In its most general sense, a panorama is any wide view of a physical space. It has also come to refer to a wide-angle representation of such a view — whether in painting, drawing, photography, film/video, or a three-dimensional model. Further, the motion-picture term, pan or panning, is derived from "panorama".

The word was originally coined by the Scottish painter Robert Barker to describe his panoramic paintings of Edinburgh. Shown on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside, they were exhibited in London in 1792 as "The Panorama".

In the mid 19th century, panoramic paintings and models became a very popular way to represent landscapes and historical events. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360 degree panorama and given the impression of standing in a new environment. The Dutch marine painter Hendrik Willem Mesdag created and established the Panorama Mesdag of The Hague, Netherlands, in 1881, a cylindrical painting more than 14 meters high and roughly 40 meters in diameter (120 meters in circumference). In the same year of 1881, the Bourbaki Panorama in Lucerne, Switzerland, which exhibits a circular painting, was created by Edouard Castres. The painting measures about 10 meters in height with a circumference of more than 100 meters. Another example would be the Atlanta Cyclorama, depicting the Civil War Battle of Atlanta. It was first displayed in 1887, and is 42 feet high by 358 feet wide. Even larger than these paintings is the Racławice Panorama localed in Wrocław, Poland, which measures 120 x 15 meters.

Panorama simple

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caption = Panorama of "Along the River During Ching Ming Festival", 18th century remake of a 12th century original by Chinese artist Zhang Zeduan
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Panoramic photography soon came to displace painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the Daguerreotype in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a single wide image. In the late 19th century, panoramic cameras using curved film holders employed clockwork drives to scan a line image in an arc to create an image over almost 180 degrees. Digital photography of the late twentieth century greatly simplified this assembly process, which is now known as image stitching. Such stitched images may even be fashioned into crude virtual reality movies, using one of many technologies such as Apple Computer's QuickTime VR or Java. A rotating line camera such as the Panoscan allows the capture of very high resolution panoramic images and eliminates the need for image stitching.

Panorama simple

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caption = A panorama of Hong Kong Victoria Harbour

On rare occasions, panoramic, 360° movies have been constructed for specially designed display spaces — typically at theme parks, world's fairs, and museums. Starting in 1955, Disney has created 360° theaters for its parks and the Swiss Transport Museum in Lucerne, Switzerland, features a theater that is a large cylindrical space with an arrangement of screens whose bottom is several meters above the floor. Panoramic systems that are less than 360° around also exist. For example, Cinerama used a curved screen and IMAX movies are projected on a dome above the spectators.

One final form of panoramic representation is digital mapping generated from SRTM data. In these diagrams, a computer calculates the panorama from a given point.

ee also

*panoramic painting
*International Panorama Council
*Panoramic tripod head
*Widescreen film/video formats
*Leme panoramic camera
* Omnidirectional camera

External links

* [ Open source GNU GPL program to create arbitrary panoramas] ; includes links to the first published papers on automated estimation of projective relationship between multiple pictures of the same subject matter.
* [ Harlem-13-Gigapixels, the biggest panorama in the world]
* [ Hugin] ; Panorama photo stitcher
* [ PanoramaViewer] ; online Viewer for Panoramas
* [ Fullscreen 360 degree panoramas from the best VR Photographers]
* [ Website of the International Panorama Council IPC]
* [ Panoramas from Iceland]
* [ 360 degree panoramas from Tromso (in northern Norway]

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Look at other dictionaries:

  • panorama — [ panɔrama ] n. m. • 1799; mot angl.; de pan et orama 1 ♦ Spectacle constitué par un vaste tableau circulaire peint en trompe l œil et destiné à être regardé du centre. Le panorama du musée de Waterloo. 2 ♦ Vaste paysage que l on peut contempler… …   Encyclopédie Universelle

  • Panorama — Saltar a navegación, búsqueda Panorama puede referirse a: Contenido 1 Significado 2 Publicaciones 3 Televisión 4 Divisiones admini …   Wikipedia Español

  • panoramă — PANORÁMĂ, panorame, s.f. 1. Privelişte din natură cu orizont larg, văzută de departe şi de la înălţime. ♦ fig. Privire de ansamblu consacrată unui domeniu, unei probleme etc. Panorama literaturii române. 2. Tablou de proporţii mari desfăşurat de… …   Dicționar Român

  • Panorama DX — Le premier magazine consacré à l information spécialisé en techniques de radiodiffusion à grandes distances. À une époque où la guerre froide empéchait la libre diffusion de l information et que le Web n avait pas encore été inventé, les ondes… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • panorama — sustantivo masculino 1. Vista de una amplia zona de terreno: Desde esta ventana se ve un panorama precioso. La cámara desde el helicóptero mostró un panorama de todo el valle. Sinónimo: panorámica. 2. Aspecto o visión general de un tema, un… …   Diccionario Salamanca de la Lengua Española

  • panorama — PANORAMÁ, panoramez, vb. I. tranz. (cin.) A realiza un panoramic. – Din engl. panoram. Trimis de valeriu, 03.02.2004. Sursa: DEX 98  panoramá vb., ind. prez. 1 sg. panoraméz, 3 …   Dicționar Român

  • Panorama — Sn Ausblick, Rundschau erw. fach. (18. Jh.) Neoklassische Bildung. Neubildung des Engländers R. Barker 1796 zur Bezeichnung einer Maschine, die größere Bilder stückweise zeigte, zu gr. pãn alles und gr. hórāma Sehen, Erscheinung , zu gr. horáein… …   Etymologisches Wörterbuch der deutschen sprache

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  • Panorama — (Amorgós,Греция) Категория отеля: 2 звездочный отель Адрес: Chora, Amorgós, 84008, Греция …   Каталог отелей

  • Panorama — (Эскалдес Энгорданы,Андорра) Категория отеля: 4 звездочный отель Адрес: Nou Vial De L obac …   Каталог отелей

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