List of Illyrian tribes


List of Illyrian tribes

Illyrian tribes or possibly or partly Illyrian tribes or tribes inhabiting lands known as Illyria.

Tribes

Illyrian

Abri

"Abri" were an Illyrian tribe. [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 98:"... who may have belonged to the Taulantii, known to Greeks for their method of preparing mead from honey, were the Abri, ...] They could prepare mead, a wine from honey and were known to the Greeks for that method.

Albani

"Albanoi" were an Illyrian tribe.The first known occurrence of the word Albani as the name of an Illyrian tribe in what is now north-central Albania goes back to 130 AD, in a work of Ptolemy. Albanopolis of the Albani is a place located on the map of Ptolemy and also named on an ancient family epitaph at Scupi (near Skopje), which has been identified with the Zgardhesh hill-fort near Kruja in northern Albania. Arbanon is likely to be the name of a district - the plain of the Mat has been suggested - rather than a particular place. An indication of movement from higher altitudes in a much earlier period has been detected in the distribution of place-names ending in "-esh" that appears to derive from the Latin "-ensis" or "-esis", between the Shkumbin and the Mat rivers, with a concentration between Elbasan and Kruja.It is not certain if the ancient city corresponds with later mentions of it [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 279,"We cannot be certain that the Arbanon of Anna Comnena is the same as Albanopolis of the Albani, a place located on the map of Ptolemy"] .

Amantini

"Amantini" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 218,"... Except for the Latobici and Varciani, whose names are Celtic, the civitates of Colapiani, Jasi, Breuci, Amantini and Scordisci were Illyrian. ..."] .They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 207,"... The war was a savage affair and the main resistance to the Romans came from the Breuci and Amantini in the Sava valley. The young males were rounded up and sold as slaves in Italy, a quite exceptional action ..."] .The Amantini were close to Sirmium [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 81,"... the Breuci with Scilus Bato, Blaedarus, Dasmenus, Dasius, Surco, Sassaius, Liccaius and Lensus, and the Amantini and Scordisci around Sirmium with Terco and Precio, Dases and Dasmenus. ..."] but the tribe was probably present in southern areas as well due to the existence of a city name Amantia [In An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman,ISBN 0198140991,2004,page 342] .

Andizetes

"Andizetes", also referred to as "Andisetes" were a small Illyrian tribe that lived in the territory of present day Bosnia and Herzegovina. Not much is known about this tribe except that it is found on the list of Illyrian tribes made by ancient Romans, against whom the Illyrians put up a heroic resistance, perhaps best portrayed in the last great Illyrian struggle for freedom-the legendary Baton's uprising.The personal name of "Andes", popular among the Illyrians of southern Panonia and much of northern Dalmatia (roughly modern Bosnia and Herzegovina), as it seems, derived from the name of this tribe. Another variant of this widespread personal Illyrian name is Andis. [Wilkes,John; The Illyrians, Oxford] There is also an ancient deity called Andinus, which may be related.Fact|date=February 2008 They were Pannonians [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075., page 203: "... Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates. ..."] . They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule. [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 256,"... reign of Trajan (AD 98-117), does the Roman citizenship begin to appear among the Illyrian communities of southeast Pannonia, the Andizetes,Scordisci and Breuci. ..."] .

Ardiaei

"Ardiaei", once an inland tribe, eventually settled [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 188,"probably the result of pressure from new Illyrian groups, including the Ardiaei and Delmatae, moving towards the Adriatic. ...""] on the Adriatic coast.

The ancient geographer, Strabo, lists the Ardiaei as one of the three strongest tribes - the other two being the Autariatae and the Dardani. The whole of the mountainous country that stretches alongside Pannonia from the recess of the Adriatic as far as the Rhizonic Gulf and the land of the Ardiaei is Illyrian, falling as it does between the sea and the Pannonian tribes (Strabon, "Geographika", 7. 5. 3).

