Muslim supporters of Israel


Muslim supporters of Israel

Muslim supporters of Israel are Muslims who support self-determination for the Jewish people, and a homeland for them in Israel. This support should not be confused with support for the policies and actions of the modern Israeli state.

Some Muslim clerics, such as Sheikh Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, Director of the Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community,[1][2] and Imam Dr Muhammad Al-Hussaini[3] believe that the return of the Jews to the Holy Land, and the establishment of the State of Israel, are in accordance with teachings of Islam.[4][5] Some Muslim supporters of Israel consider themselves 'Muslim Zionists'.[6][7][8] Muslims who publicly supported Zionism include Dr. Tawfik Hamid,[9] Tashbih Sayyed, a Pakistani-American scholar, journalist, and author,[10] and the Bangladeshi journalist Salah Choudhury. Additional Muslim people who voiced public support for Israel included figures such as Irshad Manji, Salim Mansur, Abdurrahman Wahid, Abdullah Saad Al-Hadlaq, Zuhdi Jasser and Khaleel Mohammed.[11]

In the Muslim world, support of Israel is a minority orientation, and supporters of Israel have at some occasions faced intolerance and violence.[12][13]

Contents

History

Middle Ages

According to British-based Imam Muhammad Al-Hussaini, traditional commentators from the eighth and ninth century onwards have uniformly interpreted the Qur'an to say explicitly that the Land of Israel has been given by God to the Jewish people as a perpetual covenant.[3][14] Hussaini bases his argument upon Qur'an 5:21 in which Moses declares: "O my people, enter the Holy Land which God has prescribed for you, and turn not back in your traces, to turn about losers." He cites the Qur'an commentator Muhammad ibn Jarir al-Tabari, who says that this statement is "a narrative from God … concerning the saying of Moses … to his community from among the children of Israel and his order to them according to the order of God to him, ordering them to enter the holy land." He argued that this promise to the Jews is ever lasting, and further said: "It was never the case during the early period of Islam … that there was any kind of sacerdotal attachment to Jerusalem as a territorial claim." This interpretation of the promise to the Jews as ever-lasting is not uniformly accepted by all Islamic commentators [15]

According to a translation by the Islamic Law scholar Khaleel Mohammed, Ibn Kathir (1301–1373) interpreted Qur'an 5:20-21 using the following terms: "'That which God has written for you' i.e. That which God has promised to you by the words of your father Israel that it is the inheritance of those among you who believe."[16]

The 19th Century

In 1873, Shah of Persia Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar met with British Jewish leaders, including Sir Moses Montefiore, during his journey to Europe. At that time, the Persian king suggested that the Jews buy land and establish a state for the Jewish people.[17][dead link]

Early 20th century

Faisal (right) with Chaim Weizmann (also wearing Arab dress as a sign of friendship) in Syria, 1918.

After World War I, the Sharif of Mecca, Hussein bin Ali and his son, the King Feisal of Hijaz and then of Iraq, proclaimed pro-Zionist views.[18] According to Sheikh Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, the Wahhabi position, in contrast, was extremely anti-Zionist.[19][self-published source?]

On March 23, 1918, Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca and King of Hejaz wrote in Al Qibla, the daily newspaper of Mecca, the following words in support of the Balfour Declaration of 1917:

"The resources of the country [Palestine] are still virgin soil and will be developed by the Jewish immigrants (...) we have seen the Jews from foreign countries streaming to Palestine from Russia, Germany, Austria, Spain, and America. The cause of causes could not escape those who had a gift of deeper insight. They knew that the country was for its original sons [abna'ihi-l-asliyin], for all their differences, a sacred and beloved homeland. The return of these exiles [jaliya] to their homeland will prove materially and spiritually an experimental school for their brethren who are with them in the fields, factories, trades and all things connected to the land."[20]

