Timeline of the name Palestine

Timeline of the name Palestine

This article presents a list of notable historical references to the name Palestine, and cognates such as Filastin and Palaestina, through the various time periods of the region.

The term Peleset (transliterated from hieroglyphs as P-r-s-t) is found in numerous Egyptian documents referring to a neighboring people or land starting from c.1150 BCE during the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt. The first mention is thought to be in texts of the temple at Medinet Habu which record a people called the Peleset among the Sea Peoples who invaded Egypt in Ramesses III's reign.[1] The Assyrians called the same region Palashtu or Pilistu, beginning with Adad-nirari III in the Nimrud Slab in c.800 BCE through to emperor Sargon II in his Annals approximately a century later.[2][3][4] Neither the Egyptian or Assyrian sources provided clear regional boundaries for the term.

The first clear use of the term Palestine to refer to the region synonymous with that defined in modern times was in 5th century BC Ancient Greece. Herodotus wrote of a 'district of Syria, called Palaistinê" in The Histories, the first historical work clearly defining the region, which included the Judean mountains and the Jordan Rift Valley.[5][6][7][8][9][10] Approximately a century later, Aristotle used a similar definition in Meteorology, writing "Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink, this would bear out what we have said. They say that this lake is so bitter and salt that no fish live in it and that if you soak clothes in it and shake them it cleans them," understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea.[11] Later writers such as Polemon and Pausanias also used the term to refer to the same region. This usage was followed by Roman writers such as Ovid, Tibullus, Pomponius Mela, Pliny the Elder, Dio Chrysostom, Statius, Plutarch as well as Roman Judean writers Philo of Alexandria and Josephus[12]. Other writers, such as Strabo, a prominent Roman-era geographer (although he wrote in Greek), referred to the region as Coele-Syria around 10-20 CE.[13][14] The term was first used to denote an official province in c.135 CE, when the Roman authorities, following the suppression of the Bar Kokhba Revolt, combined Iudaea Province with Galilee and other surrounding cities such as Ashkelon to form "Syria Palaestina" (Syria Palaestina), which some scholars state was in order to complete the dissociation with Judaea.[15][16]

The Hebrew name Peleshet (פלשת Pəlésheth)- usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible more than 250 times. In the Torah / Pentateuch the term is used 10 times and its boundaries are undefined. The later Historical books (see Deuteronomistic history) include most of the biblical references, almost 200 of which are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel, where the term is used to denote the southern coastal region to the west of the ancient Kingdom of Judah.[17][2][3][12]

During the Byzantine period, the entire region (Syria Palestine, Samaria, and the Galilee) was named Palaestina, subdivided into provinces Palaestina I and II.[18] The Byzantines also renamed an area of land including the Negev, Sinai, and the west coast of the Arabian Peninsula as Palaestina Salutaris, sometimes called Palaestina III.[18] The Arabic word for Palestine is فلسطين (commonly transcribed in English as Filistin, Filastin, or Falastin).[19] Moshe Sharon writes that when the Arabs took over Greater Syria in the 7th century, place names that were in use by the Byzantine administration before them, generally continued to be used. Hence, he traces the emergence of the Arabic form Filastin to this adoption, with Arabic inflection, of Roman and Hebrew (Semitic) names.[2] Jacob Lassner and Selwyn Ilan Troen offer a different view, writing that Jund Filastin, the full name for the administrative province under the rule of the Arab caliphates, was traced by Muslim geographers back to the Philistines of the Bible.[20] The use of the name "Palestine" in English became more common after the European renaissance.[21] It was officially revived by the British after the fall of the Ottoman Empire and applied to the territory that was placed under the Palestine Mandate.


Historical references

Ancient period

Classical antiquity

Persian (Achaemenid) Empire period

  • c.450 BCE: Herodotus, The Histories, First historical reference clearly denoting a wider region than biblical Philistia. Refers to a "district of Syria, called Palaistinê"[24][25][26] One important reference refers to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision"[27]
  • c.340 BCE: Aristotle, Meteorology, "Again if, as is fabled, there is a lake in Palestine, such that if you bind a man or beast and throw it in it floats and does not sink, this would bear out what we have said. They say that this lake is so bitter and salt that no fish live in it and that if you soak clothes in it and shake them it cleans them.". This is understood by scholars to be a reference to the Dead Sea[28]