Their original homeland is said to have been around modern Neretva river , in present-day Bosnia and Herzegovina. In ancient times this river was known as "Narenta/Naron/Narona", and the connotation with the name of an Illyrian tribe Narensii seems obvious. The Ardiaei were called by Romans "Vardiaei" [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075..page 216,"The Ardiaei, or Vardaei as they were known to the Romans, `once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere ..."] .

Because they pestered the sea through their piratical bands, the Romans pushed them back from it into the interior and forced them to till the soil (Strabon, "Geographika", 7. 5. 6).They drunk heavily and were seen as such by the Greeks [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 221,"... To the Greek world the Illyrians appeared heavy drinkers, from the drinking bouts of the Ardiaei from which intoxicated men were conveyed home by their women, who had also participated, to the overindulgence of their kings ..."] . "Their country is rough and poor and not suited to a farming population, and therefore the tribe has been utterly ruined and in fact has almost been obliterated. And this is what befell the rest of the peoples in that part of the world; for those who were most powerful in earlier times were utterly humbled or were obliterated, as, for example, among the Galatae the Boii and the Scordistae, and among the Illyrians the Autariatae, Ardiaei, and Dardanii, and among the Thracians the Triballi; that is, they were reduced in warfare by one another at first and then later by the Ancient Macedonians and the Romans".

The Ardiaei were enemies [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 139,"... describes a long-running feud between the Autariatae and the Ardiaei over the possession of a salt-source near their common border. ..."" ] of the Autariatae for a long time over salt [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN0631198075.,page 223,"The salt source that was a cause of conflict between the Illyrian Ardiaei and Autariatae may be that at Orahovica in the upper Neretva valley near Konjic. ..."] source.

The Ardiaei had attained military might , particularly during the Kingdom of Illyria under the reign of king Agron,( an Ardiaean by tribal origin) and later his widow Queen Teuta. Historic accounts hold that King Agron helped king Demetrius of Macedonia repel the invasion of Macedonia by the invading Aetolians. [Stipcevic, Aleksandar; "The Illyrians-History and Culture", 1989, page 54]

Autariatae

"Autariatae" (or "Autariates") were an Illyrian tribe that became prominent between the 6th and 4th centuries BC.

Azali

"Azali" was the name of an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 81,"... , in the northeast around Brigetio. These are likely to represent a people called the Azali, Illyrians transported there from southern Pannonia during the wars of conquest is Alföldy 1974 (Illyrian in Noricum). ..."] tribe.

Breuci

"Breuci" were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 203,"... Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates. ..."] . They greatly resisted the Romans but were sold as slaves after their defeat [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 207,"... The war was a savage affair and the main resistance to the Romans came from the Breuci and Amantini in the Sava valley. The young males were rounded up and sold as slaves in Italy, a quite exceptional action ..."] .They started receiving Roman citizenship during Trajan's rule. It is likely that the name of the north-eastern Bosnian city Brčko is derived from the name of this tribe. [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 256,"... reign of Trajan (AD 98-117), does the Roman citizenship begin to appear among the Illyrian communities of southeast Pannonia, the Andizetes, Scordisci and Breuci. ..."] .

Bylliones

"Bylliones" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 97,"... ' Beginning in the south the first Illyrians near the coast were the Bylliones beyond the river Aous in the hinterland of Apollonia . Their hill-settlement developed later into the town of Byllis, at ..."]

Ceraunii

"Ceraunii" was the name of an Illyrian tribe.They lived close to the Pirustae [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 217,"... Pirus- tae, who inhabited the high valleys of southeast Bosnia and northern Montenegro, seem to have been divided between the Ceraunii (24 decuriae), ..."] in modern Montenegro.

Chelidones

"Chelidones" was the name [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 98,"... named by the sixth-century writer Hecataeus as neighbours of the Chelidones, the 'snail-men', who may have lived on their northern borders towards the Mat or Drin valleys.7 Behind the coast Illyrians ..."] meaning 'snail-men', of an Illyrian tribe.

