List of New Zealand by-elections


List of New Zealand by-elections

By-elections in New Zealand occur to fill vacant seats in the New Zealand Parliament. The death, resignation, or expulsion of a sitting electorate MP can cause a by-election. (Note that list MPs do not have geographic districts for the purpose of provoking by-elections – if a list MP's seat becomes vacant, the next person on his or her party's list fills the position.)

Contents

Background

A by-election need not take place if a general election will occur within six months of an electorate seat becoming vacant. In 1996 the general election date was brought forward slightly, to 12 October, to avoid a by-election after the resignation of Michael Laws.

In recent years by-elections have not occurred particularly frequently – only one in the 2002–2005 parliamentary term, and none in the 1999–2002 or 2005–2008 terms. This is because most MPs who retire mid-term (e.g. Labour MPs Jim Sutton and Michael Cullen) were List MPs, and are simply replaced by the next member on their party list.

Historically, however, they have taken place considerably more frequently – the 2nd Parliament of 1856–1860, for example, saw 33 by-elections and four supplementary elections, despite the House of Representatives originally having just 37 seats (increasing to 41 seats during the parliamentary term).

In the past it was not uncommon for an MP who died in office to be replaced with an immediate family member such as a brother, wife (see widow's succession), or son. This resulted in the election of the first woman MP Elizabeth McCombs (who was in turn succeeded by her son Terence McCombs) and the first woman National MP Mary Grigg; both of whom took over their husband's seat. This practice has however fallen out of favour since the mid-seventies with the election of John Kirk to his late father's seat being the last occasion this happened at a by-election.

Eleven Prime Ministers first came to parliament via by-elections: Julius Vogel, Harry Atkinson, Robert Stout, John Ballance, William Massey, Peter Fraser, Keith Holyoake, Walter Nash, Bill Rowling, David Lange and Geoffrey Palmer. Five Prime Ministers (William Fox, Henry Sewell, Edward Stafford, George Grey and Joseph Ward) have won by-elections later in their parliamentary careers, while Labour leader Harry Holland was also first elected via a by-election. Some minor party founders have also launched their parties by resigning from a major party and their seat, then contesting it for their new party. Party founders who have done this include Matiu Rata and Tariana Turia. Interestingly, both resigned from Labour to form Māori parties. In 1980 Rata was unsuccessful in retaking his Northern Maori electorate for his newly formed Mana Motuhake party, but in 2004 Turia successfully reclaimed Te Tai Hauauru for the Maori Party. In addition, Winston Peters resigned from National and his parliamentary seat in 1993, retaking the seat as an independent and going on to form the New Zealand First party. In these circumstances, by-elections are seen as a legitimisation of the MP's rejection of his or her old party. In addition, they provide vital publicity and something of a mandate for the new party.

Pre-party era

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

1st Parliament (1853–1855)

1854 Nelson 19 June William Travers[1] Resignation Samuel Stephens[2]
1854 Waimea 21 June William Cautley[3] Resignation William Travers[1]
1854 City of Auckland 4 August Thomas Bartley[4] Resignation William Brown[5]

2nd Parliament (1855–1860)

1856 Motueka & Massacre Bay 19 May Charles Parker[6] Resignation Herbert Curtis[7][8]
1856 Christchurch Country[9] 14 October Dingley Brittin[5] Resignation John Ollivier[10]
1856 Grey and Bell 14 October Charles Brown[5] Resignation John Lewthwaite[11]
1856 Town of Christchurch[12] 18 November Henry Sewell[13] Resignation Richard Packer[6]
1856 Hutt 27 November Alfred Ludlam[11] Resignation Samuel Revans[14]
1858 City of Auckland 27 April John Campbell[15] Resignation Thomas Forsaith[16]
1858 Pensioner Settlements[17] 29 April Joseph Greenwood[18] Resignation John Campbell[19]
1858 Southern Division 8 May Charles Taylor[20] Resignation Theodore Haultain[21]
1858 Grey and Bell 17 May John Lewthwaite[11] Resignation Charles Brown[5]
1858 Waimea 21 May Charles Elliott[22] Resignation David Monro[23]
1858 Wairau 21 May William Wells[24] Resignation Frederick Weld[24]
1858 Town of Lyttelton 28 May James FitzGerald[25] Resignation Crosbie Ward[26]
1858 Akaroa 31 May John Cuff[7] Resignation William Moorhouse[23]
1858 Dunedin Country 16 June John Cargill[15] Resignation John Taylor[20]
1858[27] Wairarapa and Hawkes Bay 22 July John Smith[28] Resignation James Ferguson[29]
1858 City of Wellington 27 July Isaac Featherston
William Fitzherbert[25]
Resignations Isaac Featherston
William Rhodes[30]
1858 Wellington Country 29 July Dudley Ward[26] Resignation Alfred Brandon[5]
1858 Hutt 31 July Dillon Bell[4]
Samuel Revans[14]
Resignations Alfred Ludlam[11]
William Fitzherbert[25]
1859 Town of Dunedin 14 January James Macandrew Resignation James Macandrew[31]

