New Order (Nazism)


New Order (Nazism)

The New Order (German: Neuordnung; French: Ordre Nouveau) or the New Order of Europe (German: Neuordnung Europas) was the political order which the Nazis wanted to impose on Europe, and eventually the rest of the world, during their reign over Germany from 1933 to 1945. The establishment of the New Order was already begun long before the start of World War II, but was publicly proclaimed by Adolf Hitler in 1941:

The year 1941 will be, I am convinced, the historical year of a great European New Order.

—Adolf Hitler[1]

Among other things, it entailed the creation of a pan-German racial state structured according to National Socialist ideology to ensure the supremacy of an Aryan-Nordic master race, massive territorial expansion into Eastern Europe through its colonization with German settlers, the physical annihilation of the Jews and others considered to be "unworthy of life", and the extermination, expulsion, and enslavement of most of the Slavic peoples and others regarded as "racially inferior".[2] Nazi Germany’s desire for aggressive territorial expansionism was one of the key triggers that led to the outbreak of World War II.

Historians are still divided as to its ultimate goals, some believing that it was to be limited to Nazi German domination of Europe, while others maintain that it was a springboard for eventual world conquest and the establishment of a world government under German control.[3]

The Führer gave expression to his unshakable conviction that the Reich will be the master of all Europe. We shall yet have to engage in many fights, but these will undoubtedly lead to most wonderful victories. From there on the way to world domination is practically certain. Whoever dominates Europe will thereby assume the leadership of the world.

—Joseph Goebbels, 8 May 1943[4]

Contents

Origin of the term

The New Order in Europe: German and other Axis conquests in Europe during World War II.

The term Neuordnung originally had a different and more limited meaning than in its present usage. It is typically translated as New Order, but a more correct translation would actually be more akin to re-structurization. When it was used in Germany during the Third Reich-era it referred specifically to the Nazis' desire to essentially redraw the contemporary state borders within Europe, thereby changing the then-existing geopolitical structures. In the same sense it has also been used now and in the past to denote similar re-orderings of the international political order such as the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, the Vienna Congress in 1815, and the Allied victory in 1945. The complete phrase which was used by the Nazi establishment was actually die Neuordnung Europas (the New Order of Europe), for which Neuordnung was merely a shorthand.

According to the Nazi government this goal was pursued by Germany to secure a fair rearrangement of territory for the "common benefit" of a new, economically integrated Europe,[5] which in Nazi terminology meant the continent of Europe with the exclusion of the "Asiatic" Soviet Union.[6] Nazi racist views regarded the "Judeo-Bolshevist" Soviet state both as a criminal institution which needed to be destroyed as well as a barbarian place as yet lacking any actual culture that would give it a "European" character.[7] Neuordnung was therefore hardly ever used in reference to Soviet Russia since theoretically there weren't even any actual structures that could be re-organized along National Socialist designs.

The actual objective was however to ensure a state of total post-war continental hegemony for Nazi Germany.[8] This was to be achieved by the expansion of the territorial base of the German state itself, combined with the political and economic subjugation of the rest of Europe to Germany. Eventual extensions of the project to areas beyond Europe as well as on an ultimately global scale were anticipated for the future period in which Germany would have secured unchallenged control over her own continent first, but Neuordnung did not carry this extra-European meaning at the time.

Through its wide use in Nazi propaganda it quickly gained coinage in Western media. In English-language academic circles especially it eventually carried a much more inclusive definition, and became increasingly known as a term used to refer to all the foreign and domestic politics and war aims of the Nazi German state as well as its dictatorial leader Adolf Hitler. It therefore holds approximately the same connotations as the term co-prosperity sphere did in Japanese circles in reference to their planned imperial domain. Nowadays it is most commonly used to refer to all the post-war planning and policies both in and outside of Europe that the Nazi government expected to implement after an anticipated victory for Germany and the other Axis powers in World War II.

Ideological Background

Racialist doctrine

Geopolitical influence

Anticipated territorial extent of Nazi imperialism

In a subsequently published speech given at Erlangen University in November 1930 Hitler explained to his audience that no other people had more of a right to fight for and attain "control" of the globe (Weltherrschaft, i.e. "world leadership", "world rule") than the Germans. He realized however that this extremely ambitious goal could never be achieved without an enormous amount of fighting.[9] Hitler had alluded to future German world dominance even earlier in during his political career. In an letter written by Rudolf Hess to Walter Hewel in 1927, Hess paraphrases Hitler's vision: "World peace is certainly an ideal worth striving for; in Hitler's opinion it will be realizable only when one power, the racially best one, has attained complete and uncontested supremacy. That [power] can then provide a sort of world police, seeing to it at the same time that the most valuable race is guaranteed the necessary living space. And if no other way is open to them, the lower races will have to restrict themselves accordingly."[10]

Heinrich Himmler discussed the territorial aspirations of Germany during his first Posen speech in 1943. He commented on the goals of the warring nations involved in the conflict, and stated that Germany was fighting for new territories and a global power status:

[T]he Seven Years War brought Prussia's confirmation as a great European power. That war was carried on for seven years to ensure that the already conquered province of Silesia would remain part of Prussia. This war will ensure that everything annexed to the German Reich, to Greater Germany, and then to the Germanic Reich in the years since 1938, will remain ours. This war is being carried on to keep the path to the East open; so that Germany may be a world power; to found the Germanic World Empire (Germanische Weltreich).

Implementation in Europe

Polish resistance satirical poster - "New European Order" (German: Die Neuordnung Europas) - polish reaction on Hitler`s plans to establish a "new order" in Europe, under domination of Nazi Germany. In the middle: Adolf Hitler, background: imprisoned European nations (France, Bulgaria, the Netherlands, Yugoslavia, Belgium, Greece, Poland, Hungary etc.)

Military campaigns in Poland and Western Europe

The initial phase of the establishment of the New Order was:

  • First, the signing of the German-Soviet Pact on 23 August 1939 prior to the invasion of Poland to secure the new eastern border with the Soviet Union, prevent the emergence of a two-front war, and to circumvent a shortage of raw materials due to an expected British naval blockade.

The first two phases of the initial plan were successful, but Hitler was unable to implement the third phase since the United Kingdom won the Battle of Britain.