Hellenic Kingdoms (Ptolemaic/Seleucid/Hasmonean) period

Roman Jerusalem period

  • c.2 CE: Ovid, Ars Amatoria: "the seventh-day feast that the Syrian of Palestine observes"[31]
  • c.10-19 Tibullus, Tibullus and Sulpicia: The Poems: "Why tell how the white dove sacred to the Syrians flies unharmed through the crowded cities of Palestine?"[32]
  • c.17: Ovid, Fasti (poem): "When Jupiter took up arms to defend the heavens, came to Euphrates with the little Cupid, and sat by the brink of the waters of Palestine."[33]
  • c.40: Philo of Alexandria, "Moreover Palestine and Syria too are not barren of exemplary wisdom and virtue, which countries no slight portion of that most populous nation of the Jews inhabits. There is a portion of those people called Essenes." Separately, Philo identified Palestine with the area of ancient Canaan.[34]
  • c.43: Pomponius Mela, De situ orbis: "Syria late litora tenet, terrasque etiam latius introrsus, aliis aliisque nuncupata nominibus: nam et Coele dicitur et Mesopotamia et Damascene et Adiabene et Babylonia et Iudaea et Commagene et Sophene. Hic Palaestine est qua tangit Arabas, tum Phoenice; et ubi se Ciliciae committit Antiochia, olim ac diu potens, sed cum eam regno Semiramis tenuit longe potentissima. Operibus certe eius insignia multa sunt; duo maxime excellunt; constituta urbs mirae magnitudinis Babylon, ac siccis olim regionibus Euphrates et Tigris immissi."[35]
  • c.78: Pliny the Elder, Natural History, Volume 1, Book V: Chapter 13: "Next to these countries Syria occupies the coast, once the greatest of lands, and distinguished by many names; for the part which joins up to Arabia was formerly called Palaestina, Judaea, Coele, and Phoenice. The country in the interior was called Damascena, and that further on and more to the south, Babylonia."; Chapter 14: "After this, at the point where the Serbonian Bog becomes visible, Idumea and Palaestina begin. This lake, which some writers have made to be 150 miles in circumference, Herodotus has placed at the foot of Mount Casius; it is now an inconsiderable fen. The towns are Rhinocorura and, in the interior, Rafah, Gaza, and, still more inland, Anthedon: there is also Mount Argaris"[36]
  • c. 90: Dio Chrysostom, quoted by Synesius, refers to the Dead Sea as being in the interior of Palestine, in the very vicinity of "Sodoma"[37][38]
  • c.97: Josephus, Against Apion: "Nor, indeed, was Herodotus of Halicarnassus unaquainted with our nation, but mentions it after a way of his own... This, therefore, is what Herodotus says, that "the Syrians that are in Palestine are circumcised". But there are no inhabitants of Palestine that are circumcised excepting the Jews; and, therefore, it must be his knowledge of them that enabled him to speak so much concerning them."[39]
  • c.94: Josephus, Antiquities of the Jews: "...these Antiquities contain what hath been delivered down to us from the original creation of man, until the twelfth year of the reign of Nero, as to what hath befallen us Jews, as well is Egypt as in Syria, and in Palestine"[40]
  • c.100: Statius, Silvae, refers to "liquores Palestini"[37][38]
  • c.100: Plutarch, Parallel Lives:"Armenia, where Tigranes reigns, king of kings, and holds in his hands a power that has enabled him to keep the Parthians in narrow bounds, to remove Greek cities bodily into Media, to conquer Syria and Palestine, to put to death the kings of the royal line of Seleucus, and carry away their wives and daughters by violence."[41]

However, during the Roman Jerusalem period "Palestine" was not the only geographical term for the region. For example, Strabo, in his description of Jerusalem and Judea, uses the term Coele-Syria, and Pliny (as above) uses both terms.[42][43][44]

Roman Aelia Capitolina period

  • 135 CE: After crushing Bar Kochba's revolt in 132-135, the Roman Emperor Hadrian applied the name Syria Palestina to the entire region that had formerly included Iudaea Province,[45] which some scholars interpret to have been an attempt to suppress Jewish national feelings.[46][47]
  • c.150: Appian, Roman History: "Intending to write the history of the Romans, I have deemed it necessary to begin with the boundaries of the nations under their sway.... Here turning our course and passing round, we take in Palestine-Syria, and beyond it a part of Arabia. The Phoenicians hold the country next to Palestine on the sea, and beyond the Phoenician territory are Coele-Syria, and the parts stretching from the sea as far inland as the river Euphrates, namely Palmyra and the sandy country round about, extending even to the Euphrates itself"[48]
  • c.150: Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri: "Tyre then was captured, in the archonship at Athens of Anicetus in the month I lecatombacun...Alexander now determined to make his expedition to Egypt. The rest of Syrian Palestine (as it is called) had already come over to him, but a certain eunuch, Batis, who was master of Gaza, did not join Alexander"[49]
  • c.150: Ptolemy, Geography (Ptolemy), including map
  • c.225: Cassius Dio, Historia Romana, The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70CE: "Such was the course of these events; and following them Vespasian was declared emperor by the senate also, and Titus and Domitian were given the title of Caesars. The consular office was assumed by Vespasian and Titus while the former was in Egypt and the latter in Palestine"[50]
  • 311: Bishop Eusebius of Caesarea, History of the Martyrs in Palestine. As the "Father of Church History", Eusebius' use of the name Palestine influenced later generations of Christian writers[51][52]