Supplementary election, 1859

Cheviot 18 December[32] Edward Jollie
Marsden 29 November[29] James Farmer
Wairarapa 7 November[3] Charles Carter
Wallace 30 November[4] Dillon Bell
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

2nd Parliament (continued)

1859 Waimea 26 December William Travers Resignation John Kelling
1860 Town of Christchurch[33][34] 18 January Richard Packer Resignation Henry Sewell
1860 (1st) Suburbs of Auckland 25 January Walter Brodie Resignation Theophilus Heale
1860 Dunedin Country 28 March William Cargill[15] Resignation Thomas Gillies[35]
1860 (1st) Christchurch Country 2 April John Ollivier Resignation Isaac Cookson
1860 City of Auckland 5 April Thomas Beckham Resignation Archibald Clark
1860 (2nd) Suburbs of Auckland 5 April Frederick Merriman Resignation Joseph Hargreaves
1860 Omata 16 April Alfred East Resignation James Richmond
1860 (2nd) Christchurch Country 21 April John Hall Resignation Charles Brown
1860 County of Hawke 26 April James Ferguson Resignation Thomas Fitzgerald
1860 Northern Division[36] 23 May Thomas Henderson Resignation Thomas Henderson
1860 Grey and Bell[37] 28 May Charles Brown Resignation Thomas King
1860 (3rd) Suburbs of Auckland 4 August Joseph Hargreaves Resignation John Campbell

3rd Parliament (1861–1865)

1861 Grey and Bell 20 June William King Death Harry Atkinson
1861 Suburbs of Nelson 20 June James Wemyss Resignation William Wells
1861 Napier 1 July Henry Stark Resignation William Colenso
1861 Wanganui 5 July Henry Harrison Resignation Henry Harrison
1862 (1st) City of Dunedin 17 March Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1862 Town of New Plymouth 5 May Isaac Watt Resignation Henry Turton
1862 (2nd) City of Dunedin 30 May Edward McGlashan[38][39] Resignation John Richardson
1862 Ellesmere 9 June Thomas Rowley Resignation James FitzGerald
1862 Avon 11 June Alfred Creyke Resignation William Thomson
1862 Heathcote 12 June George Hall Resignation William Moorhouse
1862 City of Auckland West 14 June Josiah Firth Resignation James Williamson
1862 (3rd) City of Dunedin 11 November John Richardson Resignation James Paterson
1862 Hampden 4 December Thomas Fraser Absence John Jones

Supplementary election, 1863

Dunedin and Suburbs North 28 March 1863 to 14 April 1863 John Richardson
Dunedin and Suburbs South William Reynolds
Gold Fields William Baldwin
George Brodie
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

3rd Parliament (continued)

1863[40] Dunedin and Suburbs South 20 June James Paterson Resignation James Paterson
1863 Hampden 2 July John Jones Resignation Frederick Wayne
1863 Kaiapoi 2 September Isaac Cookson Resignation Robert Wilkin
1863 Dunedin and Suburbs North 3 September Thomas Dick Resignation Julius Vogel
1863 Town of New Plymouth 9 October Isaac Watt Resignation Henry Turton
1863 Heathcote 28 October William Moorhouse Resignation Alfred Cox
1863 Akaroa 30 October Augustus White Resignation Lancelot Walker
1864 Franklin 13 October Marmaduke Nixon Death (KIA) Theodore Haultain
1864 Town of New Plymouth 18 November Henry Turton Resignation Charles Brown
1864 Waimea 29 November Alfred Saunders Resignation John Miles
1865 (1st) Bruce 8 April Thomas Gillies Resignation Arthur Burns
1865 Raglan 19 April Charles Taylor Resignation William Buckland
1865 Parnell 20 April Reader Wood Resignation Robert Creighton
1865 Town of New Plymouth 19 May Charles Brown Resignation Henry Sewell
1865 Gold Fields 29 May William Baldwin Resignation Charles Haughton
1865 Rangitiki 10 July William Fox Resignation Robert Pharazyn
1865 Omata 18 July James Richmond Appointed to Legislative Council Francis Gledhill
1865 (2nd) Bruce 26 July Edward Cargill Resignation James Macandrew
1865 Wairarapa 29 July Charles Carter Henry Bunny

4th Parliament (1866–1870)

