One World Trade Center


One World Trade Center
One World Trade Center
Freedom Tower New.jpg
Computer rendering of the completed One World Trade Center, with 7 WTC nearby to the right.
Alternative names
  • Freedom Tower
  • 1 WTC
General information
Status Under construction
Type Office, WTO, Observation
Architectural style Contemporary
Location New York City
Coordinates 40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713°N 74.0135°W / 40.713; -74.0135Coordinates: 40°42′46.8″N 74°0′48.6″W / 40.713°N 74.0135°W / 40.713; -74.0135
Construction started April 27, 2006[1]
Estimated completion Early April 2013
Opening Late April 2013
Cost $3.1 billion (October 2008 estimate)[2]
Height
Antenna spire 1,776 ft (541.32 m)[3][4]
Roof 1,368 ft (417 m)
Top floor 1,314 ft (401 m)[3]
Technical details
Floor count 105[5]
Floor area 2,600,000 sq ft (241,548 m2)[3]
Design and construction
Main contractor Tishman Construction
Architect David Childs (Skidmore, Owings & Merrill)[6]
Developer Port Authority of New York and New Jersey
Structural engineer WSP Cantor Seinuk
References
[7]
Planned rebuilding of the
World Trade Center
Towers
One World Trade Center (Tower 1)
Two World Trade Center (Tower 2)
Three World Trade Center (Tower 3)
Four World Trade Center (Tower 4)
Five World Trade Center (Tower 5)
Seven World Trade Center (Tower 7)
Memorial and museum
National September 11 Memorial & Museum
Transit
Transportation Hub

One World Trade Center (1 World Trade Center), more simply known as 1 WTC and formerly known as the Freedom Tower,[8] is the lead building of the new World Trade Center complex in Lower Manhattan in New York City. The 104-story supertall skyscraper is being constructed in the northwest corner of the World Trade Center site, occupying the location where the original 8-story 6 World Trade Center once stood. The north side of the tower runs between the intersection of Vesey and West streets on the northwest and the intersection of Vesey and Washington streets on the northeast, with the site of the original North Tower/1 WTC offset to the south.[9] Construction on below-ground utility relocations, footings, and foundations for the building began on April 27, 2006.[10][11][12] On March 30, 2009, the Port Authority confirmed that the building would be known by its legal name of One World Trade Center, rather than the colloquial name, Freedom Tower.[8] Upon its completion in 2013,[13] One World Trade Center will be the tallest building in the United States and one of the tallest in the world, with its radio antenna reaching a symbolic height of 1,776 feet (541.3 m) in reference to the year of American independence.[14][15]

Along with One World Trade Center, the new World Trade Center site will feature three other high-rise office buildings, located along Greenwich Street, and the National September 11 Memorial & Museum, located at the foot of One World Trade Center. The construction is part of an effort to memorialize and rebuild the original World Trade Center complex, which was destroyed during the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001.

Contents

History

Following the destruction of the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, there was much debate regarding the future of the World Trade Center site. Proposals began almost immediately, and by 2003, the Lower Manhattan Development Corporation organized a competition to determine how to use the land. Public rejection of the first round of designs, the "Preliminary Design Concepts", led to a second, more open competition in December 2002, in which a design by Daniel Libeskind was selected. This design went through many revisions,[16] largely because of disagreements with developer Larry Silverstein, who held the lease to the World Trade Center site on September 11, 2001.

A final design for the "Freedom Tower" was formally unveiled on June 28, 2005. To satisfy security issues raised by the New York City Police Department, a 187-foot (57 m) concrete base was added in April of that year. The final design included plans to clad the base in glass prisms to address criticism that the base looked like a "concrete bunker" (though these proved unworkable and a simpler facing is planned).[13] Contrasting with Libeskind's plan, the final design tapers octagonally as it rises. Its designers stated that the tower will be a "monolithic glass structure reflecting the sky and topped by a sculpted antenna." Larry Silverstein commented in 2006 on a planned completion date: "By 2012 we should have a completely rebuilt World Trade Center, more magnificent, more spectacular than it ever was."[17] On April 26, 2006, the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey approved a conceptual framework that enabled foundation construction to begin, and a formal agreement was drafted on the following day, the 75th anniversary of the opening of the Empire State Building. Construction began in May with a formal ceremony that took place when the construction team arrived.[18] The building's topping out has been pushed back to at least late 2011, and it is projected to be ready for occupancy in 2013.[13]

In 2009, the Port Authority changed the name of the building from "Freedom Tower" to "One World Trade Center," stating that this name was the "easiest for people to identify with."[19][20]

Architecture

Many remaining vestiges of the concepts drawn from the 2002 competition have since been discarded. One World Trade Center will now consist of simple symmetries and a more traditional design intended to bear comparison with selected elements of the existing New York skyline. There will now be a central spire drawing from precedents such as the Empire State Building and the Chrysler Building (and also visually reminiscent of Tower 1 of the old World Trade Center) rather than an off-center spire intended to echo the Statue of Liberty.

According to David Childs of Skidmore, Owings and Merrill, the project architect of the new 1 World Trade Center, the tower:[21]

... will be a symbol of the entire project, as well as marking the memorial, and it occupies a very important piece of New York City property: the sky.

We really wanted our design to be grounded in something that was very real, not just in sculptural sketches. We explored the infrastructural challenges because the proper solution would have to be compelling, not just beautiful. The design does have great sculptural implications, and we fully understand the iconic importance of the tower, but it also has to be a highly efficient building. The discourse about Freedom Tower has often been limited to the symbolic, formal and aesthetic aspects but we recognize that if this building doesn't function well, if people don't want to work and visit there, then we will have failed as architects.

Design

One World Trade Center's design includes 2,600,000 square feet (240,000 m2) of office space, as well as an observation deck, parking and broadcast and antenna facilities, all supported by both above and below-ground mechanical infrastructure for the building and its adjacent public spaces. Below-ground tenant parking and storage, shopping and access to the PATH and subway trains and the World Financial Center are also provided.

