- Boris Savinkov
Boris Viktorovich Savinkov (Russian:Борис Викторович Савинков) (
19 January 1879- 7 May 1925) was a Russian writer and revolutionaryterrorist. As one of the leaders of the Fighting Organisation of the Socialist-Revolutionary Party, he was responsible for the most spectacular assassinations of imperial officials in 1904 and 1905.
Later, he became Assistant War Minister in the
Provisional Government. Savinkov emigrated in 1920, but in 1924 he made an endeavour to return to Russia, was arrested and either was killed in prison or committed suicide.
Savinkov was of noble origin, he was son of a judge in
Warsaw. In 1897 he entered the law department of St. Petersburg Universitybut was expelled in 1899 because of participation in students' riots. Later he studied in Berlinand Heidelberg. Since 1898 he was a member of various Marxist organizations. In 1901 he was arrested and sent to exile to Vologda. He served the exile with some prominent Russian intellectuals including Nikolai Berdyaevand Anatoly Lunacharsky. However he became disappointed with Marxism and shifted to terrorism. In 1903 Savinkov escaped abroad and joined Socialist-Revolutionary Party, where he soon became Deputy Head of its Fighting Organization under Yevno Azef.
For his assassination of Russian Minister of Interior
Vyacheslav von Plehveand participation in the assassination of Grand Prince Sergei Romanov, he was arrested in 1906 and sentenced to death. However, he managed to escape from his prison cell in Odessaand found refuge in exile. When Azef was revealed as an agent of the Okhranain 1908, Savinkov became the head of the Fighting Organization, but it was too weak to conduct any serious operations. While in FranceSavinkov participated in World War Ias a volunteer in the French Army. He returned to Russia in April 1917, several months after the February Revolution, and became Assistant War Minister under Alexander Kerensky. However, he was soon expelled from the government and Socialist-Revolutionary Partybecause of his role in the uprising of General Lavr Kornilovin September 1917. He remained in Russia as a counter-revolutionaryduring the period after the October revolution.
As a leader of the "Society for Defence of Motherland and Freedom", Savinkov inspired several armed uprisings against the
Bolsheviks, most notably in Yaroslavl, Rybinskand Murom. After these were crushed by the Red Army, Savinkov returned to France. There, he held various posts in the Russian emigre societies and was the main diplomatic representative of admiral Aleksandr Kolchakin Paris. During the Polish-Bolshevik Warof 1919-1920 he moved to Poland, where he formed a Russian political organisation responsible for the formation of several infantry and cavalry units out of former Red Army POWs. In 1921, when Polish-Bolshevik War was over, Polish authorities sent Savinkov out of the country in order not to spoil relations with the Soviets.
Trust Operation and death
He was an acquaintance of
Sidney Reilly, the legendary renegade British agent, and was involved in a number of "counter-revolutionary" plots against the Bolsheviks, sometimes collaborating with the British Secret Intelligence Service(SIS). These efforts were effectively undermined by Trust Operationimplemented by OGPU. Savinkov was lured into the USSR to meet with false conspirators and consequently arrested. The USSR Supreme Court sentenced him to death but Presidium of VTsIKconverted the sentence into 10-years imprisonment. During his trial Savinkov declared that he recognized the Bolsheviks and assumed his defeat. While imprisoned he wrote satirical stories about white emigres and was allowed to see them published in Moscow. He committed suicide by means of jumping from the window (official version) in the Lubyanka prison, in Moscow. However, according to Aleksandr Solzhenitsyn, Savinkov had been killed in prison by OGPU officers.
Boris Savinkov wrote several novels. His most famous are an autobiography "Memoirs of a Terrorist" and a loosely autobiographical novel called "Pale Horse". Savinkov's works raised huge controversy among SR's. Many of them disclaimed them as "spoofs" on terrorism.
Karen Shakhnazarovdirected a movie The Rider Named Death, based on Savinkov's book.
*"Memoirs of a terrorist", 1909, _ru. Воспоминания террориста
*"Pale steed", 1909, _ru. Конь бледный
*"That what haven't been", 1912 _ru. То, чего не было
*"Black steed" (novel), 1923 _ru. Конь вороной
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