Late Antiquity period

Late Roman Empire (Byzantine) period

  • c.380: Ammianus Marcellinus, Book XIV, 8, 11: "The last province of the Syrias is Palestine, a district of great extent, abounding in well-cultivated and beautiful land, and having several magnificent cities, all of equal importance, and rivalling one another as it were, in parallel lines. For instance, Caesarea, which Herod built in honour of the Prince Octavianus, and Eleutheropolis, and Neapolis, and also Ascalon, and Gaza, cities built in bygone ages."[53]
  • c.384: Saint Jerome, Epistle 33: "He (Origen) stands condemned by his bishop, Demetrius, only the bishops of Palestine, Arabia, Phenicia, and Achaia dissenting"[38][54]
  • c.390: Palaestina was organised into three administrative units: Palaestina Prima, Secunda, and Tertia (First, Second, and Third Palestine), part of the Diocese of the East.[55] Palaestina Prima consisted of Judea, Samaria, the coast, and Peraea with the governor residing in Caesarea. Palaestina Secunda consisted of the Galilee, the lower Jezreel Valley, the regions east of Galilee, and the western part of the former Decapolis with the seat of government at Scythopolis. Palaestina Tertia included the Negev, southern Jordan—once part of Arabia—and most of Sinai with Petra as the usual residence of the governor. Palestina Tertia was also known as Palaestina Salutaris.[56]
  • c. 400: Genesis Rabba, Jewish midrash, explains that the word "land" in Genesis 41:54 refers to three lands in the region - Phoenicia, Arabia and Palestine.[38][57] (ויהי רעב בכל הארצות: בשלש ארצות בפנקיא ובערביא ובפלסטיני)
  • c. 400: Lamentations Rabbah, Jewish midrash, mentions the dukes of Arabia, Phoenicia, Palestine and Alexandria as joining forces with Roman Emperor Vespasian.[38] (שלש שנים ומחצה הקיף אספסיאנוס את ירושלם והיו עמו ארבעה דוכסין, דוכס דערביא, דוכס דאפריקא, דוכוס דאלכסנדריא, דוכוס דפלסטיני)
  • c.560: Procopius, The Wars of Justinian: "The boundaries of Palestine extend toward the east to the sea which is called the Red Sea."[58] Procopius also wrote that "Chosroes, king of Persia, had a great desire to make himself master of Palestine, on account of its extraordinary fertility, its opulence, and the great number of its inhabitants"[59]

Middle Ages

Rashidun, Umayyad and Abbasid Caliphates period

  • c.770: Thawr ibn Yazid, hadith, as quoted in Abu Bakr Muhammad ibn Ahmad al-Wasiti's Fada'il Bayt al-Muqaddas (c.1019): "The most holy spot [al-quds] on earth is Syria; the most holy spot in Syria is Palestine; the most holy spot in Palestine is Jerusalem [Bayt al-maqdis]; the most holy spot in Jerusalem is the Mountain; the most holy spot in Jerusalem is the place of worship [al-masjid], and the most holy spot in the place of worship is the Dome."[60][61]
  • c.870: Ibn Khordadbeh, Book of Roads and Kingdoms: "Filastin Province 500,000 dinars of taxes" (c.864 AD)[62]
  • c.870: al-Baladhuri, Conquests of the Lands[62]
  • c.880: Qudamah ibn Ja'far, Kitab Al Kharaj (The Book of the Land Tax): Filastin Province, 195,000 dinars (c.820 AD)
  • 891: Ya'qubi, Book of Lands: "Of the Jund Filastin, the ancient capital was Lydda. The Caliph Sulayman subsequently founded the city of Ramla, which he made the capital.... The population of Palestine consists of Arabs of the tribes of Lakhm, Judham, Amilah, Kindah, Kais and Kinanah"[62]
  • 903: Ibn al-Faqih, Concise Book of Lands[62]
  • c.913: Ibn Abd Rabbih[62]
  • 943: Al-Masudi, The History of Time[62]

Fatimid Caliphate period

  • 951-978: Estakhri, Traditions of Countries and Ibn Hawqal, The Face of the Earth: "The provinces of Syria are Jund Filstin, and Jund al Urdunn, Jund Dimaskh, Jund Hims, and Jund Kinnasrin.... Filastin is the westernmost of the provinces of Syria... its greatest length from Rafah to the boundary of Lajjun... its breadth from Jaffa to Jericho.... Filastin is the most fertile of the Syrian provinces.... Its trees and its ploughed lands do not need artifical irrigation... In the province of Filastin, despite its small extent, there are about 29 mosques.... Its capital and largest town in Ramla, but the Holy City (of Jerusalem) comes very near this last in size"[62]
  • 985: Al-Muqaddasi, Description of Syria, Including Palestine: "And further, know that within the province of Palestine may be found gathered together 36 products that are not found thus united in any other land.... From Palestine comes olives, dried figs, raisins, the carob-fruit, stuffs of mixed silk and cotton, soap and kercheifs"[62]
  • 1029: Rabbi Solomon ben Judah of Jerusalem, a letter in the Cairo Geniza, refers to the province of Filastin[63]
  • 1047: Nasir Khusraw, Safarnama[62]
  • 1051: Ibn Butlan[62]