A 65-foot (20 m) high public lobby, topped by a series of mechanical floors, form a 200-foot (61 m)-per-side visual cubic base to the tower. The next 69 floors, providing tenant office space, rise above the base to an elevation of 1,150 feet (350 m). Mechanical and observation floors culminate in a rooftop observation deck at 1,362 feet (415 m) with a glass parapet extending to 1,368 feet (417 m) — the heights of the original Twin Towers.[5] A shrouded antenna structure supported by cables, engineered by Schlaich Bergermann & Partner, rises to a total height of 1,776 feet (541 m), which is a tribute to the year the United States Declaration of Independence was signed.[22] A plan to build a restaurant near the top of the tower was abandoned as logistically too difficult.[23]

The 200-foot (61 m) sides at the square footprint of the base are almost as wide as the 208-foot (63 m) square of the original Twin Towers. The 185-foot (56 m) window-less concrete base was added to the design in 2005 to increase strength to withstand a truck bomb, and the building was moved further from the West Side Highway.[24] The design was criticized as uninviting and fortress-like. To address this, the base was to be clad in more than 2,000 pieces of prismatic glass designed to draw upon the themes of motion and light.[25] This proved unworkable, however, and a simpler glass facade is planned for the base.[13] Cable-net glass facades on all four sides of the building for the higher floors, designed by Schlaich Bergermann, will be consistent with the other buildings in the complex. They measure 60 feet (18 m) high and range in width from 30 feet (9.1 m) on the east and west sides (for access to the observation deck) to 50 feet (15 m) on the north side and 70 feet (21 m) on the south for primary tenant access.[26] The curtain wall is being manufactured and assembled in Portland, Oregon by Benson Industries using glass made in Minnesota by Viracon.[27]

As the tower rises from this cubic base, its square edges are chamfered back, transforming the square into eight tall isosceles triangles in elevation, or an elongated square antiprism.[28] Near its middle, the tower forms a perfect octagon in plan and then culminates in a glass parapet (elevation 1,362 feet (415 m) and 1,368 feet (417 m)) whose plan is a square, rotated 45 degrees from the base. A mast containing the antenna for television broadcasters – designed by a collaboration among SOM, artist Kenneth Snelson (who invented the tensegrity structure), lighting designers and engineers – is secured by a system of cables, and rises from a circular support ring, similar to the Statue of Liberty's torch, to a height of 1,776 feet (541 m). Above the mast will be an intense beam of light that will be lit at night and will likely be visible over 1,000 feet (300 m) into the air above the tower.[29] Just south of the building is the 9/11 memorial, featuring two large square waterfalls which are located on the exact footprints of the original twin towers.

One World Trade Center, along with the rest of the buildings in the new World Trade center complex, will be environmentally friendly in several ways. Although the roof area of any tower is comparatively limited, the building will implement a rainwater collection and recycling scheme for its cooling systems. The building's fuel cell will generate 4.8 million watts (MW), and waste steam will help generate electricity. The windows are made of an ultra-clear glass which allows maximum daylight to pass through while keeping out heat, thereby reducing energy costs. [29] Like all of the new facilities at the World Trade Center site, One World Trade Center will be heated by steam, with limited oil or natural gas utilities located on site.[30] One World Trade Center is expected to receive a Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Gold Certification.[31]

Height

Height comparison of buildings in New York City, with One World Trade Center shown at far left.

The roof of the top floor of One World Trade Center will be 1,368 feet (417 m), including a 33 ft 4 in (10.16 m) parapet. This height is the same as the original One World Trade Center.[32] With its spire height (the criteria of two categories of the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat), One World Trade Center will stand at 1,776 feet (541 m),[33] a figure symbolic of the year of the United States Declaration of Independence.[34]

With a structural height of 1,776 feet (541 m), One World Trade Center will surpass the 1671-foot (509-meter) height of Taipei 101 to become the world's tallest all-office building and the tallest building in the Americas, surpassing the Willis Tower (formerly known as the Sears Tower) in Chicago. However, its roof height will still be 83 feet (25 m) shorter than the Willis Tower. At the time of its completion, One World Trade Center will be the third-tallest skyscraper in the world, behind the Burj Khalifa and the Mecca Royal Hotel Clock Tower, and the 8th-tallest structure of any kind in the world.

The Chicago Spire (with a planned height of 2,000 feet (610 m)) was expected to exceed the height of One World Trade Center, but its construction was canceled in 2009 due to financial difficulties.[35] A new 2,000-foot tower is currently planned for construction as part of Chicago's Old Post Office Redevelopment project.[36]

The World Trade Center's South Tower had an outdoor rooftop observation deck at 1,380 feet (420 m) and another indoor observation deck at 1,310 feet (400 m).[37] One World Trade Center's indoor observation deck will be at a height of approx 1,313 feet (400 m),[3] making it the second-highest observation deck in the United States, after Chicago's 412-meter-high Willis Tower Skydeck.

Space allotment and security

One World Trade Center will have a top floor denoted as 105.[3] The first office floor of the building atop the 200-foot (61 m) square base will be designated as Floor 20, and the building will have 74 usable above-ground floors.[38][39] Sixty-nine floors will be designated as office floors.[40] Additionally, roughly 55,000 square feet (5,100 m2) of retail space will exist below-grade, part of an overall 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) of retail space to be spread throughout the site both in the below-grade concourses and on the lower floors of Towers 2, 3, and 4.[41]

In addition to the protection offered by the reinforced, window-less base, a number of other design and security features are planned for the building. New safety features will include 3 feet (91 cm) thick reinforced concrete walls for all stairwells, elevator shafts, risers, and sprinkler systems; extra-wide, pressurized stairwells; a dedicated set of stairwells exclusively for the use of firefighters; and biological and chemical filters throughout its ventilation system. The building will no longer be 25 feet (8 m) away from West Street, as the Twin Towers were; at its closest point, West Street will be 65 feet (20 m) away. The windows on the side of the building facing in this direction will be equipped with specially tempered blast-resistant plastic, which will look nearly the same as the glass used in the other sides of the building.[29] The seventy elevators and 9 escalators for 1 World Trade Center will be provided by ThyssenKrupp,[42] with steel counterweights supplied by Concord Steel.[43] The Port Authority has stated: "Its structure is designed around a strong, redundant steel moment frame consisting of beams and columns connected by a combination of welding and bolting. Paired with a concrete-core shear wall, the moment frame lends substantial rigidity and redundancy to the overall building structure while providing column-free interior spans for maximum flexibility."[31]