Had Britain succumbed to Germany, the political re-ordering of Western Europe would have been accomplished. There was to be no post-war general peace conference in the manner of the one held in Paris after the First World War, merely bilateral negotiations between Germany and her defeated enemies.[12] All still existing international organizations such as the International Labour Organization were to be dismantled or replaced by German-controlled equivalents.[12]

By annexing vast territories in northeastern France, Hitler hoped to marginalize the country to prevent any further continental challenges to Germany's hegemony.[13] Likewise, the Latin nations of Western and Southern Europe (Portugal, Spain and Italy) were to be eventually brought into a state of total German dependency and control.[13]

Establishment of a Greater Germanic Reich

One of the most elaborate Nazi projects initiated in the newly conquered territories during this period of the war was the planned establishment of a "Greater Germanic Reich of the German Nation" (Grossgermanisches Reich Deutscher Nation).[14] This future empire was to consist of, in addition to Greater Germany, virtually all of historically Germanic Europe (excepting Great Britain), whose inhabitants the Nazis believed to be "Aryan" in nature. The consolidation of these countries as mere provinces of the Third Reich, in the same manner in which Austria was reduced to the "Ostmark", was to be carried out through a rapidly enforced process of Gleichschaltung. The ultimate intent of this was to eradicate all traces of national rather than racial consciousness, although their native languages were to remain in existence.[15][16]

Establishment of German domination in Southeastern Europe

Immediately prior to Germany's invasion of Soviet Russia, Slovakia, Hungary, Romania, Bulgaria and Serbia (including the German-dominated autonomous area of Banat) were already satellites of Nazi Germany. Montenegro and Greece were satellites of Italy while Albania had been annexed by Italy. Although technically in the Italian sphere of influence, Croatia was in reality a condominium puppet state of the two Axis powers, with Italy controlling the southwestern half, and Germany the northeastern half. Hitler observed that permanent German bases might be established in Belgrade (possibly to be renamed to Prinz-Eugen-Stadt) and Salonika.[17]

Conquest of Lebensraum in Eastern Europe

Offensive plan for Operation Barbarossa.

Implementation of the long term plan for the New Order was begun on June 22, 1941 with Operation Barbarossa - the invasion of Russia. The goal of the campaign was not merely the destruction of the Soviet regime - which the Nazis considered illegitimate and criminal - but also the racial reorganization of European Russia, outlined for the Nazi elite in the Generalplan Ost ("General Plan for the East").[18] Furthermore, Hitler hoped to turn Germany into a total blockade-proof autarky by exploiting the vast resources laying in Soviet territories: the Ukraine was to provide grain, vegetable oil, feeding-stuffs, iron ore, nickel, manganese, coal, molybdenum; the Crimea natural rubber, citrus fruit and cotton; the Black Sea fish and the Caucasus crude oil.[19]

Nazi party philosopher Alfred Rosenberg (who, incidentally, protested against the inhumane policy shown toward the Slavs[20]) was the Minister for the Eastern Territories, the person nominally in charge of the project, and Heinrich Himmler, head of the SS, was assigned to implement the enslavement, expulsion, and extermination of the non-Aryan (i.e. Slavic) population. The long-term objective as detailed by Hitler in Mein Kampf was the incorporation of large territories in Eastern Europe for German settlement, eventually expanding the territory of the Third Reich all the way to the Ural Mountains. Acquisition of settlement colonies in Eastern Europe would therefore solve the question of lebensraum. [12]

By 1942 the quasi-colonial regimes called the General Gouvernment in Poland, the Reichskommissariat Ostland in the Baltic states and Belarus, and the Reichskommissariat Ukraine in the Ukraine had been established. Two more administrative divisions were envisaged: a Reichskommissariat Moskowien that would include the Moscow metropolitan area and vast tracts of European Russia, and a Reichskommissariat Kaukasus in the Caucasus. This policy was accompanied by the annihilation of the entire Jewish population (the Final Solution) as well as the enslavement of their Slavic inhabitants, who it was planned would be made slave laborers on the estates to be granted to SS soldiers after the conquest of European Russia. Each of these SS "soldier peasants" were expected to father at least seven children.[21]

German women were encouraged to have as many children as possible to populate the newly acquired Eastern territories. To encourage this fertility policy, the lebensborn program was expanded and the state decoration known as the Gold Honor Cross of the German Mother was instituted, which was awarded to German women who bore at least eight children for the Third Reich. There was also an effort by Martin Bormann and Himmler to introduce new marriage legislation to facilitate population growth, which would have allowed decorated war heroes to marry an additional wife.[22] Himmler envisaged a German population of 300,000,000 by 2000.

Re-settlement efforts

Propaganda map showing Nazi plans to Germanize occupied Poland

By 1942, Hitler's empire encompassed much of Europe, but the territories annexed lacked population desired by the Nazis.[23] After Germany had acquired her Lebensraum, she now needed to populate these lands according to Nazi ideology and racial principles.[23] This was to be accomplished before the end of the war by a "reordering of ethnographical relations".[23] The initial step of this project was taken by Hitler already on 7 October 1939, when Himmler was named the Reich Commissar for the Consolidation of Germandom (Reichskommissar für die Festigung deutschen Volkstums) (RKFDV) (see also Hauptamt Volksdeutsche Mittelstelle, VoMi)[23] This position authorized Himmler to repatriate ethnic Germans (Volksdeutsche) living abroad to occupied Poland.[23] Himmler's jurisdiction as the guardian of the Volksdeutsche re-settlement efforts was increased to other occupied territories to be Germanized as the war continued. To make room for the German settlers, hundreds of thousands of Poles, French and Slovenes living in these lands were transferred across borders.[24] The great majority of Himmler's Volksdeutsche were acquired from the Soviet sphere of interest under the German-Soviet "population exchange" treaty.[24]

Gauleiter Greiser greeting the millionth German of Reichsgau Wartheland, 1944.

At the end of 1942 a total of 629,000 Volksdeutsche had been re-settled, and preparations for the transfer of 393,000 others were underway.[24] Long-term goal of the VoMi was the resettlement of a further 5,4 million Volksdeutsche, mainly from Transylvania, Banat, France, Hungary and Romania.[24] The immigrants were classified either as racially or politically unreliable (settled in Altreich), of high quality (settled in the annexed eastern territories) or suitable for transit camps.[24] Himmler encountered considerable difficulties with the Volksdeutsche of France and Luxembourg, who often wished retain their former status as citizens of their respective countries.[24]

Settlement/resettlement figures on 1 June 1944[25]
Territory of origin Total Re-settled in annexed eastern territories
Estonia and Latvia 76,895 57,249
Lithuania 51,076 30,315
Volhynia, Galicia, Narew 136,958 109,482
Eastern Government-General 32,960 25,956
Bessarabia 93,342 89,201
Northern Bukovina 43,670 24,203
Southern Bukovina 52,149 40,804
Dobruja 15,454 11,812
Romania, Regat 10,115 1,129
Gottschee and Ljubljana 15,008 13,143
Bulgaria 1,945 226
Residual Serbia 2,900 350
Russia 350,000 177,146
Greece 250
Bosnia 18,437 3,698
Slovakia 98
South Tyrol 88,630 Reich, Protectorate, Luxembourg: 68,162
France 19,226 Alsace, Lorraine, Luxembourg, Reich, Protectorate: 9,572
Total 1,009,113 662,448

Plans for other parts of the world outside Europe

Plans for an African colonial domain

Approximate location of Mittelafrika in medium blue and dark blue, with pre-World War I German colonies in dark blue. Possible inclusions (Portuguese colonies) are shaded light blue.