1866 Mount Herbert 27 July William Moorhouse Chose to represent Westland Thomas Potts
1866 Port Chalmers 15 December Thomas Dick Resignation Thomas Dick
1867 City of Dunedin 19 January William Reynolds Resignation William Reynolds
1867 City of Christchurch 13 February James FitzGerald Resignation William Travers
1867 Avon 11 March Crosbie Ward Resignation William Reeves
1867 Manuherikia 27 April William Baldwin Resignation David Mervyn
1867 Wanganui 27 April John Bryce Resignation Henry Harrison
1867 Town of New Plymouth 29 April John Richardson Resignation Harry Atkinson
1867 City of Auckland West 24 May James Williamson Resignation Patrick Dignan
1867 Raglan 4 June Joseph Newman Resignation James Farmer
1867 Parnell 5 June Frederick Whitaker Resignation Charles Heaphy
1867 Port Chalmers 15 June Thomas Dick Resignation David Main
1867 Waimea 28 June Arthur Oliver Resignation Edward Baigent
1867 Lyttelton 1 July Edward Hargreaves Resignation George Macfarlan
1867 Kaiapoi 5 July Joseph Beswick Resignation John Studholme
1867 Picton 25 July Arthur Beauchamp Resignation William Adams
1867 Pensioner Settlements 5 August Paul de Quincey Resignation John Kerr
1867 Ashley 7 August Lancelot Walker Resignation Henry Tancred
1868 Collingwood 18 March Andrew Richmond Resignation Arthur Collins

Supplementary election, 1868

Westland North 3/4/1868 to 9/4/1868 Timothy Gallagher
Westland South Edmund Barff

First Māori elections

Eastern Maori 15 April 1868 to 20 June 1868 Tareha Te Moananui
Northern Maori Frederick Russell
Southern Maori John Patterson
Western Maori Mete Paetahi
By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Reason Winner

4th Parliament (continued)

1868 Avon 8 June William Reeves Resignation William Rolleston
1868 Picton 11 June William Adams Resignation Courtney Kenny
1868 Rangitiki 22 June William Watt Resignation William Fox
1868 Franklin 2 July Robert Graham Resignation William Swan
1868 Waikouaiti 27 July William Murison Resignation Robert Mitchell
1868 Lyttelton[41] 2 November George Macfarlan Death John Peacock
1868 Timaru 20 November Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Stafford
1868 City of Nelson 24 December Edward Stafford Resignation Nathaniel Edwards
1869 Marsden ?? February Francis Hull Resignation John Munro
1869 Roslyn 12 February George Hepburn Resignation Henry Driver
1869 City of Dunedin 5 March James Paterson Resignation Thomas Birch
1869 Newton 19 March George Graham Resignation Robert Creighton
1869 Waikouaiti 27 April Robert Mitchell Resignation Francis Rich
1869 Town of New Plymouth 28 April Harry Atkinson Resignation Thomas Kelly
1869 (1st) Wallace 30 April Alexander McNeil Resignation Cuthbert Cowan
1869 Oamaru 25 May Robert Campbell Resignation Charles Graham
1869 Taieri 19 June Donald Reid Resignation Henry Howorth
1869 (2nd) Wallace 17 September Cuthbert Cowan Resignation George Webster
1870 Bruce 21 March John Cargill Resignation James Brown
1870 Mongonui 30 March Thomas Ball Resignation Thomas Gillies
1870 Caversham 25 April Arthur John Burns Resignation James McIndoe
1870 Parnell 12 May Charles Heaphy Resignation Reader Wood
1870 Riverton 18 May Donald Hankinson Resignation Lachlan McGillivray
1870 City of Christchurch 12 August William Travers Resignation William Moorhouse

5th Parliament (1871–1875)