On 3 January 1919, Hussein's son, king Faisal I of Iraq and Dr. Chaim Weizmann, President of the World Zionist Organization signed the Faisal–Weizmann Agreement for Arab-Jewish cooperation, in which Faisal conditionally accepted the Balfour Declaration based on the fulfillment of British wartime promises of development of a Jewish homeland in Palestine and on which subject he made the following statement:

"We Arabs... look with the deepest sympathy on the Zionist movement. Our deputation here in Paris is fully acquainted with the proposals submitted yesterday by the Zionist Organisation to the Peace Conference, and we regard them as moderate and proper. We will do our best, in so far as we are concerned, to help them through; we will wish the Jews a most hearty welcome home... I look forward, and my people with me look forward, to a future in which we will help you and you will help us, so that the countries in which we are mutually interested may once again take their places in the community of the civilised peoples of the world." "[21][22][23]

As'ad Shukeiri, a Muslim scholar (‘alim) of the Acre area, and the father of PLO founder Ahmad Shukeiri, has rejected the values of the Palestinian Arab national movement and was opposed to the anti-Zionist movement.[24] He met routinely with Zionist officials and had a part in every pro-Zionist Arab organization from the beginning of the British Mandate, publicly rejecting Mohammad Amin al-Husayni’s use of Islam to attack Zionism.[25]

In the 1920's, the Muslim National Associations was established in the 1920's by Muslim Arabs who were employed by the Palestine Zionist Executive. The president of the Muslim National Associations and the mayor of Haifa, Hassan Bey Shukri, has founded the organization with Sheikh Musa Hadeib from the village of Dawaymeh near Hebron and head of the farmers' party of Mt. Hebron.[26][27][28]

In July 1921, Shukri sent a telegram to the British government, declaring support for the Balfour Declaration and Zionist immigration to British Mandate Palestine:

We strongly protest against the attitude of the said delegation concerning the Zionist question. We do not consider the Jewish people as an enemy whose wish is to crush us. On the contrary. We consider the Jews as a brotherly people sharing our joys and troubles and helping us in the construction of our common country.[26]

In 1929, Hadeib was murdered in Jerusalem, supposedly for his collaboration with the Zionists.[26]

Modern times

A number of non-Arab Muslims including Kurds and Berbers have also voiced support for Israel and Zionism.[29] Ramin H. Artin of the Kurdish-American Education Society, argues that the creation of Israel has been "a thorn in the eye of fascists who would rather eliminate the Jewish state". He concluded that an Israeli-Kurdish alliance is "natural", and that sincere mutual respect and recognition of each other’s rights can lead to peace and prosperity.[30]

Palazzi noted that although in present days support for Israel among Muslims is a minority orientation, there are some exceptions, such as former President of Indonesia and leader of Nadwat al-Ulema, Shaykh Abdurrahman Wahid, and the Grand Mufti of the Russian Federation, Shaykh Talgat Tajuddin, the Mufti of European Russia, Shaykh Salman Farid, who wrote a fatwa against the intifadah. According to Palazzi, more examples for Pro-Israeli Muslim clerics are the Muftis of Chechnya, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan.[19][self-published source?][6]

Notable Muslim supporters of Israel

Notable Muslim supporters of Israel include Dr. Tawfik Hamid A former self described member of a terror organization and current Islamic thinker and reformer,[9] Sheikh Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, Director of the Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community and self described Muslim Zionist,[1][8] and Tashbih Sayyed - A Muslim Pakistani-American scholar, journalist, author, and self-described Muslim Zionist,[10] Prof. Khaleel Mohammed, Islamic Law scholar of the San Diego State University and Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury, a Bangladeshi journalist and publisher, and a self-proclaimed Muslim Zionist.