Crusaders period

Ayyubid and Mamluk periods

  • 1185: Ibn Jubayr, The Travels of Ibn Jubayr[62]
  • 1225: Yaqut al-Hamawi, Dictionary of Geographies "Filastin is the last of the provinces of Syria towards Egypt. Its capital is Jerusalem."[62]
  • 1300: Al-Dimashqi[62]
  • 1321: Abu'l-Fida, A Sketch of the Countries: "The Nahr Abi Futrus is the river that runs near Ramla in Filastin"[62]
  • 1322: Ishtori Haparchi, Sefer Kaftor Vaferach, mentions twice that Ramla is also known as Filastin
  • 1338 Robert Mannyng The Chronicle
  • c.1350: Guidebook to Palestine (a manuscript primarily based on the 1285-1291 account of Christian pilgrim Philippus Brusserius Savonensis): "It [Jerusalem] is built on a high mountain, with hills on every side, in that part of Syria which is called Judaea and Palestine, flowing with milk and honey, abounding in corn, wine, and oil, and all temporal goods"[65]
  • 1351: Jamal ad Din Ahmad, Muthir al Ghiram (The Exciter of Desire) for Visitation of the Holy City and Syria: "Syria is divided into five districts, namely: i. Filastin, whose capital is Aelia (Jerusalem), eighteen miles from Ramla, which is the Holy City, the metropolis of David and Solomon. Of its towns are Ashkelon, Hebron, Sebastia, and Nablus."[62]
  • 1355: Ibn Battuta, Rihla[62] Ibn Battuta wrote that Ramla was also known as Filastin[66]
  • 1377: Ibn Khaldun, Muqaddimah: "Filastin Province taxes - 310,000 dinars plus 300,000 ratls of olive oil"[62]
  • 1430: Abu-l Fida Ishak, Muthir al Ghiram (The Exciter of Desire)[62]
  • 1470: Al-Suyuti[62]
  • 1496: Mujir al-Din al-'Ulaymi, The Glorious History of Jerusalem and Hebron[62]

Early modern period

Early Ottoman period

  • c.1561: Anthony Jenkinson, published by Richard Hakluyt, The Principall Navigations, Voiages, and Discoveries of the English Nation
  • 1563: Josse van Lom, physician of Philip II of Spain: A treatise of continual fevers: "Therefore the Scots, English, Livonians, Danes, Poles, Dutch and Germans, ought to take less blood away in winter than in summer; on the contrary, the Portuguese, Moors, Egyptians, Palestinians, Arabians, and Persians, more in the winter than in summer"[67]
  • 1563: John Foxe, Foxe's Book of Martyrs: "Romanus, a native of Palestine, was deacon of the church of Casearea at the time of the commencement of Diocletian's persecution".[68]
  • 1591: Johannes Löwenklau: Historiae Musulmanae Turcorum Latin: "Cuzzimu barec ea ciuitas est Palæstinæ, quam veteres Hierosolyma dixerunt, Hebræi Ierusalem. Nomen hodiernum significa locum benedictum vel inclytum", translates as "Quds Barış is the city of the Palestinians, also known as Hierosolyma, in Hebrew, Jerusalem. The name means the holy one or the glorious one"[69]
  • c.1600: Shakespeare: The Life and Death of King John: Scene II.1 "Richard, that robb'd the lion of his heart, and fought the holy wars in Palestine"[70] / Othello Scene IV.3: "I know a lady in Venice would have walked barefoot to Palestine for a touch of his [Lodovico's] nether lip."[71]
  • 1616: Pietro Della Valle: Viaggi di Pietro della Valle il Pellegrino
  • 1639: Thomas Fuller[72]
  • 1647: Sadiq Isfahani, The Geographical Works of Sadik Isfahani: "Filistin, a region of Syria, Damascus, and Egypt, comprising Ramla, Ashkelon, Beit al Mukuddes (Jerusalem), Kanaan, Bilka, Masisah, and other cities; and from this province is denominated the "Biaban-i Filistin" (or Desert of Palestine), which is also called the "Tiah Beni-Israil""[73]
  • c.1649: Evliya Çelebi, Travels in Palestine: "All chronicles call this country the Land of Palestine"[74]
  • 1696: Adriaan Reland, Palaestina ex monumentis veteribus illustrata
  • 1688: John Milner[75]
  • 1743: Richard Pococke: Description of the East
  • 1746: Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations: "Jerusalem is still reckoned the capital city of Palestine"[76]
  • 1751: The London Magazine[77]