1871 City of Auckland West 1 September John Williamson Election Invalid[42] John Williamson
1871 Roslyn 12 September Henry Driver Resignation Edward McGlashan
1872 Wairau 19 February William Henry Eyes Resignation Arthur Seymour
1872 Waikato 1 March James McPherson Resignation William Jackson
1872 Wakatipu 13 March Charles Edward Haughton Resignation Bendix Hallenstein
1872 Rodney 16 March Henry Farnall Resignation John Sheehan
1872 City of Nelson 27 May Martin Lightband Resignation David Luckie
1872 Waikouaiti 12 June George McLean Resignation David Monro
1872 Coleridge[43] 23 July John Karslake Resignation William Bluett
1872 Heathcote[44] 30 July John Hall Resignation John Wilson
1872 Caversham 28 August Richard Cantrell Resignation William Tolmie
1872 Egmont 3 October William Gisborne Resignation Harry Atkinson
1873 Suburbs of Nelson 14 May Ralph Richardson Resignation Andrew James Richmond
1873 Lyttelton[45] 19 May John Peacock Resignation Henry Webb
1873 Invercargill 22 May William Henderson Calder Resignation John Cuthbertson
1873 Waikouaiti 23 July David Monro Resignation John Lillie Gillies
1873 Mongonui and
Bay of Islands
24 July John McLeod Resignation John Williams
1873 Wakatipu 19 August Bendix Hallenstein Resignation Vincent Pyke
1873 Collingwood 9 December Arthur Collins Resignation William Gibbs
1874 Franklin 9 April Archibald Clark Resignation Joseph May
1874 (1st) Akaroa 20 April Robert Rhodes Resignation William Montgomery[46]
1874 City of Dunedin 23 April John Bathgate Resignation Nathaniel Wales
1874 Waitemata 3 August Thomas Henderson Resignation Gustav von der Heyde
1874 (2nd) Akaroa[47] 10 August William Montgomery Election invalid[48] William Montgomery
1874 Waitemata 16 September Gustav von der Heyde unseated on petition Gustav von der Heyde
1875 Kaiapoi 22 January John Studholme Resignation Charles Christopher Bowen
1875 (1st) City of Auckland West[49] 27 March Thomas Gillies Appointed to
Supreme Court
George Grey
1875 (2nd) City of Auckland West 14 April John Williamson Death Patrick Dignan
1875 Rangitikei 24 April William Fox Resignation John Ballance
1875 Waikouaiti 3 May John Lillie Gillies Resignation George McLean
1875 Wairau 21 June Arthur Seymour Resignation Joseph Ward
1875 Wallace 6 August George Webster Death Christopher Basstian
1875 Caversham 20 August William Tolmie Death Robert Stout

6th Parliament (1876–1879)

1876 City of Auckland West[50] 25 July George Grey Resignation Benjamin Tonks
1876 Wanganui 27 September Julius Vogel Resignation William Fox
1877 Napier 15 February Donald McLean Death Fred Sutton
1877 City of Wellington 27 March Edward Pearce Resignation William Travers
1877 Totara 30 April George Henry Tribe Death William Gisborne
1877 City of Auckland West 2 May Benjamin Tonks Resignation James Wallis
1877 Wairarapa 3 July John Andrew Resignation George Beetham
1878 City of Wellington 18 February William Travers Resignation George Elliott Barton
1878 Timaru 8 April Edward Stafford Resignation Richard Turnbull
1878 Port Chalmers 12 April William Hunter Reynolds Resignation James Green
1878 Franklin 20 May Hugh Lusk Resignation Richard Hobbs
1878 Cheviot 21 May Leonard Harper Resignation Alfred Saunders
1878 Grey Valley 22 May Martin Kennedy Resignation Richard Reeves
1878 Hokitika 26 June Charles Button Resignation Seymour Thorne George
1878 City of Dunedin 3 July William Larnach Resignation Richard Oliver
1878 Taieri 11 July Donald Reid Resignation William Cutten
1878 Invercargill 17 July George Lumsden Resignation Henry Feldwick
1878 Waipa 24 July Alfred Cox Resignation Edward Graham McMinn
1878 Roslyn 29 July Arthur John Burns Resignation Henry Driver
1879 Gladstone 3 January Frederick Teschemaker Death John Studholme
1879 Mataura 15 January William Wood Resignation James Shanks
1879 City of Nelson 6 February John Sharp Resignation Acton Adams
1879 City of Auckland West 4 March Patrick Dignan Resignation David Goldie
1879 Coleridge[51] 8 May Cathcart Wason Resignation George Hart
1879 Hutt 2 July William Fitzherbert Resignation Henry Jackson
1879 Eastern Maori 7 July Karaitiana Takamoana Death Henare Tomoana
1879 Southern Maori 7 July Hori Kerei Taiaroa Resignation Ihaia Tainui
1879 City of Dunedin 15 July Robert Stout Resignation William Downie Stewart

7th Parliament (1879–1881)

1880 Rangitikei 8 May William Jarvis Willis Resignation William Fox
1880 Waitaki 16 June Thomas William Hislop Resignation George Jones
1880 Waikaia 21 September George Ireland Death Horace Bastings
1881 Suburbs of Nelson 11 January Andrew James Richmond Death Arthur Collins
1881 Southern Maori 1 March Ihaia Tainui Resignation Hori Kerei Taiaroa
1881 City of Nelson 7 June Acton Adams Resignation Henry Levestam
1881 Grey Valley 16 June Edward Masters Resignation Thomas Shailer Weston

8th Parliament (1882–1884)

1882 Franklin North 9 June Benjamin Harris Election declared void Benjamin Harris
1882 Wakanui 16 June Cathcart Wason Election declared void Joseph Ivess
1882 Stanmore[52] 11 July Walter Pilliet Election declared void Walter Pilliet
1883 Peninsula 24 January James Seaton Death William Larnach
1883 Selwyn 6 April John Hall Resignation Edward James Lee
1883 Inangahua 14 May Thomas Shailer Weston Resignation Edward Shaw
1883 Bruce 29 June James Rutherford Death James McDonald
1884 Selwyn 15 February Edward James Lee Death Edward Wakefield
1884 Thorndon 13 May William Levin Resignation Alfred Newman
1884 Kaiapoi 16 May Isaac Wilson Resignation Edward Richardson
1884 East Coast 16 June Allan MacDonald Resignation Samuel Locke