Colapiani

"Colapiani" was the name of an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 81,"... " In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians ( ..."] tribe.

Daesitiates

"Daesitiates" were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is today Bosnia during the time of the Roman Republic. Along with the Maezaei, the Daesitiates belonged to the Pannonians. [Wilkes, J. J. "The Illyrians", 1992, p. 80, ISBN 0631198075. "Among the Pannonians within Roman Dalmatia the western groups, including the Maezaei and Daesitiates, exhibit few outside connections, and those are with Delmatae immediately to the south, though in Alföldy's view the two groups..."] They were prominent from the end of the 4th century BC up until the beginning of the 3rd century AD. Evidence of their daily activities can be found in literary sources, as well as in the rich material finds that belong to the autochthonous Middle-Bosnian cultural group. Because the Daesitiates were present during Roman rule in the western Balkans, their name can be found in many inscriptions and historical works of ancient writers. During the 19th century, scientific interest in the Daesitiates materialized whereby research was focused in parts of Upper Bosnia. However, all research efforts have yet to provide a complete analysis of the Daesitiates. The Daesitiates were unquestionably one of the main components of the Illyrian ethno-cultural complex that stretched from the southern Adriatic to the Danube in the north. They specifically lived in the centre of the Illyrian West-Balkan and Pannonian world.

HistoryThe Daesitiates were originally part of an autochthonous process that followed the "Indo-Europeanization" of the Western Balkans and the wider Danube region. This process continued until the Middle-Bosnian cultural group of the late Bronze Age and Iron Age was formed.Fact|date=February 2008 The Daesitiates also established complex political communities. This specific process peaked during a period of both Celtic tribal movements and cultural transitions of the Iron Age. This was primarily reflected through the establishment of the Daesitiates as a recognizable and functional polity. In the following centuries, the Daesitiates would form into a strong and secure community with identifiable political, social, and economic structures. During this period, the Daesitiates acquired an enviable level of cultural development due to their geographical position and their access to rich ore mines and quality land.Fact|date=February 2008 the Daesitiates were tied to the parts of Upper Bosnia and, probably, to the region of the Lašva river valley. Since the Daesitiates were situated in the peripheral part of the Dinaric zone, they formed a "bridge" that connected the Adriatic coast to the Dinaric hinterland (i.e. the Mediterranean world with the Pannonian basin and the Danube region).Fact|date=February 2008After nearly three centuries of political independence, the Daesitiates (and their polity) were conquered by Roman Emperor Augustus. Afterwards, the Daesitiates were incorporated into the province of Illyricum and granted both administrative and territorial autonomy (i.e. "civitas peregrini").Fact|date=February 2008 Ultimately, the widening gap between the Roman government and its subjects in Illyricum led to the Great Illyrian revolt that began in the spring of 6 AD. The Daesitiates were the first to revolt under the leadership of Bato I and were soon joined by the Breuci. Other natives were recruited to fight against the Marcomanni while the rebellion swiftly overtook enormous areas of the western Balkans and the Danube region. [Wilkes, J. J. "The Illyrians", 1992, p. 207, ISBN 0631198075. "The rising began among the Daesitiates of central Bosnia under their leader Bato but they were soon joined by the Breuci. The four-year war which lasted..."] The role of the Daesitiates in the rebellion was immense, which contributed to their ultimate disappearance. However, the continuity of their autochthonous development was ultimately broken whereby the Daesitiates underwent both urbanization and Romanization. Despite having suffered significant losses, the Daesitiates and their polity survived for a period of time in the form of the civitas peregrine. In the middle of the 1st century AD, the polity of the Daesitiates contained around 20,000 people. Ultimately, the Daesitiates were completely Romanized and by the beginning of the 3rd century AD, their existence as a unique social and political force disappeared.Fact|date=February 2008After its political transition into the Roman municipal system, Upper Bosnia reached the peak of its ancient development. In the beginning of the 7th century AD, the region once inhabited by the Daesitiates was exposed to the Slavic element. The symbiosis of these newly arrived peoples with the Illyrian natives and their traditions in Upper Bosnia contributed to the formation of medieval Bosnia during the Middle Ages.Fact|date=February 2008Cultural practicesTo this day, a large number of fortresses, villages, and settlements belonging to the Daesitiates have remained. Some of these remains have been partially excavated and a number of necropolises, grave constructions, and individual graves have also been discovered. Apart from material finds, these sites offer more evidence of the spiritual culture of the Daesitiates. The most important necropolis of the Daesitiates was found in Kamenjača near Breza. According to the material remains, the religious life of the Daesitiates was complex. The area of the Middle-Bosnian cultural group was, along with the neighbouring Glasinac culture, a centre for the origins and development of the West-Balkans geometrical style as an autochthonous artistic expression.Fact|date=February 2008