Hitler's geopolitical thoughts about Africa always occupied a secondary position to his expansionist aims in Europe itself: "A colonial policy only makes sense if you first control the continent". His public announcements prior to outbreak of the war that Germany's former colonies be returned to it served primarily as bargaining chips to further territorial goals in Europe itself. This area was nevertheless intended to also fall under German control in some way or another after it had first achieved supremacy over its own continent.[26]

Hitler's overall intentions for the future organization of Africa divided it in three basic portions. The northern third was to be assigned to its Italian ally, while the central part would fall under German rule. The remaining southern sector would be controlled by a pro-Nazi Afrikaner state built on racial grounds.[26] In early 1940 Foreign Minister Ribbentrop had communicated with South African leaders thought to be sympathetic to the Nazi cause, informing them that Germany was to reclaim its former colony of German South-West Africa, then a mandate of the Union of South Africa.[27] South Africa was to be compensated by the territorial acquisitions of the British protectorates of Swaziland, Basutoland and Bechuanaland and the colony of Southern Rhodesia.[27] On the division of French African colonies between the Spanish and Italian governments Hitler refused to provide any official promises during the war however, fearful of losing the support of Vichy France.

In 1940, the general staff of the German Navy produced a much more detailed plan accompanied by a map showing a proposed German colonial empire delineated in blue (the traditional color used in German cartography to indicate the German sphere of influence as opposed to the red or pink that represented the British Empire) in sub-Saharan Africa, extending from the Atlantic Ocean to the Indian Ocean.[28] The proposed domain was supposed to fulfill the long-sought territorial German goal of Mittelafrika, and even further beyond. It was to provide a base from which Germany was to achieve a pre-eminent position on the African continent just as the conquest of Eastern Europe was to achieve a similar status over the continent of Europe.

In contrast to territories that were to be acquired in Europe itself (specifically European Russia), these areas were however not envisaged as targets for extensive German population settlement. The establishment of a vast colonial empire was to serve primarily economic purposes, for it would provide Germany with most natural resources that it would not be able to find in its continental possessions, as well as an additional nearly unlimited supply of labor. Racialist policies would nevertheless be strictly enforced on all inhabitants (meaning segregation of whites and blacks and punishing of interracial relationships) to maintain "Aryan" purity.

The area included all pre-WWI German colonial territories in Africa, as well as additional parts of the French, Belgian and British colonial holdings in Africa. These were the French and Belgian Congo, Northern and Southern Rhodesia (the latter going perhaps to South Africa), Nyasaland, southern Kenya with Nairobi (northern Kenya was to be given to Italy), Uganda, Gabon, Ubangui-Chari, Nigeria, Dahomey, the Gold Coast, Zanzibar, nearly all of Niger and Chad, as well as the naval bases of Dakar and Bathurst.[29]

A second part of the plan entailed the construction of a huge string of fortified naval and air bases for future operations against the Western hemisphere spanning much of the Atlantic coastline of Europe and Africa from Trondheim in Norway all the way up to the Belgian Congo, as well as many off-lying islands such as Cape Verde and the Azores. A less extensive but similar initiative was intended for the east coast of Africa.

Division of Asia between the Axis powers

The Yenisei River basin in Siberia. The Yenisei River was the agreed division point of Eurasia between Japan and Nazi Germany.[30]

In 1942, a secret diplomatic conference was held between Nazi Germany and the Japanese Empire in which they agreed to divide Asia along a line that followed the Yenisei River to the border of China, and then along the border of China and the Soviet Union, the northern and western borders of Afghanistan, and the border between Iran and India (what is now Pakistan was then part of India).[30] This treaty, of which a draft was presented to the Germans by ambassador Ōshima, was initially rejected by the German Foreign Office and the Navy, as it allocated India to Japan and limited German naval operations in the Indian Ocean.[31] Hitler, however, found the treaty acceptable, leading to its signing on January 18, 1942.[31]

The treaty proved to be detrimental for Axis strategic cooperation in the Indian Ocean, as crossing the boundary line required tedious prior consultation.[31] This made any joint German-Japanese offensive against British positions in the Middle East impossible.[31] Japanese operations against Allied shipping lines during the Indian Ocean raid had been highly successful along with the attack against Ceylon, but these were not followed due to the non-existent German-Japanese strategic cooperation.[32] The Germans vigorously maintained watch on the demarcation line, and objected to any Japanese incursion to the "German sphere" of the Axis-divided world.[32] Thus the Japanese were forced to cancel a planned massive attack against Madagascar, as the island had been delegated to Germany in the treaty.[32]

Concession of Oceania to Japan

Germany's former colonial possessions in the Pacific (German New Guinea and German Samoa), which had had been allocated to Japan after World War I as C-Class Mandates according to the Treaty of Versailles, were to be sold to Japan (both Weimar and Nazi-era Germany never officially relinquished claims to their pre-war colonial territories) at least temporarily in the interest of its alliance with that country.[33] Australia and New Zealand were designated as future Japanese territories, although Hitler lamented his belief that the white race would disappear from those regions.[34] He nevertheless made it clear to his officials that "the descendants of the convicts in Australia" were not Germany's concern and that their lands would be colonized by Japanese settlers in the immediate future, an opinion also shared by Joseph Goebbels, who expressed his conviction in his diary that the Japanese had always desired "the fifth continent" for emigration purposes.[35] A eurocentric at heart, Hitler's knowledge on New Zealand was even more limited. In his only recorded lengthy discussion on the subject he argued that its people still lived in trees and had not yet learned to walk upright.[36] Historian Norman Rich stated that it can be assumed that Hitler would have attempted to recruit the Anglo-Saxons of these two countries as colonists for the conquered east; some of the English were to share the same fate.[34][37]