Along with optimum safety design, new security measures will also be implemented. All vehicles will be screened before they enter the site via the underground roadway, including for radioactive materials. Visitors to the September 11 memorial will undergo airport-style screening. 400 closed-circuit surveillance cameras will be placed in and around the site, with live camera feeds being monitored around the clock by the NYPD. A computer system will use video-analytic computer software designed to detect potential threats such as unattended bags and retrieve images based on descriptions of terror or other criminal suspects. New York City and Port Authority police will patrol the site.[24]

Owners and tenants

One World Trade Center is owned principally by the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. Around 5% equity of the building was sold to the Durst Organization in exchange for an investment of at least US$100 million. The Durst Organization assisted in supervising the building's construction, and manages the building for the Port Authority, having responsibility for leasing, property management and tenant installations.[44][45]

Government tenants

In 2006, the State of New York agreed to a 15-year lease of 415,000 square feet (38,600 m2) of space inside 1 WTC, with an option to extend the term of the lease and occupy up to 1,000,000 square feet (90,000 m2).[46] The General Services Administration (GSA) has agreed to lease approximately 645,000 square feet (59,900 m2) of space,[30][46] and New York State's Office of General Services (OGS) plans to lease approximately 412,000 square feet (38,300 m2) of space. In April 2008, the Port Authority announced that it was seeking a bidder to operate an 18,000 square feet (1,700 m2) observation deck on the tower's 102nd floor.[47]

China Center

The building's first lease was announced on March 28, 2009, as a joint project between the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey and Beijing-based Vantone Industrial Co. A 190,810 sq ft (17,727 m2) "China Center", combining business and cultural facilities, is to be located between floors 64 and 69, to represent Chinese business and cultural links to the United States, and to serve US companies that wish to conduct business in China. Vantone Industrial's lease is for 20 years and 9 months.[48]

Condé Nast

On August 3, 2010, Condé Nast signed a tentative agreement to move the headquarters and offices of its 18 magazines into up to 1,000,000 square feet (90,000 m2) of the building.[49] Nine months later, on May 17, 2011, Condé Nast reached a final agreement with the Port Authority to lease the space, a deal with an estimated value of $2 billion over 25 years.[50] On May 25, 2011, Condé Nast finalized its lease agreement with the Port Authority, leasing 1,008,012 square feet (93,647.4 m2) of office space on floors 20–41 of the tower. The lease also covers 30,000 square feet (2,800 m2) of usable space in the podium and below grade floors, for mail, messenger services, and storage use.

Construction history

2004–2007

One World Trade Center under construction on August 7, 2007.

The symbolic cornerstone of One World Trade Center was laid down in a ceremony on July 4, 2004,[51] but further construction of the tower was stalled until 2006. The cornerstone was temporarily removed from the site on June 23, 2006.[52] The project was delayed due to acrimonious disputes over money, security and design, but the last major issues were resolved on April 26, 2006, when a deal was struck between developer Larry Silverstein and the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. For two months during the summer of 2006, explosives were detonated at the World Trade Center construction site, testing the use of charges to clear bedrock for the building's foundations.

On November 18, 2006, 400 cubic yards (310 cubic metres) of concrete were poured onto the foundation of the One World Trade Center, carried by as many as 40 trucks. On December 17, 2006, a ceremony was held in Battery Park City, with the public invited to sign a 30-foot (9.1 m) steel beam.[53] This beam, the first to be installed, was welded onto the building's base on December 19, 2006.[54]

On January 9, 2007, a second set of beams was welded to the top of the first set. In 2007, Tishman Construction Corporation of New York completed a row of steel columns at the perimeter of the construction site. Two tower crane bases were erected, each base containing a functioning luffing-jib tower crane. By the end of 2007, the tower’s footings and foundations were nearly complete.[55]

2008–2009

The One World Trade Center construction site on July 12, 2009.

In January 2008, two construction cranes were moved into the construction site. The tower's concrete core began rising in the first months of 2008.[55] By February 22, 2008, 9,400 of the nearly 50,000 short tons (45,000 t) of steel necessary had been ordered.[56] By March 13, 2008, the steel for the tower had reached 70 feet (21 m) high, 10 feet (3 m) below street level.[57][58] From late March through early April, a 40-foot (12 m) tall mockup of a section of the tower's wall with twenty-four windows was tested by Construction Consulting Laboratory West in Ontario, California.[59] Testing also took place on another full-scale mockup south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Both mockups passed the tests.[60] In mid-April, a batch of concrete had to be replaced after it failed a stress test.[61]

On May 17, 2008, the tower's steel breached street level when new sections were bolted to two of the twenty-four jumbo steel columns marking the building's footprint. The new column sections brought the height of the structure up to 15 feet (4.6 m) above street level.[62] In June, the chamfered steel skeleton of the tower's concrete base had begun to take shape.[63] By the end of the month, the concrete had been poured for the floor of the tower's basement level B3.[64] In his June 30, 2008 World Trade Center Rebuilding Assessment to New York Governor David Paterson, Port Authority executive director Chris Ward noted that roughly 90 percent of the construction contracts had been bid.[65]

By August, 1 WTC had reached 25 feet (7.6 m) above street level.[66] During its September 16 meeting, the Port Authority board approved contracts for security and building management systems,[67] and 95% of the contracts needed to complete the tower had been signed.[68] On October 10, Collavino Construction poured an additional 520 cubic yards (400 m3) of concrete for the tower's concrete core, raising it to just above street level.[69]

By February 11, 2009, the tower was 105 feet (32 m) above street level.[70] On July 2, 2009, over 1,200 cubic yards (920 m3) of concrete were poured to form parts of the street-level plaza. On August 13, the builders of 1 WTC set a 70 short tons (64,000 kilograms) piece of steel into place—the largest column installed yet at the building. Each steel column—made at a factory in Luxembourg—was about 60 feet (18 m) long. The columns at the bottom of the tower's foundation were about 35 feet (11 m) long.[71]

By November 1, 2009, the twenty-four perimeter columns of 1 WTC had all been erected, and construction of the second floor (the first floor above ground level) was nearly complete. The Port Authority of New York and New Jersey reported in their 2009 Q3 annual report that steel construction would commence by January 2010, and that the typical floor construction was ready to begin.[72]

2010–2011

The tower under construction, seen at night on September 10, 2011. Red, white and blue floor lighting was temporarily installed to commemorate the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks.
One World Trade Center under construction on October 13, 2011, photographed from W. Thames St.
One World Trade Center, pictured rising above other nearby skyscrapers in October 2011.

