Eastern Air Defense Sector


Eastern Air Defense Sector
Eastern Air Defense Sector
Eastern Air Defense Sector emblem.jpg
Eastern Air Defense Sector Emblem
Active 1960--present
Country United States
Branch United States Air Force
Role Air Defense
EADS Region shown in NORAD Region/Sector Configuration

The Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) is a United States Air Force unit and a component of the New York Air National Guard. It is stationed at the former Griffiss Air Force Base in Rome, New York.

Contents

Overview

CONR/AFNORTH Emblem
Battle Control System – Fixed (BCS-F) display, used at the EADS Sector Operations Control Center (SOCC) at Rome, New York.

The Eastern Air Defense Sector is one of two Sectors responsible to the North American Aerospace Defense Command (NORAD) and the Continental NORAD Region for peacetime air sovereignty, strategic air defense, and airborne counter-drug operations in the continental United States. The other sector is the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS).

It operates a Sector Operations Control Center (SOCC) at Rome, New York, as part of the Joint Surveillance System (JSS) which had replaced SAGE in 1983. This system enjoins state-of-the-art air defense systems and cutting-edge computer technology to significantly increase surveillance and identification capabilities, and better protect the nation's airways from intrusion and attack. It relies on digitized radar inputs from Air Route Surveillance Radar (ARSR) sites jointly operated by the Federal Aviation Administration and the Air Force, and tethered aerostat radar balloons. It is fully integrated with the E-3A Airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) system and the Joint Surveillance Target Attack Radar System (E-8 Joint STARS).

The SOCC employs 27 NORAD contingency suites, and 31 Battle Control System-Fixed (BCS-F) displays. A next-generation air sovereignty system, BCS-F fuses data from airborne, ground and naval elements and civil air traffic sensors into an integrated air picture. This allows commanders to surveil and monitor the airspace above, beyond and within U.S. and Canadian borders, providing a major component for homeland defense.

It also incorporates a newly-developed situational awareness system that gives EADS unprecedented tools and technology to assist state and local responders in dealing with natural disasters. It has the redundant capability to cover the WADS if the call arises.

EADS is a New York Air National Guard unit which reports directly to AFNORTH/1st Air Force at Tyndall AFB, Florida. The Sector reports to Air Combat Command (ACC) and to NORAD headquarters, in Colorado Springs, Colorado in its federal role. NORAD is a bi-national United States and Canadian organization charged with the missions of aerospace warning and aerospace control for North America.

Other NORAD air defense organizations include the Western Air Defense Sector (WADS), the Hawaii Region Air Operations Center (HIRAOC), the Alaska Region Air Operations Center (AKRAOC) and the Canada Air Defense Sector (CADS).[1]

Mission

The Sector’s primary mission is Guarding America’s Skies. This 24/7 guardian role involves the use of radar and communications systems to monitor air traffic from the Mississippi River east to the Atlantic Ocean, and from the Canadian border south to the Gulf of Mexico.

The EADS air sovereignty and executes counter-air operations over the eastern United States. Directs the employment of 178 sensors, 8 fighter alert locations, AWACS aircraft, a Battle Control Center (BCC), and joint air defense artillery assets to defend one million square miles, 16 major cities, and adjacent seas. Supports NORAD's Integrated Tactical Warning and Attack Assessment, NORTHCOM Homeland Defense Mission. It works closely with other federal agencies including the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), Secret Service and U.S. Customs Service as well as its sister military services – the U.S. Navy, U.S. Army and U.S. Coast Guard.

As part of the New York Air National Guard, EADS reports to the Governor through the New York National Guard offices when directed by state authorities. It provides protection of life and property, and preserves peace, order and public safety. State missions, which are funded by the state, include disaster relief in times of earthquakes, hurricanes, floods and forest fires; search and rescue; protection of vital public services; and support to civil defense.