Middle East and Central Asia

After the projected fall of the USSR, Hitler planned to intensify the war in the Mediterranean.[38] The OKW produced studies concerning an attack against the Suez Canal through Turkey, an offensive towards Baghdad-Basra from the Caucasus (most of which was already under German occupation as a result of Fall Blau) in support of revolting Arab nationalists, and operations in Afghanistan and Iran directed against British India.[39] Hitler did not envision German colonization of the region, and was most likely to allow Italian dominance at least over the Levant.[40][41][42] The Jews of the Middle East were to be murdered, as Hitler had promised to the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem in November 1941 (see Einsatzgruppe Egypt).[41]

Turkey was favoured as a potential ally by Hitler because of its important strategic location on the boundaries of Europe, Asia, and Africa, as well as its extensive history as a state hostile against the Russian Empire as well as the later Soviet Union.[43] To assure that Germany wanted to work with them on a long-range basis, the Turks were guaranteed an equal status in the German-dominated order, and were promised a number of territories which they might desire for reasons of security. These encompassed Edirne (Adrianople) and a rectification of Turkish frontiers at the expense of Greece, the creation of buffer states in the Caucasus under Turkish influence, a rectification of the Turkish-Syrian frontier (the Baghdad Railway and the State of Aleppo) and the Turkish-Iraq frontier (the Mosul region), as well as a settlement of "the Aegean question" to provide Turkey with suitable protection against encroachments from Italy.[43] The Black Sea (which Hitler derided as "a mere frog-pond")[44] was also to be conceded to Turkey as part of its sphere of influence, for this would negate the need of stationing a German navy in the region to replace the Soviet Black Sea Fleet.[43] The Crimea (tentatively dubbed Gotenland by the Nazis) was nevertheless to be fortified to ensure permanent German possession of the peninsula, and the Black Sea exploited as an "unlimited" resource of seafood.[45]

Allied-occupied Iran was also to be drawn into the Axis camp, possibly by the means of an uprising.[39] The possibility of Iran as an anti-Soviet bastion was already considered in the 1930s, and coincided with Hitler's declaration of Iran as an "Aryan state" (the name Iran literally means "homeland of the Aryans" in Persian).[46] On the eve of WWII Germany was already Iran's single-biggest trading partner, followed by the USSR, Britain, and the US.[46]

During pre-war diplomatic maneuvers, the NSDAP Foreign Affairs Office took special interest in Afghanistan, believing that the Kaiserreich had failed to exploit the country diplomatically during the First World War despite the Niedermayer-Hentig Expedition.[47] The objective was to ensure that the country would remain neutral during a possible German-British conflict, and even use it militarily against British India or Soviet Russia.[47] Despite the NSDAP Foreign Office's good relations with the Afghan government, the Foreign Ministry under Ribbentrop favored overthrowing the current government and restoration of the rule of Amānullāh Khān, who had been living in exile since 1929.[48] Hitler eventually came to support Rosenberg's office on this issue.[48] After the German-French armistice of 1940, the Kabul government tried to question Berlin on German plans concerning the future of Afghanistan.[49] Of special interest were the post-war borders of the country - the Afghan government hoped to see the "liberation" of 15 million ethnic Afghans living in British India, and the securing of the northern Afghan border so that an expansion towards the Indian Ocean became possible (See Pashtunistan).[49] As the German–Soviet Axis talks of October–November were then underway (and the possible expansion of the Soviet sphere of influence in south-central Asia and India was on the table), Berlin was reluctant to give any binding offers to Kabul.[50]

The Third Saudi State under Ibn Saud was seen as a natural ally, and was to be given territorial concessions in south-west Arabia and Transjordan.[39] Also, a post-war satellite Greater Arab Union was discussed.[40]

Although initially intending to concede Italy control of the region, after that country had defected to the Allied camp in 1943 Hitler came to regard the Islamic countries and the Pan-Arab movement increasingly more as the natural ally of National Socialist Germany, as opposed to the "treacherous" Italians.[51] On February 17, 1945 in particular he explained to his entourage his regrets that Germany's prior alliance with its southern neighbour had prevented her from pursuing a more revolutionary policy towards the Arab world, which would have also allowed its exit from the British and French spheres of influence in the area[51]:

In the nature of things, this territory was becoming an Italian preserve and it was as such that the Duce laid claim to it. Had we been on our own, we could have emancipated the Moslem countries dominated by France; and that would have had enormous repercussions in the Near East, dominated by Britain, and in Egypt. But with our fortunes linked to those of the Italians, the pursuit of such a policy was not possible. All Islam vibrated at the news of our victories. The Egyptians, the Iraqis and the whole of the Near East were all ready to rise in revolt. Just think what we could have done to help them, even to incite them, as would have been both our duty and in our own interest! But the presence of the Italians at our side paralyzed us; it created a feeling of malaise among our Islamic friends, who inevitably saw in us accomplices, willing or unwilling, of their oppressors.

Hitler's plans for India

Hitler's views on India were disparaging.[52] He considered the British colonial rule of the subcontinent as an exemplary one and intended the German rule in the occupied East to resemble it in ruthlessness.[52] Hitler thought little of the Indian independence movement, declaring the freedom fighters of being racially inferior "Asiatic jugglers".[52] As early as 1930 he spoke of the Indian freedom movement as the rebellion of the "lower Indian race against the superior English Nordic race", and that the British were free to deal with any subversive Indian activists as they liked.[53] In 1937 he told the British Foreign Secretary Lord Halifax that the British should "shoot Gandhi, and if this doesn't suffice to reduce them to submission, shoot a dozen leading members of the Congress, and if that doesn't suffice shoot 200, and so on, as you make it clear that you mean business."[53] Nazi ideologist Alfred Rosenberg stated that although the Vedic culture was Aryan in origin, any Nordic blood had long since been lost due to racial mixing.[52] Like Hitler, he viewed the British rule in India as being desirable.[52]

During the first years of the war in Europe, as Hitler sought out to reach an arrangement with Britain, he held the notion that India should remain under British control after the war, as in his mind the only alternative was a Soviet occupation of the subcontinent.[52] As Britain had rejected German peace offers, Hitler ordered on 17 February 1941 to prepare a military study for a post-Barbarossa operation in Afghanistan against India.[38] The goal of this operation was not so much to conquer the subcontinent, but to threaten British military positions there to force Britain to come to terms.[38] A week later the Afghanistan operation was the subject of a discussion between head of the Army General Staff Franz Halder, Oberbefehlshaber des Heeres Walter von Brauchitsch and chief of the Operationsabteilung OKH Adolf Heusinger.[54] In an assessment produced on 7 April 1941, Halder estimated that the operation would require 17 divisions and one separate regiment.[54]