Modern period

Late Ottoman period

  • 1809: Reginald Heber, Palestine: a Poem
  • 1833: Heinrich Friedrich Pfannkuche: "In the writings of the Greeks and Romans, we need not look for indications of a very familiar acquaintance with the history and language of the Palestinian Jews, since they did not even vouchsafe their attention to the language and national writings of the more civilized nations of antiquity, such as the Carthaginians, Phoenicians, and Strabo, from whom we have quoted above the passages bearing upon our subject, is perhaps the only one who imparts this general information of the Syrians, (to whom the Palestinians also belonged,) that they and their neighbours spoke a cognate language, but he enters on no farther explanation as to the difference between their dialects"[78]
  • 1837: Lord Lindsay, Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land: "...we bade adieu to Jerusalem... It was our intention, after exploring Palestine (properly so called), to cross the Jordan, and visit Jerash"[79]
  • 1841: Charles Henry Churchill in correspondence with Sir Moses Montefiore: "Were the resources which you all possess steadily directed towards the regeneration of Syria and Palestine, there cannot be a doubt but that, under the blessing of the Most High, [the European Powers] would amply repay the undertaking, and that you would end by obtaining the sovereignty of at least Palestine."
  • 1843: John Kitto: Palestine: the Bible history of the Holy Land[80]
  • 1856: James Redhouse, An English and Turkish dictionary: Regarded as the original and authoritative Ottoman-English dictionary, translates Holy Land as dari-filastin (House of Palestine)[81]
  • 1897: First Zionist Congress: the Basel program sets out the goals of the Zionist movement: "Zionism aims at establishing for the Jewish people a publicly and legally assured home in Palestine"
  • 1911: Filastin (newspaper)
  • 1913: Al-Karmil (newspaper): "We hoped that they [the Ottoman Party for Administrative Decentralization] would rid us of Zionist threats and dangers. We comprised a group of people who had hoped the best for their leaders. This team possessed tremendous power; not to ignore that Palestine, their country, was part of the Ottoman Empire."[82]

British Mandate period

  • 1918: House of Commons of the United Kingdom: Minutes: "Major Earl Winterton asked the Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs what facilities have been given to the Palestinian and Syrian political leaders now in Egypt to visit Palestine?"[83] An early use of the word Palestinian in British politics, which was used often in following years in the British government[84]
  • 1919: Zionist Organization, Statement on Palestine at the Paris Peace Conference: "The boundaries of Palestine shall follow the general lines set out below: Starting on the North at a point on the Mediterranean Sea in the vicinity south of Sidon and following the watersheds of the foothills of the Lebanon as far as Jisr El-Karaon thence to El-Bire, following the dividing line between the two basins of the Wadi El-Korn and the Wadi Et-Teim, thence in a southerly direction following the dividing line between the Eastern and Western slopes of the Hermon, to the vicinity west of Beit Jenn, then eastward following the northern watersheds of the Nahr Mughaniye close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway. In the east a line close to and west of the Hedjaz Railway terminating in the Gulf of Akaba. In the south a frontier to be agreed upon with the Egyptian Government. In the west the Mediterranean Sea."[85][86]
  • 1919: Syrian National Congress: "We ask that there be no separation of the southern part of Syria, known as Palestine, nor of the littoral western zone, which includes Lebanon, from the Syrian country." [87]
  • 1920: Franco-British boundary agreement - the framework agreement in which the borders of the Mandate of Palestine were established, being finally approved on 7 March 1923[88]
  • 1921: Syrian-Palestinian Congress
  • 1926: Permanent Mandates Commission: "M. Palacios [Spanish representative], returning to the concrete questions of a general character of which the Arabs complained, recalled those concerning the national title, the national hymn and the flag.... As regards the first point, the Arabs claimed that it was not in conformity with Article 22 of the Mandate to print the initials and even the words "Eretz Israel" after the name "Palestine" while refusing the Arabs the title "Surial Janonbiah" ("Southern Syria"). The British Government had not accepted the use of this Arab title, but gave the place of honour to the Hebrew word used for 2,000 years and decided that the official name in Hebrew was "Palestina" followed by the initials signifying "Aleph Jod", the regular Hebrew name. Was the question still under discussion and could the accredited representative give the Commission any further information? Colonel Symes explained that the country was described as "Palestine" by Europeans and as "Falestin" by the Arabs. The Hebrew name for the country was the designation "Land of Israel", and the Government, to meet Jewish wishes, had agreed that the word "Palestine" in Hebrew characters should be followed in all official documents by the initials which stood for that designation. As a set-off to this, certain of the Arab politicians suggested that the country should be called "Southern Syria" in order to emphasise its close relation with another Arab State."[89]

Biblical references

The Philistines and Philistia are mentioned more than 250 times in the Hebrew Bible.[90][91][92] The Hebrew word Peleshet (פלשת Pəléshseth) - usually translated as Philistia in English, is used in the Bible to denote the southern coastal region that was inhabited by the Philistines ("Plištim" (פְּלִשְׁתִּים Pəlištîm)[93] The Philistines first appear in a listing of the Hamitic branch of Noah's descendants.[94] The word Philistia is generally accepted to be a cognate of the word Palestine. However, the terms for biblical Philistia and geographical Palestine have been different since at least the second century BCE. As early as the LXX, thought to have been completed in 132 BCE, the biblical term for Philistines in Greek (Philistieim) was different to the contemporary Greek name for the region (Palaistine)[95]

The five books of the Pentateuch / Torah include a total of 10 references, including:[90][91]

  • Genesis 10:14: (first reference) "And Pathrusim, and Casluhim, (out of whom came Philistim,) and Caphtorim."
  • Genesis 21:32-34: "Thus they made a covenant at Beersheba: then Abimelech rose up, and Phichol the chief captain of his host, and they returned into the land of the Philistines. And Abraham planted a grove in Beersheba, and called there on the name of the LORD, the everlasting God. And Abraham sojourned in the Philistines' land many days."
  • Exodus 13:17: "And it came to pass, when Pharaoh had let the people go, that God led them not through the way of the land of the Philistines, although that was near; for God said, Lest peradventure the people repent when they see war, and they return to Egypt"
  • Exodus 23:31: "And I will set thy bounds from the Red sea even unto the sea of the Philistines, and from the desert unto the river: for I will deliver the inhabitants of the land into your hand; and thou shalt drive them out before thee."