In Egypt

Dr. Tawfik Hamid, an Egyptian scholar and self-described former member of the militant al-Gama'a al-Islamiyya, said that most Muslims correlate the word Israel in Arabic to the word ‘Azra’il that sounds like Israel but means “Angel of death”.[unreliable source?] This created a link in the minds of most Muslim children the need to hate the word Israel. In an article titled "Why I loved Israel based on the Qur'an" he claims that according to the Qur'an, God gave the Israelites the land of Israel as their promised land (Quran 17:104: And We said thereafter to the Children of Israel, "Dwell securely in the land of promise". He explains the Quran went even further to consider the Promised Land as the permanent inheritance for the Israelites (26:59) "Thus it was, but we made the Children of Israel inheritors of such things (the Promised Land)"[9] He continued by saying "No Muslim has the right to interfere with the gathering of the Jews in Israel, as this is the will of God himself".[9]

In Pakistan

Dr. Tashbih Sayyed, a Shi’ite Pakistani-American scholar, journalist, and author, was a prominent supporter and Israel and critic of the Islamist movement. He said that Israel is vital for the stability of the region.[10] Sayyed praised the treatment of Arabs in Israel, and applauded the "strength of the Jewish spirit that refuses to give in to evil forces despite thousand of years of anti-Semitism". He concluded by saying "I am convinced that it is true that God created this earth but it is also a fact that only an Israel can keep this earth from dying".[10] Tashbih condemned the press that portrays paint the Israelis as villains, and "chooses to ignore all rules of ethical journalism when it comes to Israel"[10]

In Canada

Irshad Manji, a Muslim Canadian author and an advocate of progressive interpretation of Islam, says that the Arab's failure to accept the Jews' historical bond with Palestine is a mistake. Manji accepts that the Jews' historical roots stretch back to the land of Israel, and recognizes their right to a Jewish state. She further argues that the allegation of apartheid in Israel is deeply misleading, noting that there are in Israel several Arab political parties; that Arab-Muslim legislators have veto powers; and that Arab parties have overturned disqualifications. She also observes that Israel has a free Arab press; that road signs bear Arabic translations; and that Arabs live and study alongside Jews. She accuses Arab countries for the Palestinian refugees' plight, saying that they "interfered with every attempt to solve the problem" and that they would rather give "generous support to suicide bombers and their families" rather than help the needy refugees.[31] According to Geneive Abdo, "Muslim Zionist" is a label which Manji "would no doubt accept".[32]

In 2008, Salim Mansur, a Muslim Canadian Political Scientist, columnist and author,[33] congratulated Israel for its 60th anniversary, and declared that the Jewish state "deserves admiration". He wrote, "Israel is a tiny sliver of land in a vast tempest-ridden sea of the Arab-Muslim world, and yet it is here the ancient world's most enduring story is made fresh again by Jews to live God's covenant with Abraham as told in their sacred literature."[34] In 2010, he wrote: "The story of modern Israel, as many have noted, is a miracle unlike any [...] It is a robust and inclusive democracy, and is at the leading edge of science and technology [...] What hypocrites demand of Israelis and the scrutiny Israel is subjected to by them, they would not dare make of any other nation."[35]

In Bangladesh

Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury, a Bangladeshi journalist and publisher, and a self-proclaimed Muslim Zionist.[7] His newspaper, The Weekly Blitz, criticizes the jihad culture and advocates inter-faith understanding between Muslims, Christians and Jews. Choudhury was arrested by Bangladeshi police on November 29, 2003 at Dhaka airport since he was scheduled to fly for Israel, a country Bangladeshi citizens are barred from travelling to. After release from 17-months imprisonment, Choudhury wrote in an Israeli newspaper "I also stand before you perhaps as a living contradiction: a Zionist, a defender of Israel, and a devout, practicing Muslim, living in a Moslem country. ". He said "I believe in the justice of the Zionist dream. I also acknowledge this historical reality: that the world has endeavored to crush that dream and, yes, even to destroy the viability of the Jewish people. At the same time, I live in an environment where people believe just as passionately in an opposing view—one that sees Israel as illegitimate; and the Jewish people as evil incarnate.".[36]