Indian revolutionary Subhas Chandra Bose escaped from India on 17 January 1941 and arrived in Berlin via Moscow.[55] There he proposed organizing an Indian national government in exile and urged the Axis to declare their support for the Indian cause.[55] He eventually managed to extract such promises from Japan after the Fall of Singapore and later on from Italy as well, but the Germans refused.[53] Bose was granted an audience with Mussolini, but Hitler refused to see him, although he did acquire access to Joachim von Ribbentrop after much difficulty.[53] The German Foreign Ministry was sceptical of any such endeavours, as the German goal was to use Bose for propaganda and subversive activity, especially following the model of the 1941 pro-Axis coup in Iraq.[56] These propaganda measures included anti-Raj radio broadcasts and the recruitment of Indian prisoners of war for the "Free India Legion".[57] Bose eventually met with Hitler on 29 May 1942.[58] During the discussion, which mostly consisted of Hitler monologuing to Bose[53], Hitler expressed his scepticism for India's readiness for a rebellion against the Raj, and his fears of a Soviet takeover of India.[58] He stated that if Germany had to do anything about India it would first have to conquer Russia, for the road to India could only be accomplished through that country[53], although he did promise to financially support Bose and help relocate him to the Far East.[58] Bose later described the encounter by stating that it was impossible to get Hitler involved in any serious political discussion.[53]

On 18 January 1942, it was decided that the Indian subcontinent was to be divided between the Axis powers. Germany was to take the part of British India which is today approximately Pakistan, while the rest was marked for Japan.[59]

Hitler's plans for North America

Before completing the expected German conquest of the Europe continent, the Nazi leadership hoped to keep the United States out of the military conflict which was then escalating in Europe.[60] In an interview conducted by John Cudahy for Life Magazine in the spring of 1941, Hitler stated that a German invasion of the Western Hemisphere was as fantastic as an invasion of the Moon, and was a lie promoted by American big business hoping to gain from war profiteering.[61]

American pro-Nazi movements such as the Friends of the New Germany and the German-American Bund played no role in Hitler's plans for the country, and received no financial or verbal support from Germany after 1935.[62] They, along with certain Native Americans advocate groups such as the fascist-leaning American Indian Federation, were to be however used to undermine the Roosevelt administration from within by the means of propaganda.[63][64] Nazi propagandists went as far as declaring that Germany would return expropriated land to the Indians, while Goebbels predicted they possessed little loyalty to America and would rather rebel than to fight against Germany.[63] The Nazis considered the Sioux, and by extension all Native Americans to be Aryans,[63] a theory echoed in the sympathetic portrayal of the Natives in German westerns of the 1930s such as Der Kaiser von Kalifornien.

Approximately nine months before the United States joined the Allies, Franklin D. Roosevelt made a reference to the New Order in a speech he gave on March 15, 1941:

... Nazi forces are not seeking mere modifications in colonial maps or in minor European boundaries. They openly seek the destruction of all elective systems of government on every continent, including our own. They seek to establish systems of government based on the regimentation of all human beings by a handful of individual rulers who seize power by force.
Yes, these men and their hypnotized followers call this a "New Order." It is not new, and it is not order. For order among nations presupposes something enduring, some system of justice under which individuals over a long period of time are willing to live. Humanity will never permanently accept a system imposed by conquest, and based on slavery. These modern tyrants find it necessary to their plans to eliminate all democracies — eliminate them one by one. The nations of Europe, and indeed we, ourselves, did not appreciate that purpose. We do now.[65]

Hitler actually held the American society in contempt, stating that the United States (which he consistently referred to as the "American Union") was "half Judaized, and the other half Negrified"[66] and that "in so far as there are any decent people in America, they are all of German origin".[67] Already in 1928 he had maintained that National Socialist Germany must prepare for the ultimate struggle against the USA for hegemony.[68] In mid-late 1941, as Axis victory against the USSR and Britain seemed certain, Hitler entered planning an enormous extension of the Kriegsmarine, projected to include 25 battleships, 8 aircraft carriers, 50 cruisers, 400 submarines and 150 destroyers, far exceeding the naval expansion that had already been decided on in 1939's Plan Z.[69] Historian Gerhard L. Weinberg stated that this super-fleet was intended against the Western Hemisphere.[69] Hitler also considered the occupation of the Portuguese Azores, Cape Verde and Madeira and the Spanish Canary islands to deny the British a staging ground for military actions against Nazi-controlled Europe, and also to gain Atlantic naval bases for operations against North America.[70][71] Hitler desired to use the islands to "deploy long-range bombers against American cities from the Azores".[72] In July 1941, Hitler approached Japanese ambassador Oshima with an offer to wage a joint struggle against the USA.[73]

In this final battle for world domination, Hitler expected a defeated Britain to eventually support the Axis forces with its powerful navy.[71] He stated that "England and America will one day have a war with one another, which will be waged with the greatest hatred imaginable. One of the two countries will have to disappear."[74] and "I shall no longer be there to see it, but I rejoice on behalf of the German people at the idea that one day we will see England and Germany marching together against America".[75]

The actual physical conquest of the United States was unlikely however,[76] and the future disposition of American territories remained cloudy in Hitler's mind.[77] He perceived the anticipated battle with that country, at least under his own rule, to be a sort of "battle of the continents" with a Nazi-dominated Old World fighting for global dominance against the New World, in which Germany would attain leadership of the world rather than establish direct control over it.[78] Further decisions down the line were left up to future generations of German rulers.

Canada featured fairly little in Nazi conceptions of the post-war world. Because Hitler's political objectives were primarily focused on Eastern Europe before and during the war he considered the United States a negligible political factor in the world, while Canada interested him even less.[79] He politically grouped the country together with the United States in an American-dominated North America, and considered it equally as "materialistic, racially bastardized, and decadent" as its southern neighbour.[79] In 1942, when expressing his fear of an imminent collapse of the British Empire which he preferred to remain intact, Hitler believed that the United States would seize and annex Canada at the first opportunity[80], and that the Canadians would be quick to welcome such a move.[79]

This lack of policy direction from the top meant that Nazi politicians concerned with representing Germany's interests and relations with Canada had to resort to an improvised line of policy which they believed to be in accordance with Hitler's wishes.[79] The country was noted for its abundance of natural resources, and because of its great geographic size coupled with a low population density was characterized as "a country without people", in contrast to Germany which was considered "a people without space".[79] In his 1934 travelogue account of Canada, Zwischen USA und dem Pol (Between the USA and the North Pole), German journalist Colin Ross described Canadian society as artificial because it was composed of many different parts that weren't tied together by either blood or long-standing traditions (highlighting the differences between the French and English Canadians in particular), and that for this reason one could not speak of either a Canadian nation or Volk.[81] As a result the country's political system was also considered mechanic and non-organic, and that Ottawa did not constitute "the heart of the nation". Because of both these factors the Canadians were deemed incapable of comprehending "true culture", and German immigration in Canada was considered a mistake because they would be forced to live in an "empty civilization".[82]