Dalmatae

"Dalmatae" (or Greek language "Δελματοί") were an ancient Illyrian tribe.

Daors

"Daors" was the name of an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,From back matter,"... "`Surveys of ships on coins of the Daors tribe'"] tribe.Another name of the tribe was Daversi [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 216,"... to the Romans, `once the ravagers of Italy' and now reduced to a mere 20 decuriae, and the Daorsi or Daversi, ..."] .

Deramastae

"Deraemestae" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 257,""... In Popovopolje the Deraemestae may have been incorporated within the new municipium at Diluntum (Ljubinje). Several cities were created in the more remote regions ...""] .

Deuri

"Deuri" was the name of an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 216,"... of southwest Bosnia, the Maezaei (269) of the Sana and Vrbas valleys, and the Sardeates (52) around Jajce and the Deuri (25) around Bugojno, both in the Vrbas valley.] tribe.

Dindari

"Dindari" was the name of an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 217,"... with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of their chiefs (principes) in the Drina valley. ..."] tribe.

Ditiones

"Ditiones" were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians] [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 203,"... Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates. ..."] .

Docleatae

"Docleatae" were an Illyrian tribe that lived in what is now Montenegro. Their capital was Doclea (or "Dioclea"), and they are called after the town.They had settle west of the Morača river, up to Montenegro's present-day borders with Herzegovina. The Docleatae were prominent for their cheese, which was exported to various Roman provinces within the Roman Empire. [Istorijski leksion Crne Gore: Č-J ISBN 86-7706-167-3]

Enchelei

"Enchelei" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 96,"... 25 Enchelei. The Enchelei are an Illyrian people, who inhabit the land after Rhizon. From Bouthoe to Epidamnus, a Greek city, the ..."] .Their name given by the Greeks meant eel-men(Greek language; "Εγχελείς").

Grabaei

"Grabaei" were a minor Illyrian group that lived around Lake Scutari [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 121, "... though some have suggested Grabus was his son and successor. His name suggests some connection with the Grabaei, a minor people of the Illyrians who lived on the southern Adriatic near the Lake of Shkodër. ..."] .

Glintidiones

"Glintidiones" was the name of an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 217,"... with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of their chiefs (principes) in the Drina valley...."] tribe.

Maezaei

"Maezaei" were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 80,"... Among the Pannonians within Roman Dalmatia the western groups, including the Maezaei and Daesitiates, exhibit few outside connections, and those are with Delmatae immediately to the south, though in Alföldy's view the two groups ..."] .

Melcumani

"Melcumani" were an Illyrian tribe [The Cambridge Ancient History by John Boardman,ISBN 0521264308,1923,page 578,"... Since they are listed among those peoples who submitted in 33 B.C. the Melcumani (24) are not likely to have lived any great distance from the coast. It has been suggested that they may ...] .

Narensi

"Narensi" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075 page 216,"... destination of one of the military roads constructed from Salona after the end of the war in AD 9. The Narensi (102) of the same conventus are likely to be named from the river Naron/Narenta ( ..."] .