The Historical books (see Deuteronomistic history) include over 250 references, almost 200 of which are in the Book of Judges and the Books of Samuel, including:[90][91]

  • Joshua 13:1-3: "Now Joshua was old and stricken in years; and the LORD said unto him, Thou art old and stricken in years, and there remaineth yet very much land to be possessed. This is the land that yet remaineth: all the borders of the Philistines, and all Geshuri, from Sihor, which is before Egypt, even unto the borders of Ekron northward, which is counted to the Canaanite: five lords of the Philistines; the Gazathites, and the Ashdothites, the Eshkalonites, the Gittites, and the Ekronites; also the Avites"
  • 1Kings 4:21: "And Solomon reigned over all kingdoms from the river unto the land of the Philistines, and unto the border of Egypt: they brought presents, and served Solomon all the days of his life."

Wisdom books include only 6 references, all in the Psalms, including:[90][91]

  • Psalm 87:4: "I will make mention of Rahab and Babylon to them that know me: behold Philistia, and Tyre, with Ethiopia; this man was born there."

Books of the Major prophets and Minor prophets include around 20 references, including:[90][91]

  • Zephaniah 2:5: "Woe unto the inhabitants of the sea coast, the nation of the Cherethites! the word of the LORD is against you; O Canaan, the land of the Philistines, I will even destroy thee, that there shall be no inhabitant."
  • Amos 9:7: "Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?"