Steel and concrete installation continued in 2010, where two cranes were on site. The fifth floor was finished on January 16. In February, construction began on the sixth floor, the last floor of 1 WTC's base, and the Port Authority announced that the tower's steel superstructure had reached 200 feet (61 m) above street level.[5] By the end of March 2010, steel beams were being erected for the second office floor. In April, the 45-degree octagon was installed, the building's steel frame had reached 26 floors, with concrete completed on the base structure in the latter part of the month.[73]

In May 2010, the Port Authority stated that they were building nearly one floor per week, and it was projected that 1 WTC would reach 55 stories by the end of 2010.[74] An advanced "cocoon" scaffolding system was installed to protect workers from falling, marking the first time that such a safety system had been installed on a steel structure in the city.[75] On July 13, 2010, workers found the remains of an 18th-century sailing ship while excavating for the tower's underground vehicle security center.[76]

By October 2010, the tower's steel superstructure had reached 44 stories,[77][78] and by November, stainless steel and glass facade panels were being prepared for later installation, with the panels scheduled to be assembled between the 20th and 24th floors.[79] Steven Coleman, spokesman for the Port Authority, stated, "Once they get rolling, they'll be able to install glass panels at a rate of one floor per week."[80] By mid-November, the tower's steel had reached 48 stories.[80]

On December 16, 2010, the Port Authority announced that the tower's construction had reached the 52nd floor, rising to over 600 feet (180 m) and marking the halfway point for the tower's steel frame.[81][82] By February 2011, the tower had reached the 56th floor, 667 feet (203 m) above grade, with glass panels reaching the 27th floor.[83] On May 12, 2011, plans to install prismatic glass on the tower's base were cancelled due to technical problems.[13] By June 2011, the tower had reached the 70th floor, with glass paneling and concrete flooring reaching the 45th and 63rd floors, respectively. On September 11, 2011, ten years after the destruction of the original World Trade Center, the tower's steel reached the 82nd floor, while its concrete reached the 72nd floor and glass cladding reached the 56th floor.[84] By September 30, 2011, the tower's steel had reached the 84th floor, rising 1,040 feet (320 m) above street level, with glass paneling at the 59th floor and concrete flooring reaching the 76th floor. By this point, the incomplete tower was clearly visible on the skyline, rising above surrounding towers. By the end of October 2011, the tower had become the third-tallest building in New York City, surpassing the Chrysler Building and the New York Times Building.

While under construction in late 2011, the tower was specially illuminated on two key occasions. On September 10, it was lit up in the colors of the American flag to commemmorate the 10th anniversary of the September 11 terrorist attacks, and on October 27, it was illuminated in pink in honor of Breast Cancer Awareness Month.[5]

As of November 14th, 2011, the tower's steel has risen to the 90th floor (1,118 ft), with glass panels reaching the 63rd floor, and concrete flooring rising to the 80th floor.[5]

Estimated completion and cost

February 2007 estimates put the cost for construction of 1 WTC at $3 billion, or $1,150 per square foot ($12,380 per square meter).[85] Approximately $1 billion of insurance money recouped by Silverstein in connection with the September 11 attacks was used for construction of the new tower.[85] The State of New York provided $250 million toward construction costs, and the Port Authority agreed to finance another $1 billion through bonds.[86]

One WTC was originally expected to be completed and opened by 2011,[87][88] but an October 2008 report by the PANYNJ pushed back the estimated completion of the tower to the second quarter of 2012, with the total budget being estimated at $3.1 billion - a slight increase over the 2007 estimate.[2] In January 2011, Lynda Tollner of the Port Authority predicted that work on the tower's steel structure would be finished by early 2012.[89] In July 2011, the Port Authority estimated that One World Trade Center would be completed and opened by the end of April 2013.[5]

Controversies

Design issues

The design of 1 WTC generated controversy for several reasons. Firstly, criticism was levelled at the limited number of floors in an early design that were designated for office space and other amenities. Under this design, only 82 floors would have been habitable, and the overall office space of the entire rebuilt World Trade Center would have been reduced by more than 3,000,000 square feet (280,000 m2) in comparison with the original complex. The floor limit was imposed by Silverstein, who expressed concern that higher floors would be a liability in another major accident or terrorist attack. In a subsequent design, the highest space that could be occupied became comparable to the original World Trade Center.[90]

Other criticisms were aimed at the appearance of the building. An unofficial movement to rebuild the lost towers instead of building a single tower, called The Twin Towers Alliance, collected more than eight thousand signatures supporting the rebuilding of the Twin Towers. Allegations furthermore emerged that, in its Final Generic Environmental Impact Statement (FGEIS), the LMDC had proposed a "Restoration Alternative", which would have restored the World Trade Center site substantially as it existed before September 11, 2001, with updated technology. (FGEIS report. Chapter 23, sec.23.1). In May 2005, Developer Donald Trump proposed a twin building design called World Trade Center Phoenix (Twin Towers II). The twin design would look similar to the original twin towers, but the buildings would be considerably taller, featuring improved safety measures and much larger windows.[91][92]

A key feature of the final tower design - the fortified, windowless base - was also a source of controversy. A number of critics (notably Deroy Murdock of the National Review) suggested that the reinforced base was alienating and dull, reflecting a sense of fear rather than freedom, leading them to dub the project "the Fear Tower".[93][94]

Other controversies

During the tower's planning stages, former New York Governor George Pataki faced accusations of cronyism for supposedly using his influence to get the winning architect's bid picked as a personal favor for his friend and campaign contributor, Ron Lauder.[95]

In May 2011, detailed floor plans of the tower were displayed on New York City's Department of Finance website, resulting in an uproar from the media and citizens of the surrounding area, who warned that the plans could potentially be used for a future terrorist attack.[96]

Key figures

Larry Silverstein

Larry Silverstein of Silverstein Properties, the leaseholder and developer of the complex, will retain control of the surrounding buildings, while the Port Authority has full control of the tower itself. Silverstein signed a 99-year lease for the World Trade Center site in July 2001. Silverstein has pledged to support the reconstruction and remains actively involved in most aspects of the redevelopment process.[97]

Daniel Libeskind won the 2002 competition to develop a master plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment.