Parthini

"Parthini" or "Partheni" (Greek: polytonic|Παρθηνοί, polytonic|Παρθινοί, polytonic|Παρθῖνοι, Strabo vii.; Appian, "Illyr." 1; Dion Cass. xli. 49; Cic. "in Pis." 40; Pomp. Mela, ii. 3. § 11; Plin. iii. 26), were Illyrians [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,,Page 98,"... North of Dassaretis in the middle and upper valley of the Genusus was the territory of the Illyrian Parthini, likely to have been part of the Taulantii until they first appear as Roman allies late in the third century ..."] of Epirus Nova who may be placed to the north in the neighborhood of Epidamnus, and, consequently, next to the Taulantii. They are often mentioned in the course of the war with Illyricum, 229 BCE, but as friends rather than foes of the Romans, having submitted at an early period to their arms. (Polyb. ii. 11; Livy xxix. 12.) After the death of Philip, king of Macedon, they appear to have been added to the dominions of Pleuratus, an Illyrian prince allied to the Romans. (Polyb. xviii. 30; Liv. xxx. 34, xliv. 30.) Their principal town was Parthus (polytonic|Πάρθος, Steph. B. "s. v."), which was taken by Caesar in the course of his campaign with Pompeius. (Caes. "B.C." iii. 41.) The double-hilled Dimale, the strongest among the Illyrian places, with two citadels on two heights, connected by a wall (Polyb. iii. 18, vii. 9), was within their territory. There is no indication, however, of its precise situation, which was probably between Lissus and Epidamnus. Livy mentions (xxix. 12) two other fortesses: Eugenium and Bargulum.

Penestae

"Penestae" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 136,"... of Pelion, and there is so far no certain location for Uscana, the strategically placed chief settlement of the Illyrian Penestae. ..] .

Pirustae

"Pirustae" were an Illyrian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 207,"... the imperial triumphs over individual peoples. Among the several Illyrian groups singled out were Japodes, Dardanians , Pannonian Andizetes and Pirustae. ..] tribe that lived in modern Montenegro. According to some sources, they had also lived in territories outside modern-day Montenegro, but, the majority of archaeologists, including famous British archaeologist Sir Arthur Evans, the Pirustae had lived in northern Montenegro, around present-day Pljevlja and that they were prominent miners. Their prominence in mining has been seen in epigraphic monuments from Dacia's mining regions. [Istorijski Leksilon Crne Gore: Č-J ISBN 86-7706-167-3]

Selepitani

"Selepitani" was an Illyrian tribe located below the Lake Scutari.

Scirtati

"Scirtari" or "Scirtones" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075 page 217,"... whose name deriving from the Greek for`thunderbolt' links them with high mountains, Siculotae (24), Glintidiones (44) and Scirtari, who dwelt along the border with Macedonia. In northeast Bosnia the Dindari are located by the record of one of ..."] .

Segestani

"Segestani" were illyrians of the subtribe of Pannonians [ Rome and the Barbarians, 100 B.C.--A.D. 400 by Thomas S. Burns,ISBN-10: 0801873061,2003,page 200,"... Appian's account depicts a situation in which the inhabitants of Siscia (Segestiké, therefore "the Segestani") appealed in vain for aid from fellow Pannonians in their vicinity, but these people were reluctant to get involved, preferring ..."] .