See also

External references


  1. ^ a b Fahlbusch et al., 2005, p. 185.
  2. ^ a b c d Sharon, 1988, p. 4.
  3. ^ a b c d Room, 1997, p. 285.
  4. ^ a b Carl S. Ehrlich "Philistines" The Oxford Guide to People and Places of the Bible. Ed. Bruce M. Metzger and Michael D. Coogan. Oxford University Press, 2001.
  5. ^ Jacobson, David M., Palestine and Israel, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 313 (Feb., 1999), pp. 65–74
  6. ^ The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara Steven S. Tuell Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (Nov., 1991), pp. 51–57
  7. ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast Anson F. Rainey Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb., 2001), pp. 57–63
  8. ^ In his work, Herodotus referred to the practice of male circumcision associated with the Hebrew people: "the Colchians, the Egyptians, and the Ethiopians, are the only nations who have practised circumcision from the earliest times. The Phoenicians and the Syrians of Palestine themselves confess that they learnt the custom of the Egyptians.... Now these are the only nations who use circumcision." The History of Herodotus
  9. ^ Beloe, W., Rev., Herodotus, (tr. from Greek), with notes, Vol.II, London, 1821, p.269 "It should be remembered that Syria is always regarded by Herodotus as synonymous with Assyria. What the Greeks called Palestine the Arabs call Falastin, which is the Philistines of Scripture."
  10. ^ Elyahu Green, Geographic names of places in Israel in Herodotos This is confirmed by George Rawlinson in the third book (Thalia) of The Histories where Palaestinian Syrians are part of the fifth tax district spanning the territory from Phoenicia to the borders of Egypt, but excludes the kingdom of Arabs who were exempt from tax for providing the Assyrian army with water on its march to Egypt. These people had a large city called Cadytis, identified as Jerusalem.
  11. ^ Meteorology By Aristotle
  12. ^ a b Robinson, Edward, Physical geography of the Holy Land, Crocker & Brewster, Boston, 1865, p.15. Robinson, writing in 1865 when travel by Europeans to the Ottoman Empire became common asserts that, "Palestine, or Palestina, now the most common name for the Holy Land, occurs three times in the English version of the Old Testament; and is there put for the Hebrew name פלשת, elsewhere rendered Philistia. As thus used, it refers strictly and only to the country of the Philistines, in the southwest corner of the land. So, too, in the Greek form, Παλαςτίνη), it is used by Josephus. But both Josephus and Philo apply the name to the whole land of the Hebrews ; and Greek and Roman writers employed it in the like extent."
  13. ^ Studies in Hellenistic Judaism :Louis H. Feldman
  14. ^ The Hellenistic settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa :Getzel M. Cohen
  15. ^ Lehmann, Clayton Miles (Summer 1998). "Palestine: History: 135–337: Syria Palaestina and the Tetrarchy". The On-line Encyclopedia of the Roman Provinces. University of South Dakota. http://www.usd.edu/~clehmann/erp/Palestine/history.htm#135-337. Retrieved 2008-07-06. 
  16. ^ Sharon, 1998, p. 4. According to Moshe Sharon: "Eager to obliterate the name of the rebellious Judaea", the Roman authorities (General Hadrian) renamed it Palaestina or Syria Palaestina.
  17. ^ Lewis, 1993, p. 153.
  18. ^ a b Kaegi, 1995, p. 41.
  19. ^ Marshall Cavendish, 2007, p. 559.
  20. ^ Lassner and Troen, 2007, pp. 54–55.
  21. ^ Gudrun Krämer (2008) A History of Palestine: From the Ottoman Conquest to the Founding of the State of Israel Translated by Gudrun Krämer and Graham Harman Princeton University Press, ISBN 0-691-11897-3 p 16
  22. ^ Text of the Papyrus Harris
  23. ^ The Philistines in transition: a history from ca. 1000-730 B.C.E., Carl S. Ehrlich
  24. ^ Palestine and Israel, David M. Jacobson, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 313 (Feb., 1999), pp. 65–74
  25. ^ The Southern and Eastern Borders of Abar-Nahara, Steven S. Tuell, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 284 (Nov., 1991), pp. 51–57
  26. ^ Herodotus' Description of the East Mediterranean Coast, Anson F. Rainey, Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research, No. 321 (Feb., 2001), pp. 57–63
  27. ^ The History of Herodotus
  28. ^ Meteorology By Aristotle
  29. ^ Studies in Josephus and the varieties of ancient Judaism: Louis H. Feldman
  30. ^ Pausanias, Description of Greece, 9. 1 - 22
  31. ^ Latin quote: Quaque die redeunt, rebus minus apta gerendis, culta Palaestino septima festa Syro
  32. ^ Tibullus and Sulpicia: The Poems, Translated by A. S. Kline
  33. ^ Ovid: Fasti, Book Two
  34. ^ Philo: Every Good Man is Free
  36. ^ Pliny's Natural History
  37. ^ a b Jacobson, David (1999). "Palestine and Israel". Bulletin of the American Schools of Oriental Research. JSTOR 1357617. 
  38. ^ a b c d e Feldman, Louis (1990). "Some Observations on the Name of Palestine". Hebrew Union College, Cincinnati, OH 61: 1–23. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=pACJYw0bg3QC&pg=PA553&dq=%E2%80%9CSome+Observations+on+the+Name+of+Palestine%E2%80%9D+feldman&hl=en&ei=Rh5WTabOJ8K3hAfXo6GoDA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CC0Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false. Retrieved 12 Feb 2011. 
  39. ^ s:Against Apion/Book I
  40. ^ s:The Antiquities of the Jews/Book XX
  41. ^ Lucullus, By Plutarch
  42. ^ Studies in Hellenistic Judaism - Page 558 Louis H. Feldman - 1996 "Nevertheless, Pliny (Mturalis Historia 5.74, 77) and Strabo ( do draw a distinction between the Decapolis and Coele-Syria. In Josephus (Antiquities 13.355-356, 392; 14.79, 16.275; and War 1.103-104, 155) Coele-Syria, ..."
  43. ^ A History of the Jews and Judaism in the Second Temple Period Page 174 Lester L. Grabbe - 2008 "The place of Judah in Coele-Syria was readily known in geographical writings. According to Strabo, Syria includes the following areas: We set down as parts of Syria, beginning at Cilicia and Mt. Amanus, both Commagene and the Seleucis ...