9th Parliament (1884–1887)

1885 Oamaru 20 May Samuel Edward Shrimski Resignation Thomas William Hislop
1885 (1st) Tauranga 22 May George Morris Resignation John Sheehan
1885 Waimea 3 June Joseph Shephard Resignation John Kerr
1885 Southern Maori 10 June Hori Kerei Taiaroa Resignation Tame Parata
1885 Wakanui 6 July John Grigg Resignation Joseph Ivess
1885 (2nd) Tauranga 11 July John Sheehan Death Lawrence Grace
1885 Bruce 5 August Robert Gillies Resignation Donald Reid
1886 Sydenham 12 May William White Resignation Richard Taylor
1886 Dunedin Central 19 October James Bradshaw Death Thomas Bracken
1886 Waitemata 11 December William Hurst Death Richard Monk
1886 Western Maori 23 December Te Puke Te Ao Death Hoani Taipua
1887 Heathcote[53] 8 February John Coster Death Frederic Jones
1887 Port Chalmers 6 April James Macandrew Death James Mills
1887 Te Aro 15 April Charles Johnston Resignation Francis Fraser
1887 Northern Maori 9 May Ihaka Hakuene Death Wi Katene
1887 Avon[54] 1 June Leonard Harper Resignation Edwin Blake

10th Parliament (1887–1890)

1888 Ashley 25 September William Pearson Death John Verrall
1889 Lincoln 16 January Arthur O'Callaghan Resignation Alfred Saunders
1889 City of Nelson 3 April Henry Levestam Death Joseph Harkness
1889 Christchurch North[55] 19 June Julius Vogel Resignation Edward Humphreys
1889 Oamaru 30 September Thomas William Hislop Resignation Thomas William Hislop
1889 Waipa 21 November William Jackson Death John Bryce
1889 East Coast 13 December Andrew Graham Resignation Alexander Creighton Arthur
1890 Timaru 18 August Richard Turnbull Death William Hall-Jones

Liberal Party era

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Party Cause Winner Party

11th Parliament (1891–1893)

1891 Northern Maori 7 February Hirini Taiwhanga Independent Death[56][57] Eparaima Te Mutu Kapa Independent
1891 Egmont 17 February   Harry Atkinson[58] Independent Appointed to Legislative Council Felix McGuire[59] Independent
1891 Newton 31 March David Goldie Liberal Resignation George Grey Independent
1891 Te Aroha 9 July William Allen Independent Disallowed on petition William Fraser Liberal
1891 Waikato 6 October John Bryce Independent Resignation Edward Lake Independent
1891 City of Christchurch 9 October Westby Perceval Liberal Appointed Agent General Ebenezer Sandford Liberal
1892 City of Wellington 15 January Thomas Macdonald Liberal Resignation William McLean Liberal
1892 Bruce 4 May James Thomson Independent Resignation James Allen Independent
1892 Rangitikei 8 July Douglas Macarthur Independent Death Robert Bruce Independent
1893 Inangahua 8 June Richard Reeves Independent Bankruptcy Robert Stout Liberal
1893 Wanganui 9 June John Ballance Liberal Death Archibald Willis Liberal
1893 Thames 26 July Alfred Cadman Liberal Resignation James McGowan Liberal
1893 City of Auckland 4 August William Rees Liberal Resignation Alfred Cadman Liberal

12th Parliament (1894–1896)

1894 Waitemata 9 April Richard Monk Independent Election declared invalid William Massey Independent
1894 Tuapeka 9 July Vincent Pyke Liberal Death William Larnach Liberal
1895 City of Auckland 24 July George Grey Independent Resignation Thomas Thompson Liberal
1896 City of Christchurch 13 February William Reeves Independent Appointed Agent-General   Charles Lewis Independent

13th Parliament (1897–1899)

1897 Suburbs of Wellington   23 April Thomas Wilford Liberal Election declared void Charles Wilson Liberal
1897 Awarua 5 August Joseph Ward Liberal Bankruptcy Joseph Ward Liberal
1897 City of Dunedin 13 October Henry Fish Independent   Death Alexander Sligo   Independent  
1898[60] City of Wellington 9 March Robert Stout Liberal Resignation John Duthie Independent
1898 Mataura 26 May George Richardson   Independent Bankruptcy Robert McNab Liberal
1898 Tuapeka 2 November William Larnach Liberal Death Charles Rawlins Independent
1899 City of Wellington 25 July John Hutcheson Liberal Resignation John Hutcheson Liberal

14th Parliament (1900–1902)