Plans for economic domination in South America

Neither Hitler nor any other major Nazi leader showed much interest towards Latin America, except as a warning example of "racial mixing".[83] However, the NSDAP/AO was active in various Latin American countries (notably among German Brazilians), and trade relations between Germany and the Latin American countries were seen as of great importance.[84] During 1933-1941, the Nazi aim in South America was to achieve economic hegemony by expanding trade on the expense of the Western Powers.[85] Hitler also believed that German-dominated Europe would displace the United States as the principal trading partner of the subcontinent.[86] Long-term Nazi hopes for political penetration of the region were placed on the local Fascist movements, such as the Integralists in Brazil and Peronists in Argentina, combined with the political activation of the German immigrant communities.[87] Hitler also had hopes of seeing German immigrants "returning" from the Western Hemisphere to colonize the conquered East.[88] Despite being occasionally suspicious of the South American Germans of adopting a "Latin attitude towards life", top Nazis believed that their experience working in underdeveloped areas would make them ideal settlers for the annexed eastern territories.[89]

Hitler's plans for retirement

When Operation Barbarossa was launched on June 22, 1941, Hitler had expected to win victory in World War II by 1945. After achieving victory, he planned, after completing the urban renewal plan for Berlin, to hold a great World's Fair in the Third Reich's capital by 1950. He would ultimately retire to his hometown of Linz.[90] Hitler had hoped that upon his death he would be buried in a simple tomb in Munich.[91]

Future wars against Asia

Although pursuing an alliance based on Realpolitik with Imperial Japan in the battle against the "Western Plutocracies" and Soviet Bolshevism, the Nazi leadership ultimately considered this cooperation only temporary in nature. The racial ideology of Nazism predicted that the fate of human civilization depended on the ultimate triumph of the Germanic-Nordic peoples, and in fact the populous Asian continent was seen as the greatest threat to hegemony of the white race. The Japanese people were characterized as 'culture-bearers', meaning they could make use of the technological and civilizational achievements of the Aryan race and by so doing maintain an advanced society, but could not truly create 'culture' themselves.[92] Gerhard Weinberg asserts that the historical evidence points to the conclusion that Hitler, like he had done with the Soviets in the 1939-1941 period, employed a tactic of conceding to the Japanese whatever they desired until they in turn could be defeated in a subsequent war.[93]

In July 1941, as plans were being laid out for post-Barbarossa military operations, the German Navy command was not ready to exclude the possibility of a war between Germany and Japan.[94] In 1942, NSDAP official Erhard Wetzel (Reich Ministry for the Occupied Eastern Territories) predicted that "the self-determination of the numerically strong Asian peoples after this war" would challenge German-controlled Europe with Japanese instigation, and stated that "a Greater Asia and an independent India are formations that dispose over hundreds of millions of inhabitants. A German world power with 80 or 85 million Germans by contrast is numerically too weak".[95] Wetzel further pondered on Germany's choices on the population policies in occupied Russia: if the Russians were restricted to having as few children as possible in the interest of German colonization, this would further "weaken the white race in view of the dangers of Asia".[95]

As the Japanese were conquering one European colonial territory after another in Asia and Oceania, and seemingly poised to take over Australia and New Zealand as well, Hitler further believed that the white race would disappear altogether from these regions, which he viewed as a turning point in history.[96] He was relieved that Japan had entered the war on Germany's side however as he had long hoped to use that country as a strategic counterweight against the United States, but also because Japanese hegemony in East Asia and the Pacific would guarantee both countries' security against other powers. Looking into the future, he remarked that "There's one thing Japan and Germany have in common; both of us need fifty to a hundred years for purposes of digestion: we for Russia, they for the Far East".[96]

During his speech at the meeting of SS major-Generals at Posen on October 4th, 1943, Heinrich Himmler commented on the future conflicts between Nazi-controlled Europe and Asia:

[W]e will create the necessary conditions for the whole Germanic people and the whole of Europe, controlled, ordered and led by us, the Germanic people, to be able, in generations, to stand the test in her battles of destiny against Asia, who will certainly break out again. We do not know when that will be. Then, when the mass of humanity of 1 to 1 1/2 milliards lines up against us, the Germanic people, numbering, I hope, 250 to 300 millions, and the other European peoples, making a total of 600 to 700 millions -( and with an outpost area stretching as far as the Urals, or, a hundred years, beyond the Urals) - must stand the test in its vital struggle against Asia. It would be an evil day if the Germanic people did not survive it. It would be the end of beauty and "Kultur", of the creative power of this earth. That is the distant future. It is for that that we are fighting, pledged to hand down the heritage of our ancestors.[97]

Himmler addressed this apocalyptic vision in an earlier speech given to SS generals at the University of Kharkiv, Ukraine in April 1943. He first spoke on the necessity of the war against the USSR and Jewry:

These clashes are the only evolutionary possibility which will enable us one day, now that Fate has given us the Führer Adolf Hitler, to create the Germanic Reich. They are the necessary condition, for our race, and our blood to create for itself and put under cultivation, in the years of peace, (during which we must live and work austerely, frugally and like Spartans), that settlement area in which new blood can breed, as in a botanical garden so to speak. Only by this means can the Continent become a Germanic Continent, capable of daring to embark, in one or two or three or five or ten generations, on the conflict with this Continent of Asia which spews out hordes of humanity.[98]

End of the New Order project

Areas still under German control as of March 1945.

