New York City: the 51st State

New York City: the 51st State
New York City: the 51st State
Leader Norman Mailer (Mayor), Jimmy Breslin (City Council President)
Founded 1968 (1968)
Dissolved 1969 (1969)
Succeeded by None
Ideology Secession of New York City from New York State/United States; Local Autonomy ("Power to the Neighborhood")
Political position Left, Libertarian
International affiliation None
Politics of United States
Political parties

New York City: the 51st State was the platform of the Norman Mailer-Jimmy Breslin candidacy in the 1969 New York City Democratic Mayoral Primary election. Mailer, a novelist, journalist, and filmmaker, and Breslin, an author and at the time a New York City newspaper columnist, proposed that the five New York City boroughs should secede from New York State, and become the 51st State of the U.S.

Mailer topped the ticket as candidate for Mayor; his running mate, Breslin, sought the office of City Council President. Their platform featured placing city governmental control in the hands of the neighborhoods, and offered unique and creative – if impractical and even logistically impossible – solutions to air pollution, traffic congestion, school overcrowding, and crime.

After a strong grassroots campaign, the ticket entered the primary on 17 June 1969 as decided underdogs. They finished second to last, garnering a city-wide total of 41,288 votes, 5% of the total votes cast.[1]


History of the campaign

In the 1960s, New York City suffered from economic problems and rising crime rates, which continued a steep uphill climb through the decade.[2] The old manufacturing jobs that supported generations of uneducated immigrants were disappearing by deindustrialization, millions of middle class residents were fleeing to the suburbs, and public sector workers had won the right to unionize. All the candidates in the 1969 Democratic mayoralty primary race – three-time mayor Robert F. Wagner, Jr., long-time party worker and City Comptroller Mario Procaccino, Bronx Borough President Herman Badillo, and Congressman James H. Scheuer – were familiar, uninspiring mainstream politicians who offered few new or novel ideas on how to solve the city's problems.

The campaign's "Power to the Neighborhood" concept placed authority for local governance in the hands of neighborhood residents.

Enter Mailer and Breslin. Mailer’s vociferous candidacy ("New York Gets an Imagination – or It Dies!") convinced opinionated Queens newspaper columnist Jimmy Breslin to abandon his own mayoral quest and join the higher profile Mailer as his City Council President running mate. [3] In a Time Magazine interview published four days before the primary, Mailer called himself a "left conservative" — left because he believed the city's problems demanded radical answers, conservative because he had little faith in centralized government. Mailer said that, if he were to win the primary and be elected in November, "a small miracle would have happened. At that moment the city would have declared that it had lost faith in the old ways of solving political problems and that it wished to embark on a new conception of politics."[4]

Giving authority to local residents banded together by history, interests, or ethnicity, would create "some real power to the neighborhoods... such as power with their local boards of education, power to decide about the style and quality and number of the police force they want and are willing to pay for, power over the Department of Sanitation, power over their parks." [4]

More dramatically, Mailer wanted to restore the sense of small-town identity that had become lost in the anonymity of city life. "The energies of the people of New York at present have no purchase on their own natural wit and intelligence," he said. "They have no purpose other than to watch with a certain gallows humor the progressive deterioration of their city." Under Mailer's plan for independent neighborhoods, however, "those energies could begin to work for their deepest and most private and most passionate ideas about the nature of government, the nature of man's relation to his own immediate society."[4]


Handbill for the campaign (front), 1969

(The contents of this section are adapted from the Mailer-Breslin campaign literature.)