David Childs

David Childs, one of Silverstein's favorite architects, initially joined the project at the urging of Silverstein and developed a proposal for 1 WTC in collaboration with Daniel Libeskind. The design was revised in May 2005 to address security concerns. He is the project architect of the tower, and is responsible for overseeing the day-to-day design development from rough inception to final completion.[98]

Daniel Libeskind

Architect Daniel Libeskind won the invitational competition to develop a master plan for the World Trade Center's redevelopment in 2002. He included an initial proposal for the design of 1 WTC, a building with aerial gardens and windmills with an off-center spire. It was also Libeskind who denied a request to place the tower in a more rentable location next to the PATH station and instead placed it a block west, because in profile it would line up with, and resemble, the Statue of Liberty. Although these designs were later scrapped, he continued to contribute to the design and development of the World Trade Center site.[99]

Dan Tishman

Dan Tishman, along with his father John Tishman, builder of the original World Trade Center, is leading the construction management effort for Tishman Realty & Construction, the selected builder for 1 WTC.[100]

Douglas and Jody Durst

Douglas and Jody Durst, the co-presidents of the Durst Organization, a real estate development company, won the right to invest at least $100 million in the project on July 7, 2010. The Durst Organisation is a family-owned company that specializes in the development, managing, leasing, and operation of sustainable commercial construction space.[101][102][103] Conde Nast, a long-time Durst tenant, also confirmed a tentative deal to move into 1 World Trade Center in August 2010,[102][103][104] and finalized the deal on May 26, 2011.[105]

Port Authority construction workers

A WoodSearch Films short-subject documentary was uploaded to YouTube on August 31, 2010, entitled How does it feel to work on One World Trade Center?. Nearly all of the construction workers interviewed praised the unity and work ethic of the new World Trade Center's construction team. Others spoke of the importance they believed the construction of the tower had to the people of the United States. A deputy foreman, George Collins, said, "All the men are working in conjunction to put this building up. They all know how important this is to the country – and to show the world what us Americans can do – and get this done, union and proud." Another deputy foreman, Scott Williams, commented, "[The] camaraderie of the crew is very good."[106]

In popular culture

While under construction, the building appeared in a number of video games, films and TV series:

  • In the 2011 video game Call of Duty: Modern Warfare 3, the tower can be seen among the New York City skyline in the midst of an invasion by the Russian Federation. It, along with several other buildings, is targeted by Russian cruise missiles in the mission "Hunter Killer".
  • In the 2011 video game Crysis 2, set in 2023, One World Trade Center can be seen among other World Trade Center buildings.
  • In 2008 science fiction movie Babylon A.D., it can be seen on the New York City skyline.[107]
  • In the TV series Fringe, the tower appears in the 2011 episode "The Last Sam Weiss".[108]
  • In the 2006 film Click, two One World Trade Center towers are shown standing in the 2030s in a future New York City.[109]
  • The tower briefly appears in the anime Eden of the East in an alternate time period when the tower was complete in 2010.[110]