Taulanti

"Taulanti" (Greek "Ταυλάντιοι") were one of the largest Illyrian tribes. According to Greek mythology Taulas ("Tαύλας"), one of the six sons of Illyrius, was the eponymous ancestor of the Taulanti. [Appian, "The Foreign Wars, III, 1.2"] They lived on the Adriatic coast of Illyria (modern Albania), between the river Vjosa on the south and the city of Epidamnus (modern Durrës) on the north. This tribe played an important role in Illyrian history of the 4th-3rd centuries BC, when they ruled Illyrian kingdom, firstly established by Enchelleae. Approximately on the same land as Taulanti lived the Albanoi and Parthines tribes.In 335 BC, King Glaukias established the Taulanti dynasty in the Illyrian Kingdom. In 323 BC, Glaukias freed all the land which had been taken from Enchelleae by the Macedonians. Later, Illyrians capture Epidamnus and Apollonia, two major Greek cities founded in the 7th century BC.In 309 BC, Glaukias went to Epirus where Pyrrhus regained the throne."Bardylis Junior" (Bardhyli i Ri), Glaukias' successor, had friendly relationship with Epirus, but it didn’t last long because Pyrrhus conquered all the land in the south of Shkumbin river.This policy was followed strictly by Monunius (280 BC), who became head of Epidamnus and made silver coins with his name. He achieved to consolidate the Illyrian Kingdom.The major cities of the Kingdom were Epidamnus, Apollonia, Damastion,Byllis, Albanopolis, Dimale, Skodra (Shkodër), Lissos (Lezhë), Meteon, Ulcinium (Ulqin), Rizon.

Labeates

"Labeates "was an Illyrian tribe that lived first on the borders of modern Albania, Macedonia and Kosovo than (after being defeated by Parmenio) around Scodra [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians,1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 172,"... area, including Oaneum on a river Aratus,which controlled the route leading west to the kingdom of Gentius among the Labeates around Scodra. ..."] .

Jasi

"Jasi" was the name of an Illyrian tribe [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 218,"... Except for the Latobici and Varciani, whose names are Celtic, the civitates of Colapiani, Jasi, Breuci, Amantini and Scordisci were Illyrian. ..."] .

Lopsi

"Lopsi" is the name of a (presumably) Illyrian tribe inhabiting the mountains along the eastern coast of the Adriatic before and during the Roman Empire, specifically present-day Velebit [cite book |authorlink=Pliny the Elder |title=Naturalis Historia] . The tribe was mentioned by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia [cite web |url=http://www.thelatinlibrary.com/pliny.nh3.html |title=PLINII NATVRALIS HISTORIAE LIBER III |accessdate=2008-07-16 ] , and it borrowed its name to one of the Roman cities on the coast, Lopsica (present day Sveti Juraj in Croatia). The name has survived to present day as the name of several villages on the Velebit, in the form "Lopci"Fact|date=March 2008, as well as the family surname Lopac.

Pannonians

"Pannonians" ( _la. Pannonii) was a common name for a group of culturaly similar tribes cognate to Illyrians, who inhabited the southern part of what was later known as Roman province of Pannonia, south of the river Drava ( _la. "Dravus"), and the northern part of the future Roman province of Dalmatia.

History

In the 2nd century BC, the Segestani, one of the Pannonian tribes inhabiting the area around Segesta (modern Sisak in Croatia), were attacked without lasting success by Roman consuls L. Aurelius Cotta and an unidentified Cornelius. In 35 BC, the Segestani were attacked by Augustus, who conquered and occupied Siscia (Sisak). The rest of the Pannonians were not, however, definitely subdued until 9 BC, when their lands were incorporated into the province of Illyricum after the bellum Pannonicum, conducted by the future emperor Tiberius.

In AD 6, the Pannonians, together with the Dalmatians and other Illyrian tribes, revolted, and were overcome by Tiberius and Germanicus, after a hard-fought campaign which lasted for three years. Leaders of the rebellion were Bato (of the Breuci tribe) and Pinnes from Pannonia and another Baton (of the Daesitiates) from Dalmatia. After the rebellion was crushed in 9 AD, the province of Illyricum was dissolved, and its lands were divided between the new provinces of Pannonia in the north and Dalmatia in the south. The date of the division is unknown, most certainly after AD 20 but before AD 50.