In Italy

In Italy, Sheikh Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi, director of the Cultural Institute of the Italian Islamic Community,[1] represents a unique "Muslim Zionist",[2] pro-Israel and pro-American position which according to Morten T. Højsgaard, Margit Warburg, although the organization is small in proportions, is a "thorn in the side of both moderate and radical Islamic fundamentalists in Italy".[2]

In 1996, Palazzi and the Israeli scholar Asher Eder co-founded the Islam-Israel Fellowship to promote cooperation between Israel and Muslim nations.[37]

Palazzi argues against calls for jihad against Israel and says there is no religious demand for Israel to give up control over Muslim holy places.[38]

In Indonesia

Abdurrahman Wahid (1940–2009), Indonesia's president from 1999 until 2001, was criticized for his pro-Israel views.[39] Wahid moved to establish diplomatic and commercial relations with Israel, and has visited Israel six times. In an 2002 interview to ABC, Wahid said that the Islamic world should start recognizing and acknowledging Israel's right to exist and prosper. He added, "I think Muslims are rational and rationality dictates that.".[40] In an 2004 interview to an Israeli newspaper, he was asked about his friendship with Israel, which was described as "unusual for an Islamic leader". Wahid replied, "I think there is a wrong perception that Islam is in disagreement with Israel. This is caused by Arab propaganda [...] Israel has a reputation as a nation with a high regard for God and religion - there is then no reason we have to be against Israel."[41] According to Wahid, Israel "is a democracy in a sea of misunderstanding".[42]

In Kuwait

Kuwaiti writer Abdullah Saad Al-Hadlaq urged his country to normalize relations with Israel. Responding to a question whether he believed that Muslims have a right to rule Jerusalem, Hadlaq said, "On the contrary, verse number 21 of Surat Al-Maeda of the Holy Quran emphasizes the right of 'Bani Israel'". He said that Israel's model of democracy is unique and surpassed many of what he described as the "tyrannical, totalitarian" Arab regimes.[43] In his 2008 article, "The Right of Self-defense," Al-Hadlaq supported "Israel's right to defend itself" and told the international community "not to criticize Israel if it continues its fight against Persian terror committed by the terrorist Hamas (...) and not to criticize Israel for using force to defend its citizens and its territory".[44]

In the United States

The American-Islamic Forum for Democracy (AIFD) was formed in March 2003.[45] The group advocates a liberal Islam, compatible with democracy and American values.[46] The AIFD publicly supports Israel, stating "it is necessary to make a foundational position statement regarding the state of Israel. We stand in support of the existing unqualified recognition of the state of Israel behind internationally recognized borders".[46]

The group's founder, M. Zuhdi Jasser, a former Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy,[47] said that Muslims need to recognize Israel as a state, to stand against radical Islamist groups by name, not by theory, tactic, or condemning terrorism, but by name—Hamas, Al Qaeda and other groups.[48] Jasser calls political Islamism “the root cause of Islamist terrorism” and a matter on which it is “time to take sides.”[49]

During the 2006 Lebanon War, Jasser defended Israel's actions, and wrote "I have no reason to believe that Israel is not doing anything but just protecting itself from forces that are using homes north of it to bomb northern Israel". Afdhere Jama, an American-Muslim writer and editor of the Huriyah magazine, added, "My main difference with the majority of Muslims is the belief that a Jewish homeland is an important progress for all of us, especially one in their ancestral land of Israel". He continued, "Muslims in the United States must decide whether they see groups like Hamas and Hizbullah as legitimate resistance or the cause of Muslim troubles in the region".[50]

Khaleel Mohammed, an associate professor of Religion at San Diego State University (SDSU), attracted attention for a 2004 interview in which he stated that based on the Qur'an, Israel belongs to the Jews. Mohammed said that the Qur'an never mentions Jerusalem as a holy city, and added, "It's in the Muslim consciousness that the land first belonged to the Jews. It doesn't matter if the Jews were exiled 500 years or 2000 years, the Holy Land, as mentioned in Quran belongs to Moses and his people, the Jews." [5][16][51]