See also

References

  1. ^ Phifer, Donica (2011-08-04). "Concrete Workers Resume Work as Strike Comes to an End". NearSay. http://newyork.nearsay.com/nyc/soho-tribeca/concrete-union-workers-strike-world-trade-center. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  2. ^ a b Ward, Chris (2008) (PDF). World Trade Center Report: A Roadmap Forward (Report). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. pp. 26. http://www.panynj.gov/pdf/WTC_Presentation_Oct08.pdf. Retrieved October 2, 2008. 
  3. ^ a b c d e CTBUH – One World Trade Center
  4. ^ Emporis – One World Trade Center
  5. ^ a b c d e f Port Authority - 1 World Trade Center Project Updates. Retrieved 2011-11-02.
  6. ^ Tower WTC.com. Retrieved 2010-2-12.
  7. ^ One World Trade Center at SkyscraperPage
  8. ^ a b "Freedom Tower has a new preferred name". Associated Press. March 26, 2009. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/29913195/. "Port Authority of New York and New Jersey chairman Anthony Coscia says the agency refers to the building as One World Trade Center. He says it's the building's legal name and "the one that's easiest for people to identify with"." 
  9. ^ "Building Features". wtc.com. 2007. http://www.wtc.com/inner_page.aspx?id=7. Retrieved March 19, 2007. 
  10. ^ "Building of N.Y. Freedom Tower begins". USA Today. Associated Press. April 28, 2006. http://www.usatoday.com/news/nation/2006-04-27-ny-development_x.htm. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  11. ^ Charles V. Bagli (September 17, 2006). "U.S. and New York Plan to Occupy Freedom Tower". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/09/17/nyregion/nyregionspecial3/17cnd-freedom.html?_r=1&ei=5094&en=ed508a5e5cacea6b&hp=&ex=1158552000&oref=slogin&partner=homepage&pagewanted=all. Retrieved February 1, 2009. 
  12. ^ Amy, Westfeldt (April 27, 2006). "Construction Begins at Ground Zero". Washington Post. Associated Press. http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/04/27/AR2006042700275.html. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  13. ^ a b c d e "Prismatic glass facade for WTC tower scrapped". Huffington Post, May 12, 2011. Retrieved June 19, 2011.
  14. ^ Skyscraperpage.com, tallest buildings in NY
  15. ^ Skyscraperpage.com Tallest buildings under construction in the world
  16. ^ New York Times: "Freedom Tower's Evolution"
  17. ^ "Architects in New York unveil new Freedom Tower". Reuters. June 29, 2006. http://www.tiscali.co.uk/news/newswire.php/news/reuters/2006/06/29/world/architects-in-new-york-unveil-new-freedom-tower.html. 
  18. ^ "Trucks roll to begin Freedom Tower construction". New York Daily News. April 27, 2006. Archived from the original on May 3, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20060503233834/http://www.nydailynews.com/front/story/412525p-348812c.html. 
  19. ^ "Freedom Tower has a new preferred name". Associated Press. March 26, 2009. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5hBhzvIg8. Retrieved March 30, 2009. 
  20. ^ "The World Trade Centre Slow building". The Economist. April 23, 2009. Archived from the original on May 31, 2009. http://www.webcitation.org/5hBhmQrCW. Retrieved May 31, 2009. 
  21. ^ Interview with David Childs (cont'd). Retrieved October 12, 2007.
  22. ^ "Rebuilding Ground Zero: Symbolism in Numbers". Discovery Channel. http://dsc.discovery.com/videos/rising-rebuilding-ground-zero-new-world-trade-center/. Retrieved September 6, 2011. 
  23. ^ "Outdoor Observation Deck At One World Trade Center A No-Go, Developer Says". FreedomTowerNYC, June 21, 2011
  24. ^ a b "New York beefs up World Trade Center site security for September 11 10th anniversary". The Telegraph, August 8, 2011
  25. ^ "PPG to supply STARPHIRE ultra-clear glass to One World Trade Center" (Press release). PPG Industries. October 29, 2010. http://www.ppg.com/en/newsroom/news/Pages/20101029A.aspx. 
  26. ^ http://skyscraperpage.com/cities/?buildingID=7788
  27. ^ "Curtain Wall Installation Begins at One World Trade Center" (Press release). Skidmore, Owings & Merrill LLP. November 16, 2010. http://www.som.com/content.cfm/curtain_wall_installation_begins_at_one_world_trade_center. 
  28. ^ "The Freedom Tower: World Trade Center, New York". Glass Steel and Stone. http://www.glasssteelandstone.com/BuildingDetail/439.php. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  29. ^ a b c "SOM Freedom Tower Fact Sheet" (PDF) (Press release). Lower Manhattan Development Corporation. June 2005. http://www.renewnyc.com/content/pdfs/freedom_tower_fact_sheet.pdf. 
  30. ^ a b Dunlap, David W. (July 9, 2008). "Answers About Ground Zero Rebuilding". New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/09/answers-about-ground-zero-rebuilding/. Retrieved July 9, 2008. 
  31. ^ a b "One World Trade Center: A New Icon for New York City". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/one-wtc.html. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  32. ^ Dunlap, David W.; Collins, Glenn (June 30, 2005). "Redesign Puts Freedom Tower on a Fortified Base". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9A01E3DD133AF933A05755C0A9639C8B63. Retrieved January 18, 2009. 
  33. ^ http://www.renewnyc.org/ThePlan/world_trade_center_towers.asp
  34. ^ "One World Trade Center Symbolic height". www.wtc.com. http://www.wtc.com/about/freedom-tower. Retrieved September 11, 2010. 
  35. ^ Barrett, Joe (December 9, 2009). "Push to Finish Tallest Tower". The Wall Street Journal. http://online.wsj.com/article/SB126023594022181191.html?mod=residential_real_estate. 
  36. ^ "Old Chicago post office redevelopment plan unveiled". Chicago Tribune. July 21, 2011. http://www.chicagotribune.com/business/breaking/chi-old-chicago-post-office-redevelopment-plan-unveiled-20110721,0,3150609.story. 
  37. ^ Mcdowell, Edwin (April 11, 1997). "At Trade Center Deck, Views Are Lofty, as Are the Prices". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9802EED7133CF932A25757C0A961958260&sec=&spon=&pagewanted=all. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  38. ^ "Freedom Tower || About the WTC || World Trade Center ||". Wtc.com. http://www.wtc.com/about/freedom-tower/freedom-tower-design. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  39. ^ Barrionuevo, Alexei (July 26, 2005). "In Chicago, Plans for a High-Rise Raise Interest and Post-9/11 Security Concerns". New York Times. http://query.nytimes.com/gst/fullpage.html?res=9C07E6D6123FF935A15754C0A9639C8B63. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  40. ^ "World Trade Centre Behind Schedule And Over Budget Says New York Governor". Sky News. http://news.sky.com/skynews/Home/Sky-News-Archive/Article/20080641318904?f=rss. Retrieved March 13, 2010. 
  41. ^ "Freedom Tower" About the World Trade Center, WTC.com
  42. ^ Lynda Tollner. "Ask The Port Authority". The Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/q_a_intro.cfm. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  43. ^ "Concord Steel Awarded With ThyssenKrupp Elevator Contract to Supply 800,000 Pounds of Elevator Counterweights for One World Trade Center in New York City" (Press release). PRNewswire. April 27, 2009. http://www.redorbit.com/news/business/1678027/concord_steel_awarded_with_thyssenkrupp_elevator_contract_to_supply_800000/. 
  44. ^ David M. Levitt (July 8, 2010). "Durst, Onetime Critic, Wins Bid for Stake in 1 WTC". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. http://www.businessweek.com/news/2010-07-08/durst-onetime-critic-wins-bid-for-stake-in-1-wtc.html. 
  45. ^ Joe Nocera (September 17, 2010). "In Skyscraper at Ground Zero, Sentiment Trumped Numbers". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/09/18/business/18nocera.html?hp. 
  46. ^ a b "Gov. Pataki, Governor Corzine, Mayor Bloomberg Announce Agreements to Occupy Freedom Tower". US States News. September 17, 2006. 
  47. ^ Feiden, Douglas (April 10, 2008). "Freedom Tower to open observation deck on 102nd floor". Daily News (Mortimer Zuckerman). http://www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2008/04/10/2008-04-10_freedom_tower_to_open_observation_deck_o.html. 
  48. ^ "Owners drop Freedom Tower name for new WTC skyscraper". CNN. March 28, 2009. http://edition.cnn.com/2009/US/03/27/no.freedom.tower/index.html. Retrieved May 20, 2010. 
  49. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (August 3, 2010). "Condé Nast to Move to Skyscraper at Ground Zero". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/04/nyregion/04conde.html. Retrieved August 3, 2010. 
  50. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (May 17, 2011). "Condé Nast Will Be Anchor of 1 World Trade Center". NYTimes.com. http://www.nytimes.com/2011/05/18/nyregion/conde-nast-to-anchor-1-world-trade-center.html. Retrieved May 17, 2011. 
  51. ^ "Governor Pataki, Governor McGreevey, Mayor Bloomberg Lay Cornerstone for Freedom Tower" (Press release). Office of the Governor of New York State. July 4, 2004. http://www.state.ny.us/governor/press/04/july4_04.htm. [dead link]