The planks of the Mailer-Breslin platform included:[5]

  • Statehood – New York City would split off from the rest of New York State and secede from the union, thus becoming the 51st State of the U.S. For a new state to be carved out of one already in existence requires approval of both the old state legislature and the U.S. Congress. New states have been created from the territory of older states before. For example, in 1792, Kentucky was formed from part of Virginia, and West Virginia broke away from Virginia and became a state in 1863. Mailer proposed that the first step, following his election, should be a city-wide referendum on the question of statehood for the city.
  • Taxes – In 1969, New York City taxpayers paid the state and federal governments $14 billion ($86.4 billion in 2011 dollars[6]), and got only $3 billion back ($18.5 billion in 2011 dollars[6]). The creation of the 51st State would help correct this imbalance, and bring about $2 billion ($12.3 billion in 2011 dollars[6]) in additional revenue to the city. In addition, a casino would be built on either Randall's Island, Roosevelt Island, or Coney Island, with tax revenues going directly to the City-State.
  • Transportation – All private cars would be banned from Manhattan Island. Buses and taxicabs would be permitted, with the number of cabs increased. Parking lots would be built outside Manhattan at strategic locations. A monorail, built around the circumference of Manhattan, would service these lots, stopping also at rail stations and water ferry terminals. A free bus and jitney service would operate in Midtown, the city's most congested area. Publicly owned bicycles would be available to all at no cost.
  • Pollution – The elimination of private cars from Manhattan Island would reduce pollution there by 60%. All vehicles and incinerators in the city would be required to have pollution control devices. Sweet Sunday (q.v.) would give the city breathing room once a month.
  • Education – The neighborhoods would have complete control over their school systems, including which teachers to hire, what curricula to teach, and what grading and testing methods would be used. Autonomy could include, for example, "vest-pocket campuses built by students in abandoned buildings, restoring a sense of personal involvement that is lost in the large university campuses."[4]
  • Housing – Neighborhoods would manage all rent-controlled housing. The City-State would fund programs of rehabilitation – not demolition – of existing buildings, along with programs to aid in eventual home ownership for tenants. On-the-job trainees would restore good buildings which would otherwise be razed.
Handbill for the campaign (back), 1969
  • Welfare – Since welfare is a national problem, every effort would be made to have the Federal government absorb 90% of the cost of welfare. All welfare programs would be administered by the neighborhoods, eliminating the 15% of welfare funds spent on welfare case investigations, the thinking being that neighbors know best which neighbors need/deserve public assistance. The City-State would fund the neighborhoods to employ residents in local daycare centers, housing rehabilitation, and recreational programs, thus keeping thousands off the welfare rolls.
  • Crime – Local neighborhoods would know best how to control crime in their communities by employing policemen who have the respect of the community because they live there. The City-State would fund neighborhoods to administer their own crime prevention programs, and would aid them only if they so desired.
  • Sweet Sundays – One Sunday per month would be designated "Sweet Sunday," when every form of mechanical transportation — including elevators — would be halted. Mailer's idea was to clear the air of pollution and provide a carefree day during which citizens could gather and decompress.[4] As Sam Smith, editor of The Progressive Review put it, Sweet Sundays would allow "human beings to rest and talk to each other and the air can purify itself. Mailer and Breslin understood that real politics is not just a matter of management but a collective expression of a community’s soul."[3]

Primary Election results

Norman Mailer in 1988

Perhaps the most significant outcome of the Mailer-Breslin campaign was that they did not finish last. That dubious honor belonged to James H. Scheuer, who finished 1,878 votes behind Mailer. Mailer garnered over 10,000 more votes than Scheuer in Manhattan, and also outpolled him on Staten Island.

