:"For the place in Azerbaijan, see
Budenovka, Azerbaijan."Budenovka ( Russian language: Будёновка, budyonovka) is a distinctive type of hat and an essential part of the communist uniform of the Russian Civil Warand later. Its official name was the " broadclothhelmet" (шлем суконный). Named after Semyon Budyonny, it was also known as the "frunzenka" after Mikhail Frunze. It is a soft, woolen hat that covers the ears and neck and that can be worn under a helmet. The cap has a beak and folded earflaps that can be buttoned under the chin.
The hat was created as part of a new uniform for the Russian army by
Viktor Vasnetsov, a famous Russian painter, who was inspired by the Kiev Rushelmet. The original name was "bogatyrka" (богатырка) - hat of a bogatyr- and was intended to inspire Russian troops by connecting them with the legendary heroes of Russian folklore. Bogatyrkas were meant to be a part of a new uniform, so they had already been produced during the First World War, but hadn't been officially adopted. Another version, quite popular in Russia, is that bogatyrkas were designed for a military parade as a part of a "historical" stylized uniform (which also included an overcoat with "designer" cross-pieces, which also were used in the Red Army to a limited extent). Some Russian historians even speculate the parade in question was a supposed victory parade in Berlin.
Russian civil war, communist troops, who had no obligation to comply with the uniform standards of the Imperial Russian army, used bogatyrkas, as they were abundant and distinctive. Bogatyrkas were commonly decorated with red starpins as a distinguishing mark. Such decorations were often makeshift, but later were standardized, and a bigger star badge of broadcloth was sewn to the front of the hat, typically red but in some cases blue (for cavalry) or black (for artillery). This allowed the communists to use the image of "Red bogatyrs" fighting the old and corrupt Russian system, thus employing the original idea by Vasnetsov. At this time the hat was renamed the "Budenovka" after Semyon Budyonny, the commander of the First Cavalry Army, as the hat was particularly popular with cavalry units.
The initial model with the high tip was replaced with a more practical low-tip model in 1927.
The hat didn't survive long as a part of the Red Army uniform, for both political and practical reasons. Although it was relatively easy to produce, it required expensive wool and didn't provide good cold-weather protection. It was also inconvenient to wear under the helmet. Another reason was that it belonged to the revolutionary period of Russian history in which artistic and political expression had been under less rigorous control by the state. It was abandoned during the army reforms of the mid-1930s. Phasing-out started in 1935. Budionovkas were still in use during the
Winter Warof 1939, but they were almost completely replaced by the start of the Great Patriotic Warin 1941 with the garrison cap(called "pilotka") and ushankafur cap.
Budenovka became part of history as Red Army cavalry men wearing budennovkas became an important cultural image from the Russian civil war, together with
tachankas, the Nagant revover, Maxim gunand rebelling sailors.
Stylized "budyonovkas" were popular children's headgear until late Soviet times.
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