  52. ^ "Cornerstone of Freedom Tower removed". CBS News. June 25, 2006. Archived from the original on January 8, 2007. http://web.archive.org/web/20070108140050/http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2006/06/25/ap/national/mainD8IF1PB80.shtml. 
  53. ^ Chan, Sewell (December 18, 2006). "Messages of Love and Hope on a Freedom Tower Beam". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2006/12/18/nyregion/18zero.html?ref=nyregion. 
  54. ^ "First Freedom Tower Beam Rises At Ground Zero". WCBS-TVV. December 19, 2006. Archived from the original on December 20, 2006. http://web.archive.org/web/20061220065543/http://wcbstv.com/topstories/local_story_353063928.html. 
  55. ^ a b "Statement by Port Authority Regarding Preparation of Towers 3 and 4 Bathtub at WTC Site to Allow Silverstein Properties to Begin Construction in January" (Press release). Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. December 31, 2007. http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/PressCenter/PressReleases/PressRelease/index.php?id=1019. 
  56. ^ Westfeldt, Amy (February 22, 2008). "Long Journey of Freedom Tower Steel". Associated Press. The Huffington Post. http://www.huffingtonpost.com/huff-wires/20080222/freedom-steel/. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  57. ^ Ritter, Ian (March 13, 2008). "Silverstein: WTC Still on Track for 2012 Finish". GlobeSt.com/ALM. http://www.globest.com/news/1113_1113/newyork/169019-1.html. 
  58. ^ "Rising from the Pit". WTC.com. March 17, 2008. http://www.wtc.com/news/rising-from-the-pit. 
  59. ^ Topousis, Tom (April 1, 2008). "'FREEDOM' RATTLED". New York Post. http://www.nypost.com/seven/04012008/news/regionalnews/freedom_rattled_104483.htm. 
  60. ^ Dunlap, David W. (April 9, 2008). "Replicas of New Tower Endure Nature’s Fury and a Test Blast". New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2008/04/09/nyregion/09freedom.html?ex=1365480000&en=17d1a74af4e5ca17&ei=5124&partner=permalink&exprod=permalink. 
  61. ^ "Weak Concrete Foundation Removed From Freedom Tower". NY1. April 16, 2008. http://www.ny1.com/ny1/content/index.jsp?stid=8&aid=80570. Retrieved April 19, 2008. 
  62. ^ Dunlap, David W. (May 19, 2008). "Not Yet on the Skyline, but Above Street Level". New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/05/19/not-yet-on-the-skyline-but-above-street-level/. 
  63. ^ Dunlap, David W. (June 19, 2008). "Chamfer, Anyone? Cutting Corners on a Large Scale". New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/06/19/chamfer-anyone-cutting-corners-on-a-large-scale/. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  64. ^ Dunlap, David W. (July 3, 2008). "The Choreography (Quickly!) of Concrete". New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/07/03/the-choreography-quickly-of-concrete/. Retrieved July 13, 2008. 
  65. ^ Ward, Chris (2008) (PDF). World Trade Center Site Update (Report). Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. pp. 13. http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/pdf/WTC_Assessment_Book_FFF.pdf. Retrieved June 30, 2008. 
  66. ^ Frazier, Michael (August 17, 2008). "Construction progress slow at World Trade Center site". Newsday (Melville, New York: Newsday Inc.). Archived from the original on 2008-09-01. http://web.archive.org/web/20080901154543/http://www.newsday.com/news/local/newyork/ny-nywtc0818,0,4404790.story. 
  67. ^ "Port Authority Board Takes Action on Several items" (Press release). Port Authority of New York & New Jersey. September 16, 2008. http://www.panynj.gov/AboutthePortAuthority/PressCenter/PressReleases/PressRelease/index.php?id=1121. 
  68. ^ Hennelly, Bob (September 16, 2008). "Port Authority Approves Freedom Tower Contracts". WNYC. http://www.wnyc.org/news/articles/109346. Retrieved September 18, 2008. 
  69. ^ Dunlap, David W. (October 20, 2008). "Phantom Freedom Tower Visible to All". New York Times. http://cityroom.blogs.nytimes.com/2008/10/20/phantom-freedom-tower-now-visible-to-all/. Retrieved October 21, 2008. 
  70. ^ "Image Gallery". Port Authority of New York and New Jersey. February 11, 2009. http://www.panynj.gov/wtcprogress/image_gallery.html. Retrieved February 21, 2009. [dead link]
  71. ^ "Huge column is largest installed at WTC tower". Life on msnbc.com. MSNBC. August 12, 2009. http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/32391977/ns/us_news-life/. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  72. ^ World Trade Center Quarterly Report 3rd Quarter 2009 – Panynj.gov
  73. ^ 1 World Trade Center reaches 20th-floor level SITimes'.' Retrieved March 20, 2010.
  74. ^ World Trade Center project has begun to take shape New Jersey On-line'.' Retrieved May 12, 2010.
  75. ^ Port Authority installs cocoon safety system around World Trade Center steel structure NJ.com, May 2010
  76. ^ 18th-Century Ship Found at Trade Center Site. The New York Times. Retrieved July 15, 2010
  77. ^ Port Authority Board Approves Agreement that Will Fully Restore WTC Site
  78. ^ World Trade Center tower reaches 44 stories high and curtain wall installation this month Rochester Democrat and Chronicle Retrieved October 29, 2010
  79. ^ One World Trade Center Prepared to Shine Digital Network Associates Info Retrieved November 17, 2010
  80. ^ a b
  81. ^ "1 WTC, aka Freedom Tower, reaches halfway mark", The Wall Street Journal/Associated Press, December 16, 2010
  82. ^ "Freedom Tower half complete" New Zealand Herald Retrieved December 17, 2010
  83. ^ "Construction Progress Around the WTC Site". World Trade Center Progress newsletter, February 2011, Panynj.gov, accessed May 12, 2011
  84. ^ "World Trade Center Growing This Summer". Port Authority. Retrieved June 1, 2011.
  85. ^ a b Nordenson, Guy (February 16, 2007). "Freedom From Fear". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2007/02/16/opinion/16nordenson.html. 
  86. ^ Bagli, Charles V. (February 13, 2007). "Spitzer, in Reversal, Is Expected to Approve Freedom Tower, Officials Say". The New York Times. http://select.nytimes.com/gst/abstract.html?res=F00916F7345B0C708DDDAB0894DF404482. 
  87. ^ Two columns installed at Ground Zero site Seattle Times Retrieved November 17, 2010
  88. ^ Trade Site to Have 3 of City's Tallest Towers Bloomberg News Retrieved November 17, 2010
  89. ^ "Ask the Port Authority - Program Director Lynda Tollner" PANYNJ, 2011-01-16. Retrieved 2011-10-17.
  90. ^ http://www.emporis.com/application/?nav=building&lng=3&id=201521
  91. ^ http://www.twintowersalliance.com/
  92. ^ http://www.twintowersii.com/
  93. ^ New York Times letters to the editor: Taking the Measure of the New Freedom Tower
  94. ^ Deroy Murdock on World Trade Center on National Review Online
  95. ^ "America's Freedom Tower?". MSNBC. February 17, 2005. http://msnbc.msn.com/id/6902610/#050217a. Retrieved October 22, 2011. 
  96. ^ Lois Weiss and Chuck Bennett. "Detailed schematics of 1 World Trade Center posted online". New York Post. May 19, 2011
  97. ^ "Verdict in 9/11 insurance battle". CNN. April 30, 2004. http://articles.cnn.com/2004-12-06/justice/wtc.trial_1_larry-silverstein-single-occurrence-insurers?_s=PM:LAW. 
  98. ^ http://www.pbs.org/americarebuilds2/profiles/profiles_childs.html
  99. ^ http://architecture.about.com/library/bl-libeskind-statement.htm
  100. ^
  101. ^ "World Trade Center site owner picks developer to negotiate stake in largest office tower". Star Tribune. Associated Press. 2010-07-07. http://www.startribune.com/templates/Print_This_Story?sid=97983759. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  102. ^ a b Bagli, Charles V. (August 5, 2010). "Dursts Make Deal for Stake in 1 World Trade Center". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/08/06/nyregion/06zero.html. 
  103. ^ a b Bagli, Charles V. (July 7, 2010). "Dursts' Stake in World Trade Tower Helps Project". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/2010/07/08/nyregion/08tower.html?_r=1&scp=2&sq=&st=nyt. 
  104. ^ "Conde Nast May Move to New World Trade Center Site" (XHTML 1.0 Transitional/CSS3). WNYC News (WNYC). 2010-08-03. http://beta.wnyc.org/articles/wnyc-news/2010/aug/03/conde-nast-may-move-new-world-trade-center-site/. Retrieved 2011-10-14. 
  105. ^ Brown, Eliot (May 26, 2011). "A Day of Deals at One World Trade Center". The Wall Street Journal. http://blogs.wsj.com/metropolis/2011/05/26/a-day-of-deals-at-one-world-trade-center/?mod=google_news_blog. 
  106. ^ "How does it feel to work on One World Trade Center?". WoodSearch Films. August 31, 2010. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KC5GzaXF-oI&feature=related. Retrieved January 13, 2011. 
  107. ^ http://forum.skyscraperpage.com/showthread.php?t=130301&page=22
  108. ^ http://www.fringepedia.net/wiki/The_Last_Sam_Weiss
  109. ^ http://wtcinmovies.tripod.com/future.html
  110. ^ Higley, Christian (2011-05-24). "Currently Watching: Eden of the East". Basic Braining. WordPress. http://basicbraining.wordpress.com/2011/05/24/currently-watching-eden-of-the-east/. Retrieved 2011-10-14. "First of all, there are the obvious post-9/11 themes (even a specific reference to ground zero in NY and the Freedom Tower), reflected in Japan suffering its own series of devastating attacks from an unidentified enemy." 