1900 Otaki 6 January Henry Augustus Field[29] Liberal Death William Hughes Field[29] Liberal
1900 City of Auckland 27 April William Crowther[7] Liberal Death Joseph Witheford[61] Liberal
1900 Waihemo 18 July John McKenzie[62] Liberal Resignation Thomas Mackenzie[62] Liberal
1901 Northern Maori 9 January Hone Heke Ngapua Liberal Bankruptcy Hone Heke Ngapua Liberal
1901 City of Christchurch 18 July Charles Lewis Independent Resignation George Smith Independent
1901 (1st) Patea 18 July George Hutchison Independent Resignation Frederick Haselden Independent
1901 (2nd) Patea 6 November Frederick Haselden Independent Election voided on petition[63] Frederick Haselden Independent
1901 Caversham 19 December Arthur Morrison Liberal Death Thomas Sidey Liberal

15th Parliament (1903–1905)

1904 Pahiatua 28 July John O'Meara Liberal Death William Hawkins Liberal
1905 City of Wellington 6 April George Fisher Liberal Death Francis Fisher Liberal

16th Parliament (1906–1908)

1906 Westland 13 July Richard Seddon Liberal Death Tom Seddon Liberal
1906 Manukau 6 December Matthew Kirkbride[64] Independent Death Frederic Lang[65] Independent
1907 Taranaki 4 May Edward Metcalf Smith[28] Liberal Death Henry Okey[10] Independent
1908 Tuapeka 5 June James Bennet Liberal Death William Chapple Independent

17th Parliament (1909–1911)

1909 Thames 4 February James McGowan Liberal Appointed to Legislative Council Edmund Taylor Liberal
1909 Northern Maori 20 March Hone Heke Ngapua Liberal Death Te Rangi Hīroa Liberal
1909 Rangitikei 16 September Arthur Remington Liberal Death Robert Smith Liberal
1910 Auckland East 16 June Frederick Baume Liberal Death Arthur Myers Independent
1911 Christchurch North 17 August Tommy Taylor New Liberal Death Leonard Isitt Liberal

Multi-party era

By-election Electorate Date Incumbent Party Cause Winner Party

18th Parliament (1912–1914)

1912 Egmont 17 September Thomas Mackenzie Liberal Resignation Charles Wilkinson Reform
1913[66] Grey 17 & 24 July Arthur Guinness Liberal Death Paddy Webb Social Democrat
1913[67] Lyttelton 9 & 16 December George Laurenson Independent Death James McCombs Social Democrat

19th Parliament (1915–1919)

1915 Dunedin Central 3 February Charles Statham Reform Resignation Charles Statham Reform
1915 Bay of Islands 8 June Vernon Reed Reform Election declared void[68] William Stewart Reform
1915 Taumarunui 15 June William Jennings Liberal Election declared void[69] William Jennings Liberal
1916 Pahiatua 17 August James Escott Reform Death George Smith Reform
1917 Hawke's Bay 8 March Robert McNab Liberal Death John Findlay Liberal
1917 Bay of Islands 17 March William Stewart Reform Resignation Vernon Reed Reform
1917 Grey 24 November Paddy Webb Labour Resignation Paddy Webb Labour
1918 Wellington North 12 February Alexander Herdman Reform Resignation John Luke Liberal
1918 Southern Maori 21 February Taare Parata Liberal Death Hopere Uru Independent
1918 Grey 29 May Paddy Webb Labour Imprisonment Harry Holland Labour
1918 Wellington Central 3 October Robert Fletcher Liberal Death Peter Fraser Labour
1918 Taranaki 10 October Henry Okey Reform Death Sydney Smith Liberal
1918 Palmerston 19 December David Buick Reform Death James Nash Reform
1918 Wellington South 19 December Alfred Hindmarsh Labour Death Bob Semple Labour

20th Parliament (1920–1922)

1920 Bruce 14 April James Allen Reform Resignation John Edie Liberal
1920 Stratford 6 May Robert Masters Liberal Election declared void Robert Masters Liberal
1920 Bay of Plenty 30 September William MacDonald Liberal Death Kenneth Williams Reform
1921 Patea 13 April Walter Powdrell Reform Death Edwin Dixon Reform
1921 Auckland East 2 November Arthur Myers Liberal Resignation Clutha Mackenzie Reform
1922 Southern Maori 25 January Hopere Uru Reform Death Henare Uru Reform
1922 Dunedin North 21 June Edward Kellett Independent Death James Munro Labour

21st Parliament (1923–1925)

1923 Tauranga 28 March William Herries Reform Death Charles MacMillan Reform
1923 Oamaru 1 May John Macpherson Liberal Election declared void[70] John Macpherson Liberal
1925 Franklin 17 June William Massey Reform Death Ewen McLennan Reform