Units

Air National Guard units aligned under 1AF (AFNORTH) with an air defense mission under EADS are:

History

539th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron Convair F-106A-64-CO Delta Darts McGuire AFB, New Jersey October 1959
332d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron North American F-86D-45-NA Sabre 52-3901, 4709th Air Defense Wing, McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1956
Emblem of the historical New York/Northeast Air Defense Sector
Emblem of the historical Montgomery/Southeast Air Defense Sector

Cold War

The sector's history begins on 1 February 1952 with the activation of the Air Defense Command 4709th Defense Wing. The 4709th ADW replaced the 52d Fighter-Interceptor Wing at McGuire AFB, New Jersey operating aircraft interceptor units and Ground Intercept Radar (GCI) radar units.

On 1 April 1956 the 4709th ADW was replaced by the 4621st Air Defense Wing due to a realignment of the parent 26th Air Division region boundaries. It operated a Manual Air Direction Center (MDC) at Roslyn AFS, New York. It was re-designated as the New York Air Defense Sector (NYADS) on 1 October. The sector's mission was to train and maintain tactical flying units in state of readiness in order to defend Northeast United States while initially continuing to operate the MDC.

The organization was in large part responsible for one of the foundational projects of the computer era: the development of the SAGE (Semi-Automatic Ground Environment) air defense system, from its first test at Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1951, to the installation of the first unit of the New York Air Defense Sector of the SAGE system, in 1958.

The idea for SAGE grew out of Project Whirlwind, a World War II computer development effort, when the War Department realized that the Whirlwind computer might anchor a continent-wide advance warning system. Developed during the 1950s by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) engineers and scientists for the U.S. Air Force, SAGE monitored North American skies for possible attack by manned aircraft and missiles for twenty-five years. Aside from its strategic importance, SAGE set the foundation for mass data-processing systems and foreshadowed many computer developments of the 1960s. The heart of the system, the IBM AN/FSQ-7 computer, was the first computer to have an internal memory composed of "magnetic cores," thousands of tiny ferrite rings that served as reversible electromagnets. SAGE also introduced computer-driven graphic displays, online keyboard terminals, time sharing, high-availability computation with a redundant AN/FSQ-7 to fail over if the primary system went down, digital signal processing, digital transmission over leased telephone lines, digital track-while-scan, digital simulation, computer networking, and duplex computing.

The SAGE Direction Center DC-01 40°01′51″N 074°34′32″W / 40.03083°N 74.57556°W / 40.03083; -74.57556 (NYADS-SAGE DC-01) was activated on 1 July 1958, the first sector to achieve this status. In a ceremony marking this achievement, Gen. Curtis E. LaMay was the guest speaker. He described SAGE as, "A system centralizing many air defense functions, minimizing manual tasks and allowing electronic devices to perform hundreds of complex computations accurately and simultaneously to improve air defense capability."

On 1 April 1966, the NYADS was inactivated, as did the other 22 sectors in the country. The SAGE system remained active until replaced in 1983 by newer technology (JSS). The 3-story DC-01 SAGE building, with reinforced 3' concrete walls and roof now hosts the Headquarters, 21st Expeditionary Mobility Task Force, Air Mobility Command at McGuire AFB.

Modern era

On 1 July 1987, four of the previous ADCOM Air Defense sectors were reactivated, re-designated, assigned and co-located with the four remaining air divisions.

  • The Montgomery Air Defense Sector (MOADS) became the Southeast Air Defense Sector or SEADS; assigned to 23d Air Division
  • The Los Angeles Air Defense Sector (LAADS) became the Southwest Air Defense Sector or SWADS; assigned to 26th Air Division
  • The Seattle Air Defense Sector (SEADS) became the Northwest Air Defense Sector or NWADS; assigned to 25th Air Division
  • The New York Air Defense Sector (NYADS) became the Northeast Air Defense Sector NEADS; assigned to 24th Air Division

The ADTAC Air Divisions were inactivated.

  • On 1 July 1987, 23d Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Southeast Air Defense Sector.
  • On 30 September 1990, 26th Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Southwest Air Defense Sector.
  • On 30 September 1990, 25th Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Northwest Air Defense Sector.
  • On 30 September 1990, 24th Air Division inactivated; assets transferred to Northeast Air Defense Sector.