External links


Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • One World Trade Center — Grafische Darstellung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • One World Trade Center — Cet article concerne la tour à New York. Pour la tour à Miami, voir Freedom Tower (Miami). One World Trade Center …   Wikipédia en Français

  • One World Trade Center (Long Beach) — One World Trade Center One World Trade Center tower in Long Beach, seen from a nearby skyscraper General information Status …   Wikipedia

  • Construction of One World Trade Center — was deferred until 2006 because of disputes between port authority and the developer. Tishman Realty Construction,[1] is the selected builder. The building reached ground level on May 17, 2008 and is scheduled to be completed by the end of 2012… …   Wikipedia

  • List of tenants in One World Trade Center — North Tower redirects here. For the building in Greater Manchester, England, see North Tower (Salford). For the skyscraper which replaced the North Tower, see One World Trade Center. The World Trade Center Towers at night prior to 9/11. The North …   Wikipedia

  • One World Financial Center — Localisation Coordonnées …   Wikipédia en Français

  • One World Financial Center — General information Type Office Location 200 Liberty Street New York City, New York, United States …   Wikipedia

  • World Trade Center — Blick von Südwest auf den Komp …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • World Trade Center (New York) — World Trade Center Pour les articles homonymes, voir World Trade Center (film).  Pour la tour en reconstruction, voir 1 World Trade Center …   Wikipédia en Français

  • World Trade Center (New York) — World Trade Center Blick von Südwest …   Deutsch Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.