22nd Parliament (1926–28)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1926 Eden 15 April 1926 Appointment of Christopher Parr
to the High Commission of New Zealand, London
Rex Mason (Labour)
1927 Raglan 29 September 1927 Death of Richard Bollard William Lee Martin (Labour)

23rd Parliament (1929–31)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1929 Bay of Islands 10 April 1929 Previous result declared void Harold Rushworth (Country)
1929 Hutt 18 December 1929 Resignation of Thomas Mason Wilford Walter Nash (Labour) #
1930 Parnell 7 May 1930 Resignation of Harry Reginald Jenkins William Endean (Reform)
1930 Invercargill 13 August 1930 Death of Joseph Ward Vincent Ward (United)
1930 Waipawa 8 October 1930 Death of George Hunter Albert Jull (United)
1930 Western Maori 8 October 1930 Death of Maui Pomare Taite Te Tomo (Reform)
1931 Hauraki 27 May 1931 Death of Arthur William Hall Walter William Massey (Reform)

24th Parliament (1932–35)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1932 Southern Maori 3 August 1932 Death of Tuiti Makitanara Eruera Tirikatene (Independent)
1932 Motueka 1 December 1932 Death of George Black Keith Holyoake (Reform) #
1933 Lyttelton 13 September 1933 Death of James McCombs Elizabeth McCombs (Labour)
1933 Buller 22 November 1933 Death of Harry Holland Paddy Webb (Labour)
1935 Lyttelton 24 July 1935 Death of Elizabeth McCombs (Labour) Terry McCombs (Labour)

25th Parliament (1936–38)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1936 Manukau 30 September 1936 Resignation of William Joseph Jordan Arthur George Osborne (Labour)

Two-party era

26th Parliament (1939–43)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1939 Christchurch South 3 June 1939 Death of Ted Howard (Labour) Robert Macfarlane (Labour)
1940 Auckland West 18 May 1940 Death of Michael Joseph Savage (Labour) Peter Carr (Labour)
1940 Waipawa 16 November 1940 Death of Albert Jull Cyril Geoffrey Edmund Harker (National)
1941 Waitemata 19 July 1941 Death of William John Lyon (Labour) Mary Manson Dreaver (Labour)
1941 Bay of Plenty 13 December 1941 Death of Gordon Hultquist (Labour) William Sullivan (National)
1942 Mid-Canterbury 27 January 1942 Death of Arthur Nattle Grigg (National) Mary Victoria Cracroft Grigg (National)
1942 Temuka 7 February 1942 Death of Thomas David Burnett Hugh John Dyke Ackland (National)
1942 Hauraki 7 February 1942 Death of John Manchester Allen (National) Andrew Sinclair Sutherland (National)
1943 Christchurch East 6 February 1943 Death of Tim Armstrong (Labour) Mabel Howard (Labour)
1943 Northern Maori 1943 Death of Paraire Karaka Paikea (Labour) Tapihana Paraire Paikea (Labour)

27th Parliament (1943–46)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1944 Awarua 28 October 1944 Death of James Hargest (National) George Richard Herron (National)
1945 Western Maori 10 February 1945 Death of Haami Tokouru Ratana (Labour) Matiu Ratana (Labour)
1945 Hamilton 26 May 1945 Death of Frank Findlay (National) Grace Hilda Ross (National)
1945 Dunedin North 21 July 1945 Death of James Wright Munro Robert Walls (Labour)
1946 Raglan 5 March 1946 Death of Robert Coulter (Labour) Hallyburton Johnstone (National)

28th Parliament (1946–49)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1947 Avon 28 May 1947 Death of Daniel Giles Sullivan (Labour) John Mathison (Labour)
1947 Mount Albert 24 September 1947 Death of Arthur Shapton Richards (Labour) Warren Freer (Labour)
1947 Westland 3 December 1947 Death of James O'Brien (Labour) James Begg Kent (Labour)

29th Parliament (1950–51)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1951 Brooklyn 17 February 1951 Death of Peter Fraser (Labour) Arnold Nordmeyer (Labour)

30th Parliament (1951–54)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1953 Dunedin North 12 December 1953 Death of Robert Walls (Labour) Ethel McMillan (Labour)
1953 Onehunga 19 December 1953 Death of Arthur Osborne (Labour) Hugh Watt (Labour)
1954 Onslow 7 July 1954 Death of Harry Ernest Combs (Labour) Henry May (Labour)
1954 Patea 31 July 1954 Resignation of William Alfred Sheat (National) Roy Jack (National)

31st Parliament (1955–57)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1956 Riccarton 27 October 1956 Death of Angus Mclagan (Labour) Mick Connelly (Labour)
1957 Bay of Plenty 6 April 1957 Resignation of William Sullivan Percy Allen (National)

32nd Parliament (1958–60)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1959 Hamilton 2 May 1959 Death of Grace Hilda Ross (National) Lancelot (Lance) Adams-Schneider (National)