  44. ^ The Hellenistic settlements in Syria, the Red Sea Basin, and North Africa 2006 p37 Getzel M. Cohen p37 “Palestine” did not come into official use until the early second century ad, when the emperor Hadrian decided to rename the province of Judaea; for its new name he chose “Syria Palaestina.”49 The new name took hold. It is found thereafter in inscriptions, on coins, and in numerous literary texts.50 Thus Arrian (7.9.8, Indica 43.1) and Appian (Syr. 50), who lived in the second century ad, and Cassius Dio (eg, 38.38.4, 39.56.6), who lived in the third, referred to the region as “Palestine.” And in the rabbinic literature “Palestine” was used as the name of the Roman province. cf p103
  45. ^ The Bar-Kokhba Revolt (132-135 C.E.) by Shira Schoenberg, The Jewish Virtual Library
  46. ^ The Bar Kokhba War Reconsidered, By Peter Schäfer, ISBN 3-16-148076-7
  47. ^ The Name “Palestine”, The Jewish Virtual Library
  48. ^ Preface of the Roman History
  49. ^ Anabasis Alexandri
  50. ^ Historia Romana, The Destruction of Jerusalem by Titus in 70CE
  51. ^ Eusebius' History of the Martyrs in Palestine, translated by William Cureton
  52. ^ Professor Robert Louis Wilken (2009). The Land Called Holy: Palestine in Christian History and Thought. ISBN 0300060831. 
  53. ^ Ammianus Marcellinus, Book XIV, 8, 11
  54. ^ Letters of St. Jerome, Letter 33
  55. ^ Thomas A. Idniopulos (1998). "Weathered by Miracles: A History of Palestine From Bonaparte and Muhammad Ali to Ben-Gurion and the Mufti". The New York Times. http://www.nytimes.com/books/first/i/idinopulos-miracles.html. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  56. ^ "Roman Arabia". Encyclopedia Britannica. http://www.britannica.com/eb/topic-439113/Palaestina-Salutaris. Retrieved 2007-08-11. 
  57. ^ Midrash Rabbah Genesis Volume I at Internet Archive
  58. ^ History of the Wars, Books I and II (of 8), by Procopius
  59. ^ The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon. Book, page 89 / 1165
  60. ^ Jerusalem for the Three Monotheistic Religions. A Theological Synthesis, Alviero Niccacci
  61. ^ The Ḥaram of Jerusalem, 324-1099: temple, Friday Mosque, area of spiritual power, by Andreas Kaplony, 2002
  62. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Guy le Strange (1890). Palestine Under the Moslems from AD 650 to 1500, Translated from the Works of the Medieval Arab Geographers. Florence: Palestine Exploration Fund. http://www.archive.org/stream/palestineundermo00lestuoft/palestineundermo00lestuoft_djvu.txt. 
  63. ^ Moseh Gill, "The Political History of Jerusalem During the Early Muslim Period", in Joshua Prawer and Haggai Ben-Shammai (eds), The History of Jerusalem, the Early Muslim Period, 638-1099, New York University Press and Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi, 1996
  64. ^ Histoire de la guerre saincte, dite proprement la Franciade orientale, 1573
  65. ^ Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, Guidebook to Palestine
  66. ^ The Travels of Ibn Battuta, ed. H.A.R. Gibb (Cambridge University Press, 1954), 1:71-82
  67. ^ A treatise of continual fevers: in four parts by Jodocus Lommius, English translation of 1732
  68. ^ Foxe's Book of Martyrs
  69. ^ Historiae Musulmanae Turcorum, de monumentis ipsorum exscriptae, libri XVIII
  70. ^ [1]
  71. ^ shakespeare.mit.edu
  72. ^ Fuller, Thomas (1639). The Historie of the Holy Warre. Buck. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=gRw_AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA248&dq=palestine&hl=en&ei=wThDTbmoEdSChQe--smyAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEwQ6AEwBzgU#v=onepage&q=palestine&f=false. 
  73. ^ The Geographical Works of Sadik Isfahani, 1832 translation
  74. ^ trans. St. H. Stephan (Ariel Publishing, 1980), p63).
  75. ^ Milner, John (1688). A collection of the church-history of Palestine: From birth of Christ to the Beginning of the Empire of Diocletian. Dring. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=bjQBAAAAcAAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=palestine&hl=en&ei=NDhDTaaWN4mHhQeSobmOAg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=8&ved=0CEkQ6AEwBw#v=onepage&q&f=false. 
  76. ^ Salmon, Thomas (1744). Modern History Or the Present State of All Nations. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=f7I-AAAAcAAJ&pg=PA534&dq=palestine&hl=en&ei=QDlDTaeFMp2ShAfY9tzvAQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CCkQ6AEwADgo#v=onepage&q=palestine&f=false. 
  77. ^ The London Magazine, and Monthly Chronologer. 1741. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oF9FAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA206&dq=palestine&hl=en&ei=eDhDTYmIKIO1hAf_6tG7AQ&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=2&ved=0CC8Q6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=palestine&f=false. 
  78. ^ THE LANGUAGE OF PALESTINE IN THE AGE OF CHRIST AND THE APOSTLES. By De Rossi and Heinrich Friedrich Pfannkuche, translated and printed in Philological Tracts, London 1833
  79. ^ Letters on Egypt, Edom and the Holy Land
  80. ^ http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=3MwsAAAAYAAJ&dq=Pietro+Della+Valle+palestine&source=gbs_navlinks_s
  81. ^ James Redhouse (1856). An English and Turkish dictionary. http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=CydMAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA155&dq=filastin&hl=en&ei=XuBVTa-bEc-EhQfR36C0DA&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=7&ved=0CEAQ6AEwBg#v=onepage&q=filastin&f=false. 
  82. ^ Arab nationalism and the Palestinians, 1850-1939, ʻAbd al-ʻAzīz ʻAyyād
  83. ^ Hansard ARAB POLITICAL REPRESENTATIVES (VISIT TO PALESTINE). HC Deb 25 June 1918 vol 107 c903W
  84. ^ Hansard search "Palestinian"
  85. ^ Zionist Organization Statement on Palestine, Paris Peace Conference, February 3, 1919
  86. ^ Paris Peace Conference Zionist Organisation - proposed map of Paletine
  87. ^ Pipes, Daniel (1992). Greater Syria: The History of an Ambition. Oxford University Press US. p. 26. ISBN 0195060229, 9780195060225. 
  88. ^ Franco-British Convention on Certain Points Connected with the Mandates for Syria and the Lebanon, Palestine and Mesopotamia
  89. ^ Permanent Mandates Commission, 22nd meeting, minutes of the ninth session, Geneva, June 1926
  90. ^ a b c d e The Philistines
  91. ^ a b c d e Bible Gateway - All references to words beginning Philis*
  92. ^ Killebrew, 2005, p. 202.
  93. ^ Lewis, 1993, p. 153.
  94. ^ Smith, 1863, p. 1546.
  95. ^ Jacobson, p65

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