The Air Defense Sectors were reassigned to the Air National Guard. All reported to First Air Force.

On 1 November 2005, the NEADS and SEADS consolidated, giving the Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) the responsibility of providing detection and air defense for the entire eastern half of the United States. NEADS was officially re-designated the Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS) on 15 July 2009.

The Continental NORAD Region (CONR) has responsibility for the Western Air Defense Sector and Eastern Air Defense Sector. It is headquartered at Tyndall AFB, Florida.

Lineage

Wisconsin ANG 115th Fighter Wing, Wisconsin Air National Guard over Wisconsin's capital city of Madison
F-16A 'Vipers' of the South Carolina ANG's 169th FW, 1989
  • Established as 4709th Defense Wing on 1 February 1952
Redesignated as 4709th Air Defense Wing on 1 September 1954
  • Activated as 4621st Air Defense Wing, 1 April 1956
4709th ADW assets reassigned to 4621st ADW
4709th ADW Discontinued on 18 October 1956
Discontinued and re-designated as New York Air Defense Sector on 1 October 1956
Inactivated on 30 September 1968
  • Re-designated as Northeast Air Defense Sector (NEADS) and activated, 1 July 1987
Re-designated as Northeast Air Defense Sector (ANG), 1 December 1994
Re-designated as Eastern Air Defense Sector (EADS), 15 July 2009

Assignments

Stations

  • McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1 February 1952-30 September 1968
  • Griffiss AFB, New York, 1 July 1997
  • Rome, New York, 30 September 1995 – Present

Components

Wing

Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1 July 1963-1 April 1966

Groups

  • 52d Fighter Group (Air Defense)
Suffolk County AFB, New York, 18 August 1955-1 March 1956; 8 July 1956-1 July 1963
  • 329th Fighter Group (Air Defense)
Stewart AFB, New York, 18 August 1955-8 July 1956
  • 519th Air Defense Group
Suffolk County AFB, New York, 18 February 1953-18 August 1955
  • 568th Air Defense Group
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1 February 1952-8 July 1954
  • 4700th Air Defense Group
Stewart AFB, New York, 20 September 1954-18 August 1955
  • 4730th Air Defense Group
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 8 February 1957 – 1 August 1959

Interceptor Squadrons

  • 2d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 6 February 1952-16 February 1953; 8 July 1954-18 August 1955
  • 5th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 6 February 1952-16 February 1953; 8 July 1954-18 August 1955
  • 45th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1 November 1952-16 February 1953
  • 46th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Dover AFB, Delaware, 1 March 1956-8 February 1957
  • 75th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Suffolk County AFB, New York, 14 October 1952-16 February 1953
  • 95th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Andrews AFB, Maryland, 1 November 1952-1 March 1956
  • 98th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Dover AFB, Delaware, 8 March 1956-8 February 1957; 1 July 1958-1 February 1959; 1 July 1961
Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1 July 1963-30 September 1968
  • 330th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
Stewart AFB, New York, 27 November 1952-20 Sep 1954
  • 332d Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 18 August 1955-8 February 1957
  • 539th Fighter-Interceptor Squadron
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 18 August 1955-8 February 1957;1 August 1959-23 August 1967

Missile Squadrons

  • 6th Air Defense Missile Squadron (BOMARC-A)
Suffolk County AFB, New York, 1959-1964
McGuire AFB, New Jersey, 1959-1968

Radar Squadrons

  • 646th Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron
Highlands AFS, New Jersey, 16 February 1953-1 April 1966
  • 648th Aircraft Control and Warning Squadron
Benton AFS, Pennsylvania, 30 July 1953-8 July 1956
  • 770th Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron
Palermo AFS, New Jersey, 1 March-1 October 1961
  • 773d Aircraft Control and Warning (later Radar) Squadron
Montauk AFS, New York, 16 February 1953-1 March 1956; 8 July 1956-1 April 1966

Notable personnel

MSgt Tom Pitera retired in 2011

TSgt Paul Roddy Exceptionally Qualified (EQ), Interface Control Coordinator, transferred to AFRC in 2010

See also

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

External links


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