After the decisive German defeat at the Battle of Stalingrad on February 2, 1943, Germany was forced onto the defensive and was no longer able to actively pursue implementation of the New Order in the Soviet Union, although the genocide against Jews, Gypsies, and other minorities continued. Following the subsequent failure of the 1943 summer offensive to regain the territories lost to the Soviets earlier that year the Wehrmacht was no longer able to mount an effective large-scale counter-attack on the Eastern Front. In a discussion with Joseph Goebbels on October 26, 1943 Hitler expressed that Germany should conclude a temporary armistice with the Soviet Union and return to its 1941 border in the east.[99] This would then give Germany the opportunity to defeat the British forces in the west first (no mention was made of America's part in the Allied alliance) before resuming a new war for Lebensraum against the Soviet Union at a later point in time. Hitler thought that his future successor might have to carry out this later war, as he believed himself to be too old by then.[99]

By this late point in the war, after the failure of the final Ardennes offensive and the Allied crossing of the Rhine into Germany itself, Hitler hoped that a decisive victory on the Eastern Front might still preserve the Nazi regime, resulting in Operation Spring Awakening.[100] He believed that with the conclusion of a separate peace-treaty with the Soviet Union a division of Poland might still be realized and leave Hungary and Croatia (both still under German occupation at the time) under German control.[100] Hitler only acknowledged Germany's imminent defeat mere days prior to his suicide.[101]

See also

References

  1. ^ Adolf Hitler speech at Berlin Sportpalast. [1]
  2. ^ Gumkowkski, Janusz; Leszcynski, Kazimierz (1961). Poland Under Nazi Occupation. Polonia Pub. House. [2]
  3. ^ Lee, Stephen J. (1987). The European dictatorships, 1918-1945, p. 196. Cambridge University Press.
  4. ^ The Goebbels diaries, 1942-1943, p.359
  5. ^ Spielvogel, Jackson J. (2006). Western Civilization Since 1789, Volume 3. Clark Baxter, p. 855. [3]
  6. ^ Martin Bormann’s Minutes of a Meeting at Hitler’s Headquarters (July 16, 1941). German History in Documents and Images. Retrieved 5 June 2011. Quoting Hitler: The Führer emphasized that we had to understand that the Europe of today was nothing but a geographical term; in reality Asia extended up to our frontiers.
  7. ^ Rich, Norman (1972). Hitler's War Aims: Ideology, the Nazi State and the Course of Expansion, p. 212.
  8. ^ Haffner, Sebastian (1979). The Meaning of Hitler. Macmillan Publishing Company Inc., p. 100. [4]
  9. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L (2005). Visions of Victory: The Hopes of Eight World War II Leaders. Cambridge, England, United Kingdom. Cambridge University Press, p. 8-9. [5]
  10. ^ . Weinberg, G.L. (1996), Germany, Hitler, and World War II: essays in modern German and world history, p. 28, ISBN 0521566266
  11. ^ Clarke, Comer England Under Hitler: Revealed at Last—The Secret Nazi Plans for the Rape of England New York:1961 Ballantine Books (paperback edition) (The part of the material in the book referenced here was based on an interview with retired SS general Franz Six in 1960 at his home in West Germany)
  12. ^ a b Weinberg, A world at arms (2005), p. 175
  13. ^ a b Lipgens, Walter (1985). Documents on the History of European Integration: Continental Plans for European Union 1939-1945. Walter de Gruyter. pp. 12–13. ISBN 3110097249. 
  14. ^ Rich, Norman (1974). Hitler's War Aims: the Establishment of the New Order, p. 26. W. W. Norton & Company Inc., New York.
  15. ^ Rich (1974), pp. 24-25, 140.
  16. ^ Welch, David (1983). Nazi Propaganda: The Power and the Limitations, p. 145. Taylor & Francis. ISBN 0389204005.
  17. ^ Kroener et al (2003), p. 165
  18. ^ Pinkus, Oscar (2005). The War Aims and Strategies of Adolf Hitler. McFarland. p. 175. ISBN 0786420545. 
  19. ^ Kroener, Bernhard R.; Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Umbreit, Hans (2000). Germany and the Second World War:Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1939-1941. Oxford University Press. p. 101. ISBN 0198228872. 
  20. ^ Padfield, Peter (1990) Himmler New York, Henry Holt. See under Rosenberg in index
  21. ^ Padfield (1990), p. 317
  22. ^ Fest, Joachim C. (1973). Hitler. Verlagg Ulstein. p. 686. ISBN 0156027542. 
  23. ^ a b c d e Kroener, Bernhard R.; Müller, Rolf-Dieter; Umbreit, Hans (2003). Germany and the Second World War:Organization and mobilization of the German sphere of power. Wartime administration, economy, and manpower resources 1942-1944/5. Oxford University Press. p. 250. ISBN 0198208731. 
  24. ^ a b c d e f Kroener et al (2003), p. 251
  25. ^ Kroener et al (2003), p. 252
  26. ^ a b Weinberg 2005, p. 14.
  27. ^ a b Rich (1974), pp. 500-501.
  28. ^ Padfield (1990), p. 309
  29. ^ Stegemann, Bernd; Vogel, Detlef (1995). Germany and the Second World War: The Mediterranean, South-East Europe, and North Africa, 1939-1941. Oxford University Press. p. 295. ISBN 0198228848. 
  30. ^ a b Weinberg 2005, p. 13.
  31. ^ a b c d Martin, Bernd (2006). Japan and Germany in the modern world. Berghahn Books. pp. 267–268. ISBN 1845450477. 
  32. ^ a b c Martin (2006), p. 271.
  33. ^ Weinberg (2005), p. 13
  34. ^ a b Rich (1974), p. 415
  35. ^ People Against Nazism, Communism, and Authoritarianism. Nazi plans for Australia. Retrieved 2 January 2011. [6]
  36. ^ Weinberg (2005), p. 15-16.
  37. ^ Fest, Joachim C. (1973). Hitler. Verlagg Ulstein. p. 685. ISBN 0156027542. 
  38. ^ a b c Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 625.
  39. ^ a b c Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 631
  40. ^ a b Schwanitz, Wolfgang (2004). Germany and the Middle East, 1871-1945. Markus Wiener Publishers. pp. 94–95. ISBN 1558762981. 
  41. ^ a b Weinberg (2005), p. 19
  42. ^ Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 178
  43. ^ a b c Rich (1974), p. 402.
  44. ^ Hitler (2000), p. 208.
  45. ^ Rich (1974), p. 383.
  46. ^ a b Hiro, Dilip. Iran under the ayatollahs. Routledge & Kegan Paul Inc., p. 296. [7]
  47. ^ a b Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 162
  48. ^ a b Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 163
  49. ^ a b Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 164
  50. ^ Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 165
  51. ^ a b Hitler's Last Will and Political Testament, 17 February 1945
  52. ^ a b c d e f Goodrick-Clarke, Nicholas (2000). Hitler's Priestess: Savitri Devi, the Hindu-Aryan Myth, and Neo-Nazism. NYU Press. pp. 65. ISBN 0814731112. 
  53. ^ a b c d e f g Ghose, Sankar (1992). Jawaharlal Nehru, A Biography, pp. 138-139. Allied Publishers Limited.
  54. ^ a b Kuhlmann, Jan (2003). Subhas Chandra Bose und die Indienpolitik der Achsenmächte. Verlag Hans Schiler. pp. 78. ISBN 3899300645. 
  55. ^ a b Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 607
  56. ^ Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 608
  57. ^ Goodrick-Clarke (2000), p. 85.
  58. ^ a b c Getz, Marshall J. (2002). Subhas Chandra Bose: a biography. McFarland. pp. 65. ISBN 0786412658. 
  59. ^ Weinberg (2005), p. 13.
  60. ^ Rich 1972, pp. 237-246.
  61. ^ Hitler on Americas, Life Magazine, 9 June 1941
  62. ^ American Bund: The Failure of American Nazism: The German-American Bund’s Attempt to Create an American “Fifth Column”
  63. ^ a b c Franco, Jere Bishop (1999). Crossing the pond: the native American effort in World War II. University of North Texas Press. p. 21. ISBN 1574410652. http://books.google.com/books?id=bR0ilvFYAHEC&pg=PA21&dq=goebbels+sioux&hl=en&ei=AGhtTYfLEMvc4Aam67S0BA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=4&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAw#v=onepage&q=goebbels%20sioux&f=false. 
  64. ^ American Indian Federation at the Encyclopedia of Oklahoma History & Culture
  65. ^ Speech by FDR to the White House Correspondents' Association on U.S. involvement in the war in Europe [8]
  66. ^ Hitler (2000) p. 188
  67. ^ Hitler (2000) p. 282
  68. ^ Duffy, James P. (2004). Target America: Hitler's plan to attack the United States. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 16. ISBN 0275966844. 
  69. ^ a b Weinberg, Gerhard L. (1981). World In The Balance: Behind the Scenes of World War II. University Press of New England. pp. 89–90. ISBN 0874512162. 
  70. ^ Stegemann & Vogel 1995, p. 211.
  71. ^ a b Hildebrand, Klaus (1973). The Foreign Policy of the Third Reich. University of California Press. pp. 100–105. ISBN 0520025288. 
  72. ^ Duffy (2004), p. 17
  73. ^ Stegemann & Vogel 1995, p. 632.
  74. ^ Hitler (2000) p. 14
  75. ^ Hitler (2000) p. 26
  76. ^ Stoakes, Geoffrey (1986). Hitler and the Quest for World Dominion. Berg, p. 221-222. [9]
  77. ^ Weinberg 2005, p. 15.
  78. ^ Stoakes, p. 235.
  79. ^ a b c d e Wagner, Jonathan Frederick (1981). Brothers beyond the sea: national socialism in Canada, p. 23-24. Wilfrid Laurier University Press, Waterloo, Ontario.
  80. ^ Frye, Alton (1967). Nazi Germany and the American Hemisphere, p. 183. Yale University Press.
  81. ^ Wagner (1981), p. 25.
  82. ^ Wagner (1981), p. 26.
  83. ^ Leitz, Christian (2004). Nazi foreign policy, 1933-1941: the road to global war. Routledge. p. 114. ISBN 0415174236. 
  84. ^ Leitz (2004), p. 115
  85. ^ Leitz (2004), pp. 118-119
  86. ^ Friedman, Max Paul (2003). Nazis and good neighbors: the United States campaign against the Germans of Latin America in World War II. Cambridge University Press. p. 45. ISBN 0521822467. 
  87. ^ Weinberg, Gerhard L. (2005). A world at arms:a global history of World War II. Cambridge University Press. p. 506. ISBN 0521618266. 
  88. ^ Rich (1974), p. 329.
  89. ^ Friedman (2003), p. 46
  90. ^ Speer, Albert Inside the Third Reich New York:1970--Macmillan Page 139
  91. ^ Tolland, John Adolf Hitler: The Definitive Biography New York:1976--Doubleday page 617
  92. ^ Rich, Norman (1973). Hitler's War Aims: Ideology, the Nazi State, and the Course of Expansion, 224. W. W. Norton & Company, New York.
  93. ^ Weinberg (2005), p. 10.
  94. ^ Stegemann & Vogel (1995), p. 636.
  95. ^ a b Ben Kiernan (2007), Blood and soil: a world history of genocide and extermination from Sparta to Darfur, Yale University Press, ISBN 0300100981, p. 455
  96. ^ a b Rich (1974), p. 415.
  97. ^ [10]
  98. ^ [11]
  99. ^ a b Weinberg 2005, p. 35.
  100. ^ a b Weinberg 2005, p. 37.
  101. ^ Joachim C. Fest (2005). Inside Hitler's Bunker: The Last Days of the Third Reich. Margot Bettauer Dembo.