33rd Parliament (1961–63)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1961 Hurunui 10 June 1961 Death of William Henry Gillespie Herbert Elmer Lorraine Pickering (National)
1962 Waitaki 10 March 1962 Death of Thomas Hayman Allan Dick (National)
1962 Buller 7 July 1962 Death of Jerry Skinner (Labour) Bill Rowling (Labour) #
1962 Timaru 21 July 1962 Resignation of Rev. Clyde Carr (Labour) Basil Arthur (Labour)
1963 Otahuhu 16 March 1963 Death of James Deas Bob Tizard (Labour)
1963 Northern Maori 16 March 1963 Death of Tapihana Paraire Paikea Matiu Rata (Labour)
1963 Grey Lynn 18 May 1963 Death of Fred Hackett Reginald Alfred Keeling (Labour)

34th Parliament (1964–66)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 34th Parliament.[38]

35th Parliament (1967–69)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1967 Southern Maori 11 March 1967 Death of Eruera Tirikatene Whetu Tirikatene-Sullivan (Labour)
1967 Fendalton 15 April 1967 Death of Harry Lake Eric Holland (National)
1967 Petone 15 April 1967 Death of Michael Moohan Fraser Colman (Labour)
1967 Palmerston North 2 December 1967 Death of William Henry Brown Joe Walding (Labour)
1967 Eastern Maori 12 December 1967 Death of Puti Tipene Watene Paraone Reweti (Labour)
1968 Hutt 3 August 1968 Death of Walter Nash (Labour) Trevor James Young (Labour)

36th Parliament (1970–72)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1970 Marlborough 21 February 1970 Death of Tom Shand Ian James Brooks (Labour)

37th Parliament (1973–75)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1974 Sydenham 2 November 1974 Death of Norman Kirk John Kirk (Labour)

38th Parliament (1976–78)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1976 Nelson 28 February 1976 Death of Stanley Whitehead Mel Courtney (Labour)
1977 Mangere 26 March 1977 Resignation of Colin Moyle (Labour) David Lange (Labour) #
1977 Pahiatua 30 April 1977 Sir Keith Holyoake appointed as Governor-General John Falloon (National)
1978 Rangitikei 18 February 1978 Death of Sir Roy Jack Bruce Beetham (Social Credit)

39th Parliament (1979–81)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1979 Christchurch Central 18 August 1979 Death of Bruce Barclay (Labour) Geoffrey Palmer (Labour) #
1980 Northern Maori 7 June 1980 Resignation of Matiu Rata (was Labour) Bruce Gregory (Labour)
1980 Onehunga 7 June 1980 Death of Frank Lewis Rogers (Labour) Fred Gerbic (Labour)
1980 East Coast Bays 6 September 1980 Appointment of Frank Gill as
Ambassador to the United States
Gary Knapp (Social Credit)

40th Parliament (1982–84)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 40th Parliament.[38]

41st Parliament (1984–87)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1985 Timaru 15 June 1985 Death of Basil Arthur (Labour) Maurice McTigue (National)

42nd Parliament (1987–90)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 42nd Parliament.

43rd Parliament (1990–93)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1992 Tamaki 15 February 1992 Retirement of Robert Muldoon (National) Clem Simich (National)
1992 Wellington Central 12 December 1992 Election of sitting MP Fran Wilde (Labour)
to Mayoralty of Wellington
Chris Laidlaw (Labour)
1993 Tauranga 17 April 1993 Resignation of Winston Peters from the National Party Winston Peters (Independent)

44th Parliament (1994–96)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1994 Selwyn 13 August 1994 Resignation of Ruth Richardson (National) David Carter (National)[71]

MMP era

45th Parliament (1997–99)

By-election Date Reason Winner
1998 Taranaki-King Country 2 May 1998 Resignation of Jim Bolger (National) Shane Ardern (National)[72]

46th Parliament (2000–02)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 46th Parliament.

47th Parliament (2003–05)

By-election Date Reason Winner
2004 Te Tai Hauauru 10 July 2004 Resignation of Tariana Turia from the Labour Party Tariana Turia (Māori Party)[73]

48th Parliament (2006–08)

There were no by-elections during the term of the 48th Parliament.

49th Parliament (2009–current)

By-election Date Reason Winner
2009 Mount Albert 13 June 2009 Resignation of Helen Clark (Labour) David Shearer (Labour)[74]
2010 Mana 20 November 2010 Resignation of Winnie Laban (Labour) Kris Faafoi (Labour)[75]
2011 Botany 5 March 2011 Resignation of Pansy Wong (National) Jami-Lee Ross (National)
2011 Te Tai Tokerau 25 June 2011 Resignation of Hone Harawira (Independent) Hone Harawira (Mana Party)

References

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