In the Qur'an

Imam Abdul Hadi Palazzi, leader of Italian Muslim Assembly and a co-founder and a co-chairman of the Islam-Israel Fellowship, quotes the Qur'an to support Judaism's special connection to the Temple Mount. According to Palazzi, "The most authoritative Islamic sources affirm the Temples,". He adds that Jerusalem is sacred to Muslims because of its prior holiness to Jews and its standing as home to the biblical prophets and kings David and Solomon, all of whom he says are sacred figures also in Islam. He claims that the Qur'an "expressly recognizes that Jerusalem plays the same role for Jews that Mecca has for Muslims".[4]

When asked what the Qur'an says about the State of Israel, Palazzi replied:

"The Qur'an cannot deal with the State of Israel as we know it today, since that State came into existing in 1948 only, i.e. many centuries after the Qur'an itself was revealed. However, the Qur'an specify that the Land of Israel is the homeland of the Jewish people, that God Himself gave that Land to them as heritage and ordered them to live therein. It also announces that - before the end of the time - the Jewish people will come from many different countries to retake possession of that heritage of theirs. Whoever denies this actually denies the Qur'an itself. If he is not a scholar, and in good faith believes what other people say about this issue, he is an ignorant Muslim. If, on the contrary, he is informed about what the Qur'an and openly opposes it, he ceases to be a Muslim.[52]

Prof. Khaleel Mohammed, Islamic Law scholar of the San Diego State University, noted that Sura 5 verse 21 of the Qur'an, and the medieval exegetes of the Qur'an, say that Israel belongs to the Jews. He translates it thus:

"[Moses said]: O my people! Enter the Holy Land which God has written for you, and do not turn tail, otherwise you will be losers." Mohammed here understands "written" to mean this is the final word from God on the subject. In reaction, he was inundated with hate mail.[5]

Muslim Bedouins Identifying with Israel

Bedouin IDF soldiers of Rumat al-Heib (عرب الهيب) during a military parade in Tel-Aviv in June 1949.

During the Israeli War of Independence of 1948, many Bedouin and the entire Druze community switched sides to join the Zionist forces in opposing the invasion by the regular Arab armies.[53]

Negev Bedouins, a Muslim minority which includes about 12% of Israeli Arabs, tend to identify more as Israelis than other Arab citizens of Israel.[54] Many Negev Bedouins serve in the Israel Defense Forces. Each year, between 5%-10% of the Bedouin of draft age volunteer for the Israeli army, (unlike Druze, and Jewish Israelis, they are not required by law to do so[55]).

During the Palestinian Arab national movement’s formation, Bedouins often perceived their tribe as their principal focus of identity, and they generally did not view themselves as a component of the emerging Palestinian identity.[26]

Bedouins had long standing ties with nearby Jewish communities. Bedouins of Tuba-Zangariyye helped defend these communities in the 1936–1939 Arab revolt in Palestine. Formal co-operation between Jews and Bedouin began in 1946, when tribal leader Sheik Hussein Mohammed Ali Abu Yussef of the al-Heib tribe sent more than 60 of his men to fight alongside Zionist forces, forming the Pal-Heib unit of the Haganah. During the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, the Pal-Heib unit defended Jewish communities in the Upper Galilee against Syria. Sheik Abu Yussef was quoted in 1948 as saying, "Is it not written in the Koran that the ties of neighbors are as dear as those of relations? Our friendship with the Jews goes back many years. We felt we could trust them and they learned from us too".[26][56]

Maj Fehd Fallah, a Bedouin from the village of Saad in the Israeli occupied Golan Heights said in an interview: "Yes, I have fought against Muslims in Gaza," he says. "And I would fight again if I had to," he added. "Israeli Muslims who don't serve in the IDF should be ashamed for not serving their country."[57]