Pannonian tribes

The Pannonian tribes inhabited the area between the river Drava and the Dalmatian coast. Archaeology and onomastics shows that they were culturally different from southern Illyrians, Iapodes, and La Tene peoples commonly known as the Celts. However, there are some cultural similarities between the Pannonians and Dalmatians. Many of the Pannonians lived in areas with rich iron ore deposits, so that iron mining and production was an important part of their economy before and after the Roman conquest. The Pannonians did not have settlements of importance in pre-Roman times, apart from Segestica (Siscia). Ancient sources (Strabo, Pliny the Elder, Appian of Alexadria) mention few of the Pannonian [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,page 203,"... Papirius Carbo. Strabo (7.5, 3) identifies the Pannonian peoples as Breuci, Andizetes, Ditiones, Pirustae, Maezaei and Daesitiates. ..."] tribes by name, and historians and archaeologists located some of them. The most significant were:
*"Breuci" (area between the rivers Sava and Drava)
*"Daesitiates" (central Bosnia)
*"Pirustae" (northern Montenegro)
*"Segestani" (around river Kolpa)
*"Maezaei" (northwest Bosnia - roughly modern Bosanska Krajina without Bihać)
*"Ditiones" (western Bosnia)

Thracian

*"Dardanii" ,Thraco-Illyrian [ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075.,Page 85,"... Whether the Dardanians were an Illyrian or a Thracian people has been much debated and one view suggests that the area was originally populated with..."] .
*"Galabri"
*"Thunatae"

Phrygian

*"Bryges",Phryges [Borza, Eugene N. (1990). In the Shadow of Olympus: the Emergence of Macedon. Princeton, New Jersey: Princeton University Press.]

Celtic

*"Latobici",Celtic tribe, [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,,page 81,"... " In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of ..."]
*"Scordisci",Celtic tribe, [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,Page 140,"... Autariatae at the expense of the Triballi until, as Strabo remarks, they in their turn were overcome by the Celtic Scordisci in the early third century Sc. ..."]

Independent

*"Messapii",Independent non-Illyrian, [ [http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=cms%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&CFTREEITEMKEY=cms+++++++++++++++ Unclassified Indo-European] ]
*"Dauni",Independent non-Illyrian, [ [http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=cms%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&CFTREEITEMKEY=cms+++++++++++++++ Unclassified Indo-European] ]
*"Peucetii",Independent non-Illyrian, [ [http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=cms%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&CFTREEITEMKEY=cms+++++++++++++++ Unclassified Indo-European] ]
*"Iapyges",Independent non-Illyrian, [ [http://linguistlist.org/forms/langs/LLDescription.cfm?code=cms%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20%20&CFTREEITEMKEY=cms+++++++++++++++ Unclassified Indo-European] ]

Venetic

*"Liburni",Venetic, [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 183,"... We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians. ..."]
*"Histri",Venetic, [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 183,"... We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians. ..."]
*"Japodes",Venetic [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 79,"... along with the evidence of name formulae, a Venetic element among the Japodes. A group of names identified by Alföldy as of Celtic origin: Ammida, Andes, Iaritus, Matera, Maxa, ..."]
*"Carni",Venetic, [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 183,"... We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians. ..."]
*"Catari",Venetic, [Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992,ISBN 0631198075,page 81,"... " In Roman Pannonia the Latobici and Varciani who dwelt east of the Venetic Catari in the upper Sava valley were Celtic but the Colapiani of the Colapis (Kulpa) valley were Illyrians ( ..."]

ee also

* Origin of the Albanians

Further reading

*Z. Marić, ‘Problemes des limites septentrionales du territoire illyrien’ in: A. Benac, Symposium sur la delimitation Territoriale et chronologique des Illyriens a l’epoque Prehistorique, Sarajevo 1964, 177-213 (material culture).
*I. Bojanovski, Bosnie et Herzegovine a l’epoque antique (in Serbo-Croatian of the time),Sarajevo, 1988 (overview).
*M. Šašel-Kos, Appian and Illyricum, Ljubljana, 2005, 375 ff. (with most up to date bibliography).

References


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