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • New Order (disambiguation) — New Order were a British band. New Order may also refer to: In politics: New world order (politics) New Order (Nazism) (Neuordnung), Nazi Germany s political and territorial goal in the 1940s Ordre Nouveau (1940s), Vichy French term for the above …   Wikipedia

  • New Order (National Socialist) — New Order is a neo Nazi organization led by Matt Koehl.The organization was originally called the American Nazi Party, then was renamed the National Socialist White People s Party after the assassination of George Lincoln Rockwell in 1967. The… …   Wikipedia

  • New Order (Neo-Nazi group) — For other uses, see New Order (disambiguation). This series is linked to the Politics and Elections series Part of the Politics series on …   Wikipedia

  • Nazism — National Socialism redirects here. For other ideologies and groups called National Socialism, see National Socialism (disambiguation). Nazi redirects here. For the Sumerian deity, see Nazi (god) …   Wikipedia

  • New world order (politics) — This article is about the use of the term “new world order” in international politics. For its use in conspiracy theory, see New World Order (conspiracy theory). For other uses, see New World Order (disambiguation). The term new world order has… …   Wikipedia

  • Nazism and occultism — Speculation about Nazism and occultism has become part of popular culture since 1959. Aside from several popular documentaries, there are numerous books on the topic, most notably The Morning of the Magicians (1960) and The Spear of Destiny… …   Wikipedia

  • Nazism and race — Part of a series on Nazism …   Wikipedia

  • New World Order (conspiracy theory) — This article is about the use of the term New World Order in conspiracy theory. For other uses, see New World Order. The reverse side of the Grea …   Wikipedia

  • New Age und Rechtsextremismus — Dieser Artikel oder Abschnitt bedarf einer Überarbeitung. Näheres ist auf der Diskussionsseite angegeben. Hilf mit, ihn zu verbessern, und entferne anschließend diese Markierung …   Deutsch Wikipedia

  • New National Party (Netherlands) — New National Party Nieuwe Nationale Partij Chairman Egbert Perée Henk Ruitenberg Florens van der Kooi Founded 1998 Dissolved …   Wikipedia


Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”

We are using cookies for the best presentation of our site. Continuing to use this site, you agree with this.