Ismail Khaldi is the first Bedouin deputy consul of the State of Israel and the highest ranking Muslim in the Israeli foreign service.[58] Khaldi is a strong advocate of Israel. While acknowledging that the state of Israeli Bedouin minority is not ideal, he said

I am a proud Israeli - along with many other non-Jewish Israelis such as Druze, Bahai, Bedouin, Christians and Muslims, who live in one of the most culturally diversified societies and the only true democracy in the Middle East. Like America, Israeli society is far from perfect, but let us deals honestly. By any yardstick you choose -- educational opportunity, economic development, women and gay's rights, freedom of speech and assembly, legislative representation -- Israel's minorities fare far better than any other country in the Middle East.[59]

Druze and Circassian Muslims

Druze commander of the IDF Herev battalion

Background

The Circassians in Israel are non Arab, predominantly Sunni Muslims. The Circassians have had a good relations with the Jewish community in Israel since the beginning of the Jewish settlement in the Land of Israel. The Circassians community in Israel helped the illegal immigration (Ha'apala) of Jews into Palestine During the British Mandate and fought on the Israeli side of the War of Independence. In 1948, when the State of Israel was created, Circassians of Palestine did not migrate to neighboring countries, rather made the choice to stay within the borders of the new state and embrace full Israeli citizenship.[60] Like the Druze population, since 1958 male Circassians perform Israeli mandatory military service upon reaching the age of majority, while females do not.[61] Many Circassians in Israel are employed in the security forces, including in the Border Guard, the Israel Defence Forces, the police and the Israel Prison Service. The percentage of the army recruits among the Circassian community in Israel is particularly high. This loyalty to Israel is often considered as an act of betrayal by the Arab Muslims, who see Circassians as traitors to the Ummah.[60][62]

The Druze are a religious community found who consider themselves an Islamic Unist, reformatory sect. The Druze consider themselves to be Muslim, although they are considered non-Muslim by the general Islamic community.[63] The Druze mostly do not identify with the cause of Arab nationalism. The bond between the Jewish and Druze is commonly known by the term "a covenant of blood". Druze citizens are prominent in the Israel Defense Forces and in politics, and a considerable number of Israeli Druze soldiers have fallen in Israel's wars since the 1948 Arab-Israeli War. Reda Mansour, a Druze poet, historian and diplomat, explained: “We are the only non-Jewish minority that is drafted into the military, and we have an even higher percentage in the combat units and as officers than the Jewish members themselves. So we are considered a very nationalistic, patriotic community.”[64] In 2008 more than 94% of Druze youngsters classified themselves as "Druze-Israelis" in the religious and national context. Five Druze lawmakers currently have been elected to serve in the 18th Knesset, a disproportionately large number considering their population.[65]

Rafik Halabi, an Israeli Druze television correspondent and former Israeli military officer, characterizes himself as an Israeli patriot.[66] Opening his 1982 book "The West Bank Story: An Israel Arab's View of Both Sides of a Tangled Conflict", he wrote, "I am an Israeli patriot, although I am not a Jew".[67][68]

The Zionist Druze Circle

In 1973, Amel Nasser A-Din founded the Zionist Druze Circle,[69][70] a group whose aim was to encourage the Druze to support the state of Israel fully and unreservedly.[71] A-Din, a Likud member of the Knesset, has lost his son in the War of Attrition between Israel and Egypt in 1969.[69] In 2007, Nabiah A-Din, the chairman of the forum of the Druze and Circassian authority heads, and head of the Kasra Adia municipality, criticized the "multi-cultural" Israeli constitution proposed by the Israeli Arab organization Adalah, saying that he finds it unacceptable. "The state of Israel is Jewish state as well as a democratic state that espouses equality and elections. We invalidate and reject everything that the Adalah organization is requesting," he said. According to A-din,the fate of Druze and Circassians in Israel is intertwined with that of the state. "This is a blood pact, and a pact of the living. We are unwilling to support a substantial alteration to the nature of this state, to which we tied our destinies prior to its establishment," he said.[72] As of 2005 there were 7,000 registered members in the Druze Zionist movement.[73] In 2009, the movement held a Druze Zionist youth conference with 1,700 participants.[74]

