Nikephoros I


Nikephoros I
Nikephoros I
Emperor of the Byzantine Empire

Nikephoros I and his son and successor, Stauracius.
Reign 802–811
Died July 26, 811
Place of death Pliska
Predecessor Irene
Successor Staurakios
Offspring Staurakios
Prokopia

Nikephoros I or Nicephorus I, Logothetes or Genikos (Greek: Νικηφόρος Α΄, Nikēphoros I, "Bringer of Victory"; died July 26, 811) was Byzantine emperor from 802 to 811, when he was killed in the Battle of Pliska.

A patrician from Seleucia Sidera, Nikephoros was appointed finance minister (logothetēs tou genikou) by the Empress Irene. With the help of the patricians and eunuchs he contrived to dethrone and exile Irene, and to be chosen emperor in her stead on October 31, 802. He crowned his son Staurakios co-emperor in 803.

His rule was endangered by Bardanes Tourkos, one of his ablest generals, who revolted and received support from other commanders, notably the later emperors Leo V the Armenian and Michael II the Amorian in 803.

But Nikephoros gained over the latter two, and by inducing the rebel army to disperse achieved the submission of Bardanes, who was blinded and relegated to a monastery. A conspiracy headed by the patrician Arsaber had a similar issue.

Nikephoros embarked on a general reorganization of the empire, creating new themes in the Balkans (where he initiated the re-Hellenization by resettling Greeks from Anatolia) and strengthening the frontiers. Needing large sums to increase his military forces, he set himself with great energy to increase the empire's revenue. By his rigorous tax imposts he alienated the favour of his subjects, and especially of the clergy, whom he otherwise sought to control firmly. Although he appointed an iconodule, Nikephoros as patriarch, Emperor Nikephoros was portrayed as a villain by ecclesiastical historians like Theophanes the Confessor.

In 803 Nikephoros concluded a treaty, called the Pax Nicephori, with Charlemagne, but refused to recognize the latter's imperial dignity. Relations deteriorated and led to a war over Venice in 806–810. In the process Nikephoros had quelled a Venetian rebellion in 807, but suffered extensive losses to the Franks. The conflict was resolved only after Nikephoros' death, and Venice, Istria, the Dalmatian coast and South Italy were assigned to the East, while Rome, Ravenna and the Pentapolis were included in the Western realm.

By withholding the tribute which Irene had agreed to pay to the caliph Hārūn al-Rashīd, Nikephoros committed himself to a war against the Arabs. Compelled by Bardanes' disloyalty to take the field himself, he sustained a severe defeat at the Battle of Krasos in Phrygia (805). In 806 a Muslim army of 15,000 men invaded the empire against Nikephoros with 125,000 men. In the battle the emperor was wounded, and 40,000 of his men were killed.[1] He agreed to make peace on condition of paying 50,000 nomismata immediately and a yearly tribute of 30,000 nomismata. With a succession struggle enveloping the caliphate on the death of Hārūn al-Rashīd in 809, Nikephoros was free to deal with Krum, Khan of Bulgaria, who was harassing his northern frontiers and had just conquered Serdica (Sofia).

In 811 Nikephoros invaded Bulgaria, defeated Krum twice, and sacked the Bulgarian capital Pliska; however, during Nikephoros' retreat, the Byzantine army was ambushed and destroyed in the mountain passes on July 26 by Krum. Nikephoros was killed in the battle, the second Roman emperor to suffer this fate since Valens in the Battle of Adrianople (August 9, 378). Krum is said to have made a drinking-cup of Nikephoros' skull.

Family

By an unknown wife Nikephoros I had at least two children:

References

Nikephoros I
Born: 8th century Died: 26 July 811
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Irene
Byzantine Emperor
802–811
Succeeded by
Staurakios

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Nikephoros II — Phokas or Nicephorus II Phocas ( el. polytonic|Νικηφόρος Β΄ Φωκᾶς, Nikēphoros II Phōkas ), (c. 912 ndash;969), was a Byzantine Emperor of Armenian descent (963 969) whose brilliant military exploits contributed to the resurgence of Byzantine… …   Wikipedia

  • Nikephoros I. — Nikephoros I. und sein Sohn Staurakios. Nikephoros I. (griechisch Νικηφόρος; * um 760; † 26. Juli 811 im Warbizapass bei Preslaw) war von 802 bis 811 byzantinischer Kaiser …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nikephoros II. — Nikephoros II. Phokas Nikephoros II. Phokas (griechisch Nikephoros II. Phokas Νικηφόρος Β′ Φωκάς, von griechisch nikēphoros νικηφόρος ‚Siegesträger‘ und phōkē φώκη ‚Robbe‘; * 912 i …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nikephoros — (Νικηφόρος, griechisch: Der Sieg gewohnte, von νικη (nike) Sieg and φορεω (phoreo) erringen, davontragen , lateinische Form: Nikephorus oder Nicephorus) hat die folgenden Bedeutungen: Nikephoros ist der Name von: Nikephorus von Antiochia,… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • Nikephoros — or Nicephorus ( el. Νικηφόρος, Bringer of Victory ) is the name of:* Nikephoros I, Byzantine emperor 802 811. * Nikephoros II Phokas, Byzantine emperor 963 969. * Nikephoros III Botaniates, Byzantine emperor 1078 1081. * Patriarch Nikephoros I of …   Wikipedia

  • Nikephoros — Nikephoros,   griechisch Nikephọros, byzantinischer Herrscher:    1) Nikephoros I., Kaiser (seit 802), * Seleukeia (Pisidien) um 765, ✝ (gefallen) bei Pliska 26. 7. 811; kam nach dem Sturz der Kaiserin Irene als deren ranghöchster Finanzbeamter… …   Universal-Lexikon

  • Nikephŏros — (gr., d.i. Siegbringer). I. Byzantinische Kaiser: 1) N. I., erst Patricier u. Großschatzmeister der byzantinischen Kaiserin Irene, wurde nach derselben 802 Kaiser, machte einen Vertrag mit Karl d. Gr. (803) wegen Süd Italiens, mußte sich dazu… …   Pierer's Universal-Lexikon

  • Nikephŏros [1] — Nikephŏros (griech., »Siegbringer«), Name mehrerer oströmischer Kaiser: 1) N. I., aus Seleukia, war Großschatzmeister unter der Kaiserin Irene und stürzte diese (31. Okt. 802). Er war ein tüchtiger Herrscher, erbitterte aber das Volk durch harten …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nikephŏros [2] — Nikephŏros, griech. Geschichtschreiber: 1) N. Constantinopolitanus, geb. 758, ward 806 Patriarch in Konstantinopel, aber, als er sich dem bilderstürmenden Kaiser Leo V. widersetzte, 815 in ein Kloster verwiesen, wo er 829 starb. Er schrieb außer… …   Meyers Großes Konversations-Lexikon

  • Nikephoros — Nikephŏros, drei byzant. Kaiser, s. Byzantinisches Reich …   Kleines Konversations-Lexikon


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.