of Californians now support gay marriage". Sacramento Bee. 2008-05-28. Archived from the original on May 29, 2008. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  142. ^ Decker, Cathleen (2008-05-23). "Times Poll: Californians narrowly reject gay marriage". Los Angeles Times.,0,5490260.story. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  143. ^ a b "ARTICLE 18 AMENDING AND REVISING THE CONSTITUTION". Legislative Counsel of California. Retrieved 2008-11-26. 
  144. ^ "CNN 2008 Exit Polls, Page 1". Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  145. ^ "CNN 2008 Exit Polls, Page 2". Retrieved 2008-11-13. 
  146. ^[dead link]
  147. ^ "". Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  148. ^ Chance, Amy (2008-11-05). "Exit polls show Obama's coattails limited". Sacramento Bee. 
  149. ^ "California's Prop 8". 
  150. ^ Wildermuth, John (2009-01-07). "Black support for Prop 8 called exaggeration". The San Francisco Chronicle. 
  151. ^ Bretón, Marcos (2008-11-09). "Faith was key factor in Prop. 8 vote". Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 2009-08-20. [dead link]
  152. ^[dead link], California election exit poll data], accessed 2009-08-20
  153. ^ "Statement on Proposition 8 Passing by Ron Prentice, Chairman of". November 4, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-14. 
  154. ^ "Final Statement from No on Prop 8 Campaign". No On 8, Equality for All. November 6, 2008. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  155. ^ "Same-Sex Couple Tries To Marry, Turned Away". 2008-11-05. Retrieved 2008-11-05. 
  156. ^ Emanuella Grinberg (2008-11-05). "Los Angeles stops issuing marriage licenses to gay couples". CNN. Retrieved 2009-03-29. [dead link]
  157. ^ Jenny Shearer (2008-11-05). "County clerk: No more marriage licenses will be issued to same-sex couples". Bakersfield Californian. Retrieved 2009-03-29. [dead link]
  158. ^ Lisa Leff (2008-11-05). "California voters approve gay-marriage ban". Associated Press. [dead link]
  159. ^ Carina Corral (2008-11-10). "Same-sex marriage licenses no longer being issued on Central Coast". MSNBC. [dead link]
  160. ^ Garrison, Jessica and Lin, Joanne (2008-11-06). "Prop. 8 protesters target Mormon temple in Westwood". Los Angeles Times.,0,3827549.story. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  161. ^ "Gay Marriage Ban Protests In LA". Sky News. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  162. ^ Garza, Samantha (2008-11-06). "Sacramento rally protests Proposition 8". The Sacramento Bee. Retrieved 2008-11-06. [dead link]
  163. ^ "Thousands Attend Vigil Protesting Passage Of Prop. 8". KTVU. 2008-11-06. Retrieved 2008-11-06. 
  164. ^ "California Supreme Court Takes Action on Proposition 8". Judicial Council of California. 2008-11-19. Retrieved 2008-11-19. 
  165. ^ McKinley, Jesse (2010-08-12). "Judge Sets End to Ban on Gay Marriage in California". New York Times. Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  166. ^ "Final Stay Order". Retrieved August 12, 2010. 
  167. ^ Reuters (August 17, 2010). "California gay marriages on hold again"]. Australian Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved August 17, 2010. 
  168. ^ Wisckol, Martin (2011-01-04). "Prop. 8 gay marriage ruling hits detour". Retrieved 2011-10-31. 
  169. ^ "California Supreme Court to decide issue in same-sex marriage ban case". CNN. February 16, 2011. Retrieved February 16, 2011. 
  170. ^ Dolan, Maura (February 17, 2011). "California Supreme Court reenters Proposition 8 fray". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved February 27, 2011. 
  171. ^
  172. ^ Perry v Brown (California Supreme Court 11/17/11). Text
  173. ^ Scan of Initiative from California Attorney General website.

External links

Media related to California Proposition 8 (2008) at Wikimedia Commons

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • California Proposition 14 — was an amendment to the constitution of the state of California promoted by segregationists who wanted to nullify the Rumford Fair Housing Act.Rumford Fair Housing ActThe Rumford Fair Housing Act was a law passed in 1963 by the state of… …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 98 — can mean: * California Proposition 98 (1988), requiring a minimum of the state budget to be spent on K 14 education * California Proposition 98 (2008), proposing limitations on the use of eminent domain and prohibition of rent control …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 99 — can refer to: * California Proposition 99 (1988), adding a tax on tobacco * California Proposition 99 (2008), limiting certain uses of eminent domain …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 2 (2008) — Proposition 2, the proposed Standards for Confining Farm Animals initiative statute, is a California ballot proposition in that state s general election on November 42008. The proposition would add a chapter to Division 20 of the California… …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 65 (1986) — Proposition 65 is a California law that has been in effect since 1986 to promote clean drinking water and keep toxic substances that cause cancer and birth defects out of consumer products. Proposition 65 s formal title is The Safe Drinking Water …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 87 (2006) — California Proposition 87 was a proposition on the ballot for California voters for the November 7, 2006 general election, officially titled Alternative Energy. Research, Production, Incentives. Tax on California Oil Producers. It was voted down… …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 36 (2000) — California Proposition 36, the Substance Abuse and Crime Prevention Act of 2000, also known as Prop 36, was an initiative statute that permanently changed state law to allow qualifying defendants convicted of non violent drug possession offenses… …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 1A (2004) — Proposition 1A was a proposition in the state of California on the November 2, 2004 ballot. The proposition successfully passed with 9,411,198 (83.7%) votes in favor and 1,840,002 (16.3%) against.The proposition is intended to protect revenues… …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 187 (1994) — California Proposition 187 was a 1994 ballot initiative designed to deny illegal immigrants social services, health care, and public education. It was introduced by assemblyman Dick Mountjoy (Republican from Monrovia, California) as the Save Our… …   Wikipedia

  • California Proposition 86 (2006) — California Proposition 86 was a proposition on the ballot for California voters in the general election of November 7, 2006. The proposition was declined by California voters. There were 3,212,678 yes votes making up the 47.9% minority. No votes… …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»