As the result of the fragmented, five-candidate field, the 1969 Democratic Primary made for one of the most unusual elections since the conglomeration of greater New York. The incumbent Republican Mayor (John V. Lindsay) and a former Democratic incumbent (Robert F. Wagner, Jr.) both lost their parties' primaries. Mario Procaccino won with less than 33% of the vote against Mailer and three other opponents, which inspired the use of runoffs in future primaries.[7] The complete Democratic Primary results:

1969 Democratic primary[1]
Manhattan The Bronx Brooklyn Queens Staten Island Total
Mario Procaccino 26,804 50,465 87,650 79,002 11,628 255,529
16% 34% 36% 40% 52% 33%
Robert F. Wagner, Jr. 40,978 33,442 81,833 61,244 6,967 224,464
25% 23% 33% 31% 31% 29%
Herman Badillo 74,809 48,841 52,866 37,880 2,769 217,165
45% 33% 22% 19% 12% 28%
Norman Mailer 17,372 4,214 10,299 8,700 703 41,288
10% 3% 4% 4% 3% 5%
James H. Scheuer 7,117 10,788 11,942 8,994 509 39,350
4% 7% 5% 5% 2% 5%


  1. ^ a b James Trager (13 October 2004). The New York Chronology: The Ultimate Compendium of Events, People, and Anecdotes from the Dutch to the Present. HarperCollins. ISBN 978-0-06-074062-7. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 
  2. ^ Christopher Effgen (September 11, 2001). "New York Crime Rates 1960–2009". Retrieved October 28, 2010. 
  3. ^ a b Queens Tribune Online, Not For Publication. (2001-09-12). Retrieved on 2011-09-06.
  4. ^ a b c d e New York: Mailer for Mayor Time Magazine, Friday, Jun. 13, 1969
  5. ^ Mailer-Breslin Campaign handbill (1969). (Image:Mailer-Breslin-Handbill-Back.jpg accompanies article.)
  6. ^ a b c Inflation Calculator. Retrieved on 2011-09-06.
  7. ^ Vincent Cannato (25 April 2002). The Ungovernable City. Basic Books. pp. 437–. ISBN 978-0-465-00844-5. Retrieved 6 September 2011. 

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

См. также в других словарях:

  • New York City secession — New York City secession, the secession of New York City (and possibly neighboring areas) from New York State and/or the United States, has been proposed several times in history. These movements have been in some ways just extreme manifestations… …   Wikipedia

  • New York City mayoral elections — Elections in New York Federal offices Presidential elections 1996 · 2000 · 2004  …   Wikipedia

  • Mayor of New York City — Mayor of the City of New York Flag of the Mayor …   Wikipedia

  • List of hospitals in New York City — This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. List of hospitals in New York City, sorted by hospital name. A list of hospitals in New York state is also available. Contents 1 Hospitals in New York City 1.1 The Bro …   Wikipedia

  • Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus (New York City) — Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus General information Architectural style Victorian Romanesque Location Hell s Kitchen / Clinton, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States of America Construction started …   Wikipedia

  • Liste der Krankenhäuser in New York City — Diese Liste der Krankenhäuser in New York City sortiert die Krankenhäuser nach dem englischsprachigen Kliniknamen ein. Für 2009 nannte sie 40 – 45 Einrichtungen. Ehemalige, geschlossene Kliniken stehen in einem separaten Absatz. Krankenhäuser in… …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • List of New York City Subway stations — The current New York City Transit Authority rail system map; the Staten Island Railway is a separate entity from the New York City Subway The New York City Subway is a rapid transit system that serves four of the five boroughs of New York City in …   Wikipedia

  • Timeline of New York City crimes and disasters — The following is a timeline of New York City crimes and disasters.17th century* 1668 First yellow fever epidemic in the city.18th century* 1702 Yellow fever epidemic kills more than 500 people. * September 21, 1776 Approximately 1000 houses, a… …   Wikipedia

  • Lexington Avenue/59th Street (New York City Subway) — Infobox NYCS name = Lexington Avenue/59th Street bg color = black service = Lexington 59th transfer service = 63rd Lexington transfer station = Lexington Avenue–63rd Street transfer line = IND 63rd Street Line transfer station acc = yes… …   Wikipedia

  • New York State Assembly — New York State Legislature Type Type …   Wikipedia

Поделиться ссылкой на выделенное

Прямая ссылка:
Нажмите правой клавишей мыши и выберите «Копировать ссылку»