Acceptance of Israel among Israeli Arabs

In a 2004 survey conducted by Professor Sammy Smooha of the University of Haifa Jewish-Arab Center, "Index of Jewish-Arab Relations in Israel – 2004", 84.9% of Israeli Arabs stated that Israel has a right to exist as an independent state, and 70% noted that it has a right to exist as a democratic, Jewish state.[75][76] A Truman Institute survey from 2005 found that 63% of the Arab citizens accept the principle that Israel is the state of the Jewish people.[76][77]

Intolerance towards Muslim supporters of Israel

In the Muslim world, support of Israel is sometimes met with intolerance. In 2004, Sarah Nasser, a Muslim college student in Canada known for her pro-Israel views, received death threats after expressing support for the Jewish state's right to exist. "Being a supporter of the existence of Israel does not conflict with Islam, it complements Islam," she said. "The Koran does not have any verses that do not allow for the Jews to return to the Land of Israel (...) "I love Jews as I love true Muslims," she said. "Therefore, I believe Jews should have a right to live legitimately in their homeland." [12]

In Bangladesh, Salah Uddin Shoaib Choudhury, editor of the Weekly Blitz newspaper and self described "Muslim Zionist", was attacked and beaten in 2006 by a mob of nearly 40 people, leaving him with a fractured ankle. During the assault, the attackers shouted at Choudhury, labeling him an "agent of the Jews." [13]

