Ngarla language


Ngarla language

Ngarla is a Pama–Nyungan language of Western Australia.

Ngarla
Spoken in Port Hedland area of Western Australia
Native speakers 4  (2010)[1]
Language family
Pama–Nyungan
Language codes
ISO 639-3 nlr

Ngarla is possibly mutually intelligible with Panyjima and Martuthunira, but the three are considered distinct languages.

Contents

Phonology

Consonants

Peripheral Laminal Apical
Bilabial Velar Palatal Dental Alveolar Retroflex
Stop p k c t ʈ
Nasal m ŋ ɲ n ɳ
Lateral ʎ l ɭ
Rhotic r ɻ
Semivowel w j

Vowels

Front Back
High i iː u uː
Low a aː

The long vowels are rare.[citation needed]

Grammar

Tense markers

Ngarla tense markers for verbs [2]

Tense marker Tense
-n past
-ngkaya present
-kuRa future

Classification

Ngarla is classified as a member of the Ngayarda subgroup of the Southwest Pama–Nyungan languages. Under Carl Georg von Brandenstein's 1967 classification, Ngarla was classed as an Inland Ngayarda language, but the separation of the Ngayarda languages into Coastal and Inland groups is no longer considered valid.

Southwest Pama–Nyungan
Ngayarta

Palyku



Panyjima



Ngarla



Nyamal



Jurruru



Yinhawangka



Ngarluma



Kariyarra



Martuthunira



Nhuwala



Yindjibarndi



Kurrama




Kanyara languages



Mantharta languages



Kartu languages



Nyunga languages



Mirniny languages



Wati languages



Marrngu languages



Ngumpin languages



Nannga languages



Yura languages



Notes

  1. ^ Westerlund, T: När engelskan kom till Australien, page 51. Språktidningen, February 2010. (In Swedish)
  2. ^ Languages of the World: Indo-Pacific Fascicle Six”, Geoffrey O’Grady, C. F. Voegelin and F. M. Voegelin (1966:82)

References

  • ”A grammatical sketch of Ngarla: A language of Western Australia”, Torbjörn Westerlund, 2007. (PDF version)

External links




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