- Bungee language
Red River Colonyand Assiniboia, Manitoba, Canada
Bungee (also Bungi, Bungie, Bungay, or The Red River Dialect) is a dialect of English that was influenced by
OrkneyEnglish, Scottish English, Cree, Ojibwe, and Scottish Gaelic. [Wurm "et al." (1996: 1178).] It was spoken until the mid-twentieth century in western Canadain places connected with the Red River Colony(Saint Andrews Parish) by Métis descended from families of Scottish fathers ( voyageurs) and Creeor Ojibwa mothers (retired from the Hudson Bay Company) and their descendants. Only a few speakers of Bungee remain.
Their name is derived from either the Anishinaabe word "bangii" or the Cree word "pahkī", meaning "little bit" in both languages.
Bungee speakers report that the name "Bungee" means "Native" although one speaker reported that it meant "half-Native and half-(European)-non-Native".
The main linguistic documentation of this dialect lies within Blain (1987, 1989) and Walter (1969-1970).
The lexicon is mostly English with words from Cree and Ojibwa and interspersed throughout.
Many speakers in Blain's studies were ashamed to speak the dialect as the speech community members were discriminated against by other social groups.
The major difference with other dialects is in the
phonology(sound system & pronunciation). Voice qualitydifferences are noticeably apparent.
Red River Colony
* Métis National Council
Scottish Gaelic in Canada
* Barkwell, Lawrence J., Dorion, Leah; & Hourie, Audreen. (2006). "Metis legacy: Michif culture, heritage, and folkways". Metis legacy series (Vol. 2). Saskatoon: Gabriel Dumont Institute. ISBN 0920915809
* Barkwell, Lawrence; Dorion, Leah; & Préfontaine, Darren R. (n.d.). [http://www.mmf.mb.ca/pages/publications/files/bibliography.for.metis.researchers.pdf Annotated bibliography and references in "Metis legacy"] .
* Blain, Eleanor M. (1987). Speech of the lower Red River settlement. In W. Cowan (Ed.), "Papers of the eighteenth
AlgonquianConference" (pp. 7-16). Ottawa: Carleton University.
* Blain, Eleanor M. (1989). The Bungee dialect of the Red River settlement. (MA thesis,
University of Manitoba).
* Blain, Eleanor M. (1994). "The Red River dialect". Winnipeg: Wuerz Publishing.
* [http://tceplus.com/index.cfm?PgNm=TCE&Params=A1ARTA0001097 Bungee] (Canadian Encyclopedia)
* Cansino, Barbara. (1980, March 26). Bungi in Petersfield: An 81 year old writes about the Red River dialect. "
* Scott, S. Osborne; & Mulligan, D. A. (1951, December). The Red River dialect. "The Beaver", 42-45.
* Scott, S. Osborne; & Mulligan, D. A. (1951). The Red River dialect. In J. K. Chambers (Ed.), "
Canadian English: Origins and structures" (pp. 61-63). Toronto: Methuen.
* Pentland, David H. (1985, March 9). Métchif and Bungee: Languages of the fur trade. (Paper presented in the series "Voices of Rupert's Land: Public Lectures on Language and Culture in Early Manitoba".
* Swan, Ruth Ellen. (1991). Ethnicity and the Canadianization of Red River politics (p. 133). (MA thesis, Winnipeg, University of Manitoba).
* Stobie, Margaret. (1967-1968). Backgrounds of the dialect called Bungi. "Historical and Scientific Society of Manitoba", 3 (24), 65-67. (Online: [http://www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/transactions/3/bungidialect.shtml www.mhs.mb.ca/docs/transactions/3/bungidialect.shtml] ).
* Stobie, Margaret. (1971). The dialect called Bungi. "Canadian Antiques Collector", "6" (8), 20.
* Walters, Frank J. (1969-1970). Bungee as she is spoke. "Red River Valley Historian and History News". "The Quarterly Journal of the Red River Valley Historical Society", "3" (4), 68-70.
* Wurm, Stephen A.; Mühlhäuser, Peter; & Tryon, Darrell H. (Eds.). (1996). "Atlas of languages of intercultural communication in the Pacific, Asia, and the Americas" (Vol. II.2). Trends in linguistics: Documentation (No. 13). Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.
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