References

  1. ^ a b c A Muslim Zionist FrontPage Magazine, Tuesday, December 09, 2003
  2. ^ a b c Religion and cyberspace, Morten T. Højsgaard, Margit Warburg. Routledge, 2005. p. 108-109
  3. ^ a b "Muhammad Al-Hussaini. The Qur'an's Covenant with the Jewish People". Middle East Quarterly. Fall 2009, pp. 9-14. 2009-03-19. http://www.meforum.org/2464/quran-covenant-with-jewish-people. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 
  4. ^ a b Margolis, David (February 23, 2001). "The Muslim Zionist". Los Angeles Jewish Journal. 
  5. ^ a b c The scathing scholar , The Ottawa Citizen, Feb 6, 2007. CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc. "The academic has been inundated with hate mail for previously saying that despite what Muslims are taught, Islam's holy book, the Koran, supports the right of Israel to exist and for Jews to live there."
  6. ^ a b See also: BLOOM, JACK, "Out of Step: Life-Story of a Politician Politics and Religion in a World at War." 2005. Indiana University. ISBN 0620353740. p. 244, p. xiv
  7. ^ a b AJC Honors Muslim Zionist, By Masha Leon. The Weekly Forward. September 07, 2007
  8. ^ a b The Zionist Imam, By SVEN BEHRISCH, Jerusalem Post Christian Edition - April 2010 "Sheikh Palazzi refers to himself as a “Muslim Zionist.” Zionism to him means “any contribution to support the state of Israel.” He says Israel should exert sovereignty over the whole land of Palestine, including the West Bank. He explains that this position, which meets opposition from all Arab countries, the United Nations and even the majority of Israelis, is clearly supported in the Qur’an.
  9. ^ a b c d T. Hamid, Why I love Israel Based on the Quran, June 2004
  10. ^ a b c d e Tashbih, Sayyed. "A Muslim in a Jewish Land". Muslim World Today. http://www.muslimworldtoday.com/land30.htm. Retrieved 17 June 2010. 
  11. ^ See below.
  12. ^ a b Freund, Michael (Friday, January 2, 2004). "Muslim pro-Israel activist threatened". Jerusalem Post. 
  13. ^ a b Michael Freund, US slams trial of Bangladeshi newsman, Holiday International, 3 November 2006
  14. ^ "What the Koran says about the land of Israel". JC. 2009-03-19. http://www.thejc.com/judaism/judaism-features/what-koran-says-about-land-israel. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 
  15. ^ "The Qur'an: Israel Is Not for the Jews". Middle East Forum. Fall 2009. http://www.meforum.org/2462/the-quran-israel-not-for-jews. Retrieved 2010-04-13. 
  16. ^ a b The Legal Foundation and Borders of Israel Under International Law, By Howard Grief, Mazo Publishers, 2008, Page 542
  17. ^ World Jewish Communities. World Jewish Congress.
  18. ^ See also: Near East report: Volume 19, by Isaiah L. Kenen - 1975. p. 36. "... Sheriff Hussein and Emir Feisal proclaimed pro-Zionist views after World War I."
  19. ^ a b "A Muslim Zionist". IsraPundit.com. 
  20. ^ Al Qibla, March 23, 1918, as cited by Samuel Katz, Battlegound: Fact and Fantasy in Palestine, pg. 125
  21. ^ Letter by Emir Feisal to Felix Frankfurter, published in full at amislam.com (collection of correspondence).
  22. ^ Faisal–Weizmann Agreement
  23. ^ See also: "Reshaping Palestine: from Muhammad Ali to the British Mandate, 1831-1922". By Martin Sicker. Greenwood Publishing Group, 1999. p. 147
  24. ^ Encyclopedia of the modern Middle East, Volume 4, Reeva S. Simon, Philip Mattar, Richard W. Bulliet. Macmillan Reference USA, 1996. p. 1661
  25. ^ Army of Shadows: Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917-1948. By Hillel Cohen. University of California Press, 2009. p. 84
  26. ^ a b c d e Army of Shadows: Palestinian Collaboration with Zionism, 1917-1948 By Hillel Cohen, University of California Press, 2009. p. 15-17, 59
  27. ^ Shadowplays, by Neve Gordon, The Nation, March 24, 2008
  28. ^ The Tangled Truth, By Benny Morris, The New Republic 7/5/08
  29. ^ "Islam, Islam, Laïcité, and Amazigh Activism in France and North Africa" (2004 paper), Paul A. Silverstein, Department of Anthropology, Reed College
  30. ^ WHY NOT A KURDISH-ISRAELI ALLIANCE? (Iran Press Service)
  31. ^ Manji, Irshad. The Trouble with Islam Today: A Muslim's Call for Reform in Her Faith. St. Martin's Griffin, 2005, pp. 108–109. ISBN 0-312-32699-8
  32. ^ Mecca and Main Street: Muslim life in America after 9/11. Geneive Abdo, Oxford University Press, 2006. p. 121
  33. ^ Immigration policy and the terrorist threat in Canada and the United States By A. Alexander Moens, Martin Collacott. p. vi.
  34. ^ Israel Deserves Admiration, by Salim Mansour, Edmonton Sun, May 10, 2008
  35. ^ Israel facing revival of deep-seated hate, August 14, 2010, The Edmonton Sun
  36. ^ Shoaib Choudhury, Salah Uddin (June 13, 2005). "A letter from a friend of Israel". Israel Insider. 
  37. ^ Building moderate Muslim networks, By Angel Rabasa, Rand Corporation, 2007, p. 101
  38. ^ Jewish-Muslim encounters: history, philosophy, and culture. By Charles Selengut, Paragon House, 2001. p. 109
  39. ^ Perceptions and criticisms on Abdurrahman Wahid, Riant Nugroho Dwijowijoto, the University of Michigan, 2000, p. 64
  40. ^ Interview with Abdurrahman Wahid, Jennifer Byrne, Transcript. Australian Broadcasting Corporation, Broadcast 17/04/2002
  41. ^ A friend of Israel in the Islamic world, By Micha Odenheimer, Haaretz, 07.07.2004
  42. ^
  43. ^ Kuwait Times, March 22, 2009 Controversial writer urges Kuwait